This database is now archived and stored as static web pages. To view the full record, click on the ID or Title

IDTitleCommentaryCountryDateCenturyDwelling TypeRooms Type
6127‘Helen Frankenthaler's Interior Landscape, 1964’This poem by John Kinsella is one of many poems describing a visual representation of an interior, here an image by Helen Frankenthaler (the American abstract expressionist painter born in 1924). The poem charts change over time, describing the fear the couple feel when their child has outgrown them. Their fear of ageing and losing control is figured as the exterior taking over from the interior: ‘the child gone, they fear an exterior/will occupy and consume.’UKResidentialSocial and Sitting Spaces
6128‘Domestic Peace’Ann Bronté’s poem is an appeal to the ‘domestic peace’ of the title. The poem questions why a gloomy silence should occupy a house when nothing bad has happened, and concludes that what is missing is domestic peace, figured as a white angel. While it is not clear what has caused the change, the poem is a clear confirmation of the value Victorians placed on domestic peace, the ‘best joy of earth’ as the poem puts it.UK184619thResidentialSocial and Sitting Spaces
6767Distinction: A social critique of the judgement of tasteThe French sociologist Pierre Bourdieu's major study La Distinction. Critique sociale du jugement(1979) was first published in English in 1984 as Distinction. A Social Critique of the Judgement of Taste. It resulted from an extensive survey of the French population undertaken in the 1960s, which set out to study how taste operated. Through a large number of interviews and questionnaires, organised by social categories based on the French national educational system, Bourdieu and his team assembled data on how people lived, and their likes and dislikes in a number of areas of cultural practice, including food and fine and performance arts. The study was to have a profound impact on Arts and Humanities disciplines in the years to follow, although subsequent interpretations are divided on the extent to which Bourdieu's study was intended to unmask prevailing middle-class tastes and the preoccupations of what he called the 'petit-bourgeoisie' at the level of critique.

Important to Bourdieu's method were key concepts which he outlined in theoretical sections. These included those of cultural capital, distinction and habitus. The latter referred to a set of dispositions through which taste became manifest. In this, the domestic interior and the arrangement of people's homes were central and subsequently the study gives many detailed descriptions of actual interiors.

p.274
The Sense of Distinction
A Grand Bourgeois 'Unique among His Kind'
Bourdieu commented on the following extract:
‘All these interviews ….. were carried out in 1974, with the aim of collecting, as systematically as possible, the most significant features of each of the life-styles that had emerged from analysis of the survey, which had already reached a fairly advanced stage.’
France197920thResidentialDining Room, Social and Sitting Spaces, Bedroom
6768Distinction: A social critique of the judgement of tasteThe French sociologist Pierre Bourdieu's major study La Distinction. Critique sociale du jugement (1979) was first published in English in 1984 as Distinction. A Social Critique of the Judgement of Taste. It resulted from an extensive survey of the French population undertaken in the 1960s, which set out to study how taste operated. Through a large number of interviews and questionnaires, organised by social categories based on the French national educational system, Bourdieu and his team assembled data on how people lived, and their likes and dislikes in a number of areas of cultural practice, including food and fine and performance arts. The study was to have a profound impact on Arts and Humanities disciplines in the years to follow, although subsequent interpretations are divided on the extent to which Bourdieu's study was intended to unmask prevailing middle-class tastes and the preoccupations of what he called the 'petit-bourgeoisie' at the level of critique.

Important to Bourdieu's method were key concepts which he outlined in theoretical sections. These included those of cultural capital, distinction and habitus. The latter referred to a set of dispositions through which taste became manifest. In this, the domestic interior and the arrangement of people's homes were central and subsequently the study gives many detailed descriptions of actual interiors.

p.298
The Sense of Distinction
'A Young Executive Who 'Knows How to Live'
Bourdieu commented on the following extract:
‘All these interviews ….. were carried out in 1974, with the aim of collecting, as systematically as possible, the most significant features of each of the life-styles that had emerged from analysis of the survey, which had already reached a fairly advanced stage.’
France197920thResidentialDining Room
6769Distinction: A social critique of the judgement of taste The French sociologist Pierre Bourdieu's major study La Distinction. Critique sociale du jugement (1979) was first published in English in 1984 as Distinction. A Social Critique of the Judgement of Taste. It resulted from an extensive survey of the French population undertaken in the 1960s, which set out to study how taste operated. Through a large number of interviews and questionnaires, organised by social categories based on the French national educational system, Bourdieu and his team assembled data on how people lived, and their likes and dislikes in a number of areas of cultural practice, including food and fine and performance arts. The study was to have a profound impact on Arts and Humanities disciplines in the years to follow, although subsequent interpretations are divided on the extent to which Bourdieu's study was intended to unmask prevailing middle-class tastes and the preoccupations of what he called the 'petit-bourgeoisie' at the level of critique.

Important to Bourdieu's method were key concepts which he outlined in theoretical sections. These included those of cultural capital, distinction and habitus. The latter referred to a set of dispositions through which taste became manifest. In this, the domestic interior and the arrangement of people's homes were central and subsequently the study gives many detailed descriptions of actual interiors.

p.298
The Sense of Distinction
'A Young Executive Who 'Knows How to Live'
Bourdieu commented on the following extract:
“All these interviews ….. were carried out in 1974, with the aim of collecting, as systematically as possible, the most significant features of each of the life-styles that had emerged from analysis of the survey, which had already reached a fairly advanced stage.”
France197920thResidentialDining Room
6770Distinction: A social critique of the judgement of taste The French sociologist Pierre Bourdieu's major study La Distinction. Critique sociale du jugement (1979) was first published in English in 1984 as Distinction. A Social Critique of the Judgement of Taste. It resulted from an extensive survey of the French population undertaken in the 1960s, which set out to study how taste operated. Through a large number of interviews and questionnaires, organised by social categories based on the French national educational system, Bourdieu and his team assembled data on how people lived, and their likes and dislikes in a number of areas of cultural practice, including food and fine and performance arts. The study was to have a profound impact on Arts and Humanities disciplines in the years to follow, although subsequent interpretations are divided on the extent to which Bourdieu's study was intended to unmask prevailing middle-class tastes and the preoccupations of what he called the 'petit-bourgeoisie' at the level of critique.

Important to Bourdieu's method were key concepts which he outlined in theoretical sections. These included those of cultural capital, distinction and habitus. The latter referred to a set of dispositions through which taste became manifest. In this, the domestic interior and the arrangement of people's homes were central and subsequently the study gives many detailed descriptions of actual interiors.

p.324
Cultural Goodwill
A 'Very Modest' Nurse
France197920thResidentialBathroom, Kitchen
6771Distinction: A social critique of the judgement of taste The French sociologist Pierre Bourdieu's major study La Distinction. Critique sociale du jugement (1979) was first published in English in 1984 as Distinction. A Social Critique of the Judgement of Taste . It resulted from an extensive survey of the French population undertaken in the 1960s, which set out to study how taste operated. Through a large number of interviews and questionnaires, organised by social categories based on the French national educational system, Bourdieu and his team assembled data on how people lived, and their likes and dislikes in a number of areas of cultural practice, including food and fine and performance arts. The study was to have a profound impact on Arts and Humanities disciplines in the years to follow, although subsequent interpretations are divided on the extent to which Bourdieu's study was intended to unmask prevailing middle-class tastes and the preoccupations of what he called the 'petit-bourgeoisie' at the level of critique.

Important to Bourdieu's method were key concepts which he outlined in theoretical sections. These included those of cultural capital, distinction and habitus. The latter referred to a set of dispositions through which taste became manifest. In this, the domestic interior and the arrangement of people's homes were central and subsequently the study gives many detailed descriptions of actual interiors.

p.334
Cultural Goodwill
A Technician Who 'Tries to Get on'
France197920thResidentialOther / Unknown
6772The Spoils of Poynton Henry James's novels are well known for their considerable attention to the domestic interior as an active ingredient in a fictional plot. The book covers for paperback editions of James's oeuvre therefore provide publishers with opportunities to offer readers different kinds of projection and representation of these scenes, at varying degrees of accuracy to the actual plot.

In Britain in the 1950s and 60s, Penguin Books became famous for the covers chosen on their reprint series of fiction titles. They were responsible for introducing a reading public to a vast array of visual images, perhaps otherwise unknown.

These related entries (JA2056, JA2057, JA2058) show contrasting solutions to the book cover. In the case of two of them, the depictions of interiors are by the illustrator Philippe Julian, respectively for The Spoils of Poynton and Washington Square. The brush-and-ink drawings have been made especially for reproduction on the books' covers and the artist distils these images in imaginary moments.

By contrast, the third cover, for The Bostonians, takes the formula of reproducing details from an historical painting by the American artist Mary Cassatt, who for much of her career worked in Paris and was a contemporary of James. In this case, the art director selected an image and worked with the design department on its arrangement as a paperback book cover.
UK189719thResidentialOther / Unknown
6773Washington Square Henry James's novels are well known for their considerable attention to the domestic interior as an active ingredient in a fictional plot. The book covers for paperback editions of James's oeuvre therefore provide publishers with opportunities to offer readers different kinds of projection and representation of these scenes, at varying degrees of accuracy to the actual plot.

In Britain in the 1950s and 60s, Penguin Books became famous for the covers chosen on their reprint series of fiction titles. They were responsible for introducing a reading public to a vast array of visual images, perhaps otherwise unknown.

These related entries (JA2056, JA2057, JA2058) show contrasting solutions to the book cover. In the case of two of them, the depictions of interiors are by the illustrator Philippe Julian, respectively for The Spoils of Poynton and Washington Square. The brush-and-ink drawings have been made especially for reproduction on the books' covers and the artist distils these images in imaginary moments.

By contrast, the third cover, for The Bostonians, takes the formula of reproducing details from an historical painting by the American artist Mary Cassatt, who for much of her career worked in Paris and was a contemporary of James. In this case, the art director selected an image and worked with the design department on its arrangement as a paperback book cover.
USA188019thResidentialSocial and Sitting Spaces
6774The Bostonians Henry James's novels are well known for their considerable attention to the domestic interior as an active ingredient in a fictional plot. The book covers for paperback editions of James's oeuvre therefore provide publishers with opportunities to offer readers different kinds of projection and representation of these scenes, at varying degrees of accuracy to the actual plot.

In Britain in the 1950s and 60s, Penguin Books became famous for the covers chosen on their reprint series of fiction titles. They were responsible for introducing a reading public to a vast array of visual images, perhaps otherwise unknown.

These related entries (JA2056, JA2057, JA2058) show contrasting solutions to the book cover. In the case of two of them, the depictions of interiors are by the illustrator Philippe Julian, respectively for The Spoils of Poynton and Washington Square. The brush-and-ink drawings have been made especially for reproduction on the books' covers and the artist distils these images in imaginary moments.

By contrast, the third cover, for The Bostonians, takes the formula of reproducing details from an historical painting by the American artist Mary Cassatt, who for much of her career worked in Paris and was a contemporary of James. In this case, the art director selected an image and worked with the design department on its arrangement as a paperback book cover.
USA188619th
6755Things: A Story of the SixtiesGeorges Perec's (born 1936) first novel Things (1965) became 'a cult book for a generation', according to the publisher. It describes in close detail the consumption habits and tastes of a young French couple as they move to different apartments in search of furniture to create a desired lifestyle. The book was interpreted as an indictment of consumer society on its publication and holds many clues about the preoccupations and signs of discrimination at play in modern society.

The novel forms an interesting parallel to Pierre Bourdieu's sociological study Distinction (1974) which offers in-depth case studies of the lives, tastes and homes of sectors of the French population of the same period.
France196520thResidentialBedroom, Social and Sitting Spaces, Other / Unknown, Kitchen
6756Towards A New ArchitectureThe Swiss architect Charles-Edouard Jeanneret (Le Corbusier) (1887-1965) published Vers une Architecture in 1923 as a collation of previously published articles. It was subsequently translated into English by the artist Frederick Etchells in 1927.

The book is Le Corbusier's first full account of his principles for modern architecture and is a rich source of ideas on the relationship between the house and the machine and the architect and the engineer in text as well as photographs and drawings. While Le Corbusier would go on to qualify many of his ideas in subsequent writings and designs, the text remains seminal as a manifesto and is still the cause of much historical debate.

p.12
extract from 'Argument'
UK192720thResidentialOther / Unknown
6757Towards A New ArchitectureThe Swiss architect Charles-Edouard Jeanneret (Le Corbusier) (1887-1965) published Vers une Architecture in 1923 as a collation of previously published articles. It was subsequently translated into English by the artist Frederick Etchells in 1927.

The book is Le Corbusier's first full account of his principles for modern architecture and is a rich source of ideas on the relationship between the house and the machine and the architect and the engineer in text as well as photographs and drawings. While Le Corbusier would go on to qualify many of his ideas in subsequent writings and designs, the text remains seminal as a manifesto and is still the cause of much historical debate.

p.89
extract from 'Eyes which do not see'
UK192720thResidentialOther / Unknown
6758Towards A New ArchitectureThe Swiss architect Charles-Edouard Jeanneret (Le Corbusier) (1887-1965) published Vers une Architecture in 1923 as a collation of previously published articles. It was subsequently translated into English by the artist Frederick Etchells in 1927.

The book is Le Corbusier's first full account of his principles for modern architecture and is a rich source of ideas on the relationship between the house and the machine and the architect and the engineer in text as well as photographs and drawings. While Le Corbusier would go on to qualify many of his ideas in subsequent writings and designs, the text remains seminal as a manifesto and is still the cause of much historical debate.

p.222
‘Mass-production house’
UK192720thResidentialOther / Unknown, Multifunctional Living Space
6759Towards A New ArchitectureThe Swiss architect Charles-Edouard Jeanneret (Le Corbusier) (1887-1965) published Vers une Architecture in 1923 as a collation of previously published articles. It was subsequently translated into English by the artist Frederick Etchells in 1927.

The book is Le Corbusier's first full account of his principles for modern architecture and is a rich source of ideas on the relationship between the house and the machine and the architect and the engineer in text as well as photographs and drawings. While Le Corbusier would go on to qualify many of his ideas in subsequent writings and designs, the text remains seminal as a manifesto and is still the cause of much historical debate.

p.230
'Freehold Maisonettes'
UK192720thResidentialMultifunctional Living Space
6760A Collier’s Friday NightStage directions written by playwrights offer condensed descriptions of domestic interiors, often indicating how important the designed context is for the understanding of the characters and plots of the play.

David Herbert Lawrence (1885-1930) wrote A Collier's Night Out around 1909, although it was only first published in 1934. The author and playwright was the son of a miner and to an extent the rich level of detail of interiors could be interpreted as based on personal experience.
The reference to books in the home, the arrangement of artistic belongings and aspects of a 'feminine' and genteel culture alert the reader to issues of class, education, and labour which are central to Lawrence's dramatic interests. These also became the focus of his 1913 novel Sons and Lovers, which was again set in the Nottinghamshire collieries.
UKc.190920thResidentialKitchen, Social and Sitting Spaces
6761A Collier’s Friday NightThe photograph on the book cover for D. H. Lawrence Three Plays depicts a scene from the Royal Court production of The Daughter-in-Law of 1968. The stages props conform to the playwright's detailed descriptions provided for this and other plays. (See JA2046 A Collier's Night Out) UKc. 190920thResidentialKitchen, Social and Sitting Spaces
6762Odd JobsThis illustrated book is in the tradition of humorous profiles of ways of life written with a light touch, popular in the interwar years in Britain. Pearl Binder (1904-1990) was a committed socialist artist and writer whose work often focussed on life in the East End of London as well as Soviet Russia.
Literature
Lynda Morris and Robert Radford, 'The Story of the Artists International Association, 1933-1953', Oxford: Museum of Modern Art, 1983
UK193520thResidentialMultifunctional Living Space
6763Odd JobsThis illustrated book is in the tradition of humorous profiles of ways of life written with a light touch, popular in the interwar years in Britain. Pearl Binder (1904-1990) was a committed socialist artist and writer whose work often focussed on life in the East End of London as well as Soviet Russia.
Literature
Lynda Morris and Robert Radford, 'The Story of the Artists International Association, 1933-1953', Oxford: Museum of Modern Art, 1983
UK193520thResidentialMultifunctional Living Space
6764Distinction: A social critique of the judgement of tasteThe French sociologist Pierre Bourdieu's major study La Distinction. Critique sociale du jugement (1979) was first published in English in 1984 as Distinction. A Social Critique of the Judgement of Taste. It resulted from an extensive survey of the French population undertaken in the 1960s, which set out to study how taste operated. Through a large number of interviews and questionnaires, organised by social categories based on the French national educational system, Bourdieu and his team assembled data on how people lived, and their likes and dislikes in a number of areas of cultural practice, including food and fine and performance arts. The study was to have a profound impact on Arts and Humanities disciplines in the years to follow, although subsequent interpretations are divided on the extent to which Bourdieu's study was intended to unmask prevailing middle-class tastes and the preoccupations of what he called the 'petit-bourgeoisie' at the level of critique.

Important to Bourdieu's method were key concepts which he outlined in theoretical sections. These included those of cultural capital, distinction and habitus. The latter referred to a set of dispositions through which taste became manifest. In this, the domestic interior and the arrangement of people's homes were central and subsequently the study gives many detailed descriptions of actual interiors.

The diagram illustrates in tabulated form the preferences of different groups of people, defined by their occupation and qualifications, when asked to comment on what makes an 'ideal home'.
On the one hand, the graphs show the results of a social survey, on the other hand, in the context of this database, they can be regarded as a novel way to 'represent' the ideal domestic interior.
France197920thResidentialOther / Unknown
6752Things: A Story of the SixtiesGeorges Perec's (born 1936) first novel Things (1965) became 'a cult book for a generation', according to the publisher. It describes in close detail the consumption habits and tastes of a young French couple as they move to different apartments in search of furniture to create a desired lifestyle. The book was interpreted as an indictment of consumer society on its publication and holds many clues about the preoccupations and signs of discrimination at play in modern society.

The novel forms an interesting parallel to Pierre Bourdieu's sociological study Distinction (1974) which offers in-depth case studies of the lives, tastes and homes of sectors of the French population of the same period.
France196520thResidentialBathroom, Bedroom, Kitchen, Multifunctional Living Space
6753Things: A Story of the SixtiesGeorges Perec's (born 1936) first novel Things (1965) became 'a cult book for a generation', according to the publisher. It describes in close detail the consumption habits and tastes of a young French couple as they move to different apartments in search of furniture to create a desired lifestyle. The book was interpreted as an indictment of consumer society on its publication and holds many clues about the preoccupations and signs of discrimination at play in modern society.

The novel forms an interesting parallel to Pierre Bourdieu's sociological study Distinction (1974) which offers in-depth case studies of the lives, tastes and homes of sectors of the French population of the same period.
France196520thResidentialMultifunctional Living Space
6754Things: A Story of the SixtiesGeorges Perec's (born 1936) first novel Things (1965) became 'a cult book for a generation', according to the publisher. It describes in close detail the consumption habits and tastes of a young French couple as they move to different apartments in search of furniture to create a desired lifestyle. The book was interpreted as an indictment of consumer society on its publication and holds many clues about the preoccupations and signs of discrimination at play in modern society.

The novel forms an interesting parallel to Pierre Bourdieu's sociological study Distinction (1974) which offers in-depth case studies of the lives, tastes and homes of sectors of the French population of the same period.
France196520thResidentialOther / Unknown
6635The DambustersDirected by Michael Anderson, The Dambusters (1954) follows the efforts of the scientist Dr. Barnes Wallis (played by Michael Redgrave) to develop a ‘bouncing bomb’, and the subsequent RAF operation that deployed it. This still shows Wing Commander Guy Gibson’s batman packing up Gibson’s possessions for a new posting. Batmen were allocated to pilot officers as a matter of routine and would, along with other cleaning staff, remove from the officer all responsibility for maintaining the domestic interior and for laundry. Batmen were also implicated in maintaining not only the professional but also the socio-cultural profile of the officer. Note here that the batman is busying himself with Gibson’s tennis rackets and golf clubs - key equipment in the cultivation of a gentlemanly identity. The public persona of the officer was in many ways predicated on these domestic divisions of labour.UK195420thInstitutional , ResidentialBedroom
6636The DambustersDirected by Michael Anderson, The Dambusters (1954) follows the efforts of the scientist Dr. Barnes Wallis (played by Michael Redgrave) to develop a ‘bouncing bomb’, and the subsequent RAF operation that deployed it. This still shows two stewards standing outside the anteroom/bar of the officers’ mess discussing in awed tones the heroic achievements of the pilot officers within. Films made during the Second World War had frequently shown all social classes pulling together and sharing wartime dangers. Cinema from the 1950s saw a resurrection of a more class-divided Britishness. In this context, the unvaryingly domestic and interior responsibilities of the working-class stewards are a trivial sideline and irrelevance to the exploits of a middle-class elite.UK195420thInstitutional , ResidentialLeisure / Games Room, Multifunctional Living Space, Social and Sitting Spaces, Other / Unknown
6637The DambustersDirected by Michael Anderson, The Dambusters (1954) follows the efforts of the scientist Dr. Barnes Wallis (played by Michael Redgrave) to develop a ‘bouncing bomb’, and the subsequent RAF operation that deployed it. In this scene set in the mess ante room, the Dambusters crews (who have been taken off active service to train for their mission) are ribbed by other officers still flying their usual sorties. The critics are set upon and de-bagged in a good-humoured tussle. It is an authentic reminder that the officers’ mess and its related interior spaces were not merely host to formalised, decorous middle-class behaviours. The tight social circle and familiar physical configuration of the mess were also the context for what might have been called ‘high-spirited japes’, which were a direct continuation of behaviours learned in other similar semi-domestic environments, such as public school and university common rooms. UK195420thInstitutional , ResidentialLeisure / Games Room, Multifunctional Living Space, Social and Sitting Spaces, Other / Unknown
6638The DambustersDirected by Michael Anderson, The Dambusters (1954) follows the efforts of the scientist Dr. Barnes Wallis (played by Michael Redgrave) to develop a ‘bouncing bomb’, and the subsequent RAF operation that deployed it. This scene is one of a sequence showing the aircrews preparing in the privacy of their rooms for the mission that is about to begin. Their good-humoured, un-self-analytical sociability has been demonstrated in the film’s different interiors, and particularly in the mess. Here, where their thoughts have turned inwards to consider loved ones, fate and mortality, there is a revealing shift to the private spaces of their bedrooms.UK195420thInstitutional , ResidentialBedroom
6639The DambustersDirected by Michael Anderson, The Dambusters (1954) follows the efforts of the scientist Dr. Barnes Wallis (played by Michael Redgrave) to develop a ‘bouncing bomb’, and the subsequent RAF operation that deployed it. After the mission, the identities of some of the missing airmen are revealed by lingering shots of the private quarters they left only a few hours before. In this case, the camera focuses particularly on an oar blade hung on a bedroom wall, denoting that its owner had been part of an Oxford and Cambridge boat race crew. The profile of the RAF officer as a socially privileged all-rounder and athlete - the quintessential ‘good fellow’ - is thereby driven home once again, through the configuration of the interior.UK195420thInstitutional , ResidentialBedroom
6640Kind Hearts and CoronetsDirected by Robert Hamer, Kind Hearts and Coronets (1949) is a fictional tale charting the campaign of the lowly and impoverished Louis Mazzini (played by Dennis Price) to reclaim, through a string of murders, his birthright as heir to a dukedom. His mother, the daughter of the Duke and Duchess of Chalfont, had eloped with an Italian opera singer, and this perceived social disgrace had caused her to be ostracised by the family and reduced to penury. A sharp satire on class and status, it is set in the late-Victorian era. This scene shows Mazzini, the opera singer, performing at Chalfont Castle. The ducal splendour of the interior, with its ornamental clusters of weaponry and heraldic devices, is the foil against which Louis Mazzini’s humble suburban domesticity is set.UK1949
20thResidentialMultifunctional Living Space, Social and Sitting Spaces, Other / Unknown
6641Kind Hearts and CoronetsDirected by Robert Hamer, Kind Hearts and Coronets (1949) is a fictional tale charting the campaign of the lowly and impoverished Louis Mazzini (played by Dennis Price) to reclaim, through a string of murders, his birthright as heir to a dukedom. His mother, the daughter of the Duke and Duchess of Chalfont, had eloped with an Italian opera singer, and this perceived social disgrace had caused her to be ostracised by the family and reduced to penury. A sharp satire on class and status, it is set in the late-Victorian era. In this scene, set in the interior of a suburban terraced house, the film immediately establishes the immense gulf in status separating Mrs Mazzini’s married life from her former aristocratic origins. Within this simple interior, however, the picture of the married couple sharing domestic tasks is also meant to inform us of their happy and harmonious union.UK1949
20thResidentialKitchen
6642Kind Hearts and Coronets Directed by Robert Hamer, Kind Hearts and Coronets (1949) is a fictional tale charting the campaign of the lowly and impoverished Louis Mazzini (played by Dennis Price) to reclaim, through a string of murders, his birthright as heir to a dukedom. His mother, the daughter of the Duke and Duchess of Chalfont, had eloped with an Italian opera singer, and this perceived social disgrace had caused her to be ostracised by the family and reduced to penury. A sharp satire on class and status, it is set in the late-Victorian era. As Louis Mazzini’s scheme begins to become a reality he is simultaneously carried up the ladder of social and professional status. This process is powerfully communicated by his accommodation, which moves from a small terraced house in suburbia to this substantial apartment with its many emblems of contemporary gentility, including antique furniture and artworks.UK1949
20thResidentialMultifunctional Living Space, Social and Sitting Spaces
6632The DambustersDirected by Michael Anderson, The Dambusters (1954) follows the efforts of the scientist Dr. Barnes Wallis (played by Michael Redgrave) to develop a ‘bouncing bomb’, and the subsequent RAF operation that deployed it. In this scene, the brilliant but eccentric Wallis is shown at home distractedly having tea with his wife and the village doctor. His house, revealed in the film’s opening sequence, is shown to be in an idyllic rural location; and this atmosphere of comfortable country living is further developed in the sitting room pictured here, with its chintz furnishings, plain wooden chandelier, and homely display of stoneware jugs and china. In this fashion, the film and its portrayal of the interior stand within a powerful imagining of Britain and Britishness as pastoral. High technology, professional scientific endeavour, and the weapons of total warfare are confronted within (and obscured by) this vision of pastoral values.UK195420thResidentialLeisure / Games Room, Library / Study, Multifunctional Living Space, Social and Sitting Spaces
6633The DambustersDirected by Michael Anderson, The Dambusters (1954) follows the efforts of the scientist Dr. Barnes Wallis (played by Michael Redgrave) to develop a ‘bouncing bomb’, and the subsequent RAF operation that deployed it. In this scene, Mrs Wallis is shown sewing beside the fire in the sitting room, waiting for her husband to return home. Barnes Wallis’s labours for the war effort, his meetings with government committees and military figures - his engagement with the outside world - is contrasted with his wife’s resolutely domestic context and behavioural passivity. While films made during the Second World War frequently represented women actively shouldering wartime duties, war films from the 1950s drew more restrictive and traditional gender boundaries.UK195420thResidentialLeisure / Games Room, Library / Study, Multifunctional Living Space, Social and Sitting Spaces
6634The DambustersDirected by Michael Anderson, The Dambusters (1954) follows the efforts of the scientist Dr. Barnes Wallis (played by Michael Redgrave) to develop a ‘bouncing bomb’, and the subsequent RAF operation that deployed it. Pictured here is a recreation of a dining room in an RAF officers’ mess. During the war, the officer cadre of the RAF was usually considered less socially exclusive than its equivalents in the Army and Navy. Nonetheless, within the RAF the socio-cultural boundaries between ‘gentlemen’ pilot officers, ground crew and mess servants were sharply drawn. Interiors such as this - with their impressive proportions, gentlemen’s club configuration and attentive stewards - powerfully underpinned officer status.UK195420thInstitutional , ResidentialDining Room, Social and Sitting Spaces, Other / Unknown
6676Systema Horticulturae: Or, The Art of GardeningInterior spaces were very important to domestic space outside the home in the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries. This long extract shows some of the other sorts of wholly or partially enclosed ‘edifices’ which advice literature located in the ideal late-seventeenth-century domestic garden. The passage explains how they were to be constructed and describes their range of functions, principally as shelter, but also that they were considered in their 'remoteness' from household routine to be more 'private' than the house interior. This privacy could be double-edged. Note that Woolridge recommends a covered seat in preference to being ‘hood-winked in an arbour’. Contemporary imaginative literature certainly supported this idea, with fictional accounts favouring summer houses and arbours as the locations for illicit rendezvous and seductions rather than ‘solitary repose’ or cerebral contemplations upon nature. Summer houses were also surveyed in several of the City Lands Plans dating from c.1700 or earlier (see cross-references).UK1677
1688
17thResidentialSocial and Sitting Spaces, Leisure / Games Room, Utility
6677Plain and Full Instructions to raise all sorts of Fruit-Trees that prosper in England The Second Edition revised and enlarged in many Places: together with an Addition of two intire Chapters of Greens and Green-houses, by the Author. By T. Langford, Gent.

Most sixteenth- and seventeenth-century gardening books described arbours, summer houses, banqueting houses, covered seats and similar structures as desirable if not requisite components of the domestic garden. These provided additional 'interior' spaces outside of the main body of the house and were clearly important in providing shelter and in particular shade from the sun. Other books suggest they were refuges from everyday domestic routine (see cross-references). By the 1690s greenhouses (a term which had become interchangeable with conservatory) took on something of the role of summerhouses, with a more clearly articulated leisure as well as plant preserving function. Garden houses, summer houses, houses of pleasure and banqueting houses and also arbours and seats were terms which could be applied to several types of similar buildings; summerhouses feature in early-eighteenth-century property surveys of the City of London and its suburbs (see cross-references) and occasionally in later eighteenth-century London inventories. This extract is from the second, 1696, edition of Langford's Plain and Full Instructions which included a new section on greens (evergreen plants) and greenhouses which had not featured in the 1681 edition. This innovation is indicative of both the spread of the new fashion for growing exotic greens at the end of the seventeenth century (and the lack of knowledge about how to grow them successfully), and the dual purpose as plant conservatory and entertaining room which the greenhouse cum conservatory was increasingly expected to fulfil in fashionable late-seventeenth-century homes and, later, in a widening social range of eighteenth- and nineteenth-century domestic architecture. UK1696ResidentialMultifunctional Living Space, Leisure / Games Room, Utility, Social and Sitting Spaces
6678The Lady's Recreation: Or the Third and Last Part of the Art of Gardening Improv'dThis extract from The Lady's Recreation (which after a fulsome introduction did not much address ladies at all) gives another example of how gardening advice literature recommended that the best rooms of the house be connected with the garden, in this case having a separate entrance for garden labourers, so that not only pleasant views were obtained but also, in theory at least, scent would cross the boundaries between inside and outside. In theory at least, the flower garden would remain particularly associated with women, and with those rooms associated with women such as the drawing room and parlour, throughout the eighteenth century and into the nineteenth century when the association was re-enforced.UK171718thResidentialOther / Unknown
6679The Touchstone of Complexions … Now Englished by Thomas NewtonThis account by a visiting foreigner to London in the mid-sixteenth century praises the pleasantness of English domestic interiors improved by sweet herbs. Jules Lubbock notes that 'The underlying form of visitors' accounts [in this period] was the panegyric, a type of essay in praise of a city or a country which dated back to classical times … for London the writers of panegyrics were forced to adapt the formula … the yardstick of this new kind of city was its number of streets, houses, markets, slaughterhouses, size of population, sense of order, ships in port and above all the number of shops'. Thus, although we should therefore be wary of tourists' accounts as reliable sources of actual practice, the inclusion of 'improved' domestic space among the urban middling sort, rather than just the elite, as a 'yardstick' of national improvement, is interesting in itself. The author of this extract, Levinus Lemnius (1505-1658), was a physician and theologian visiting London, where his son resided, from Zeeland. His Touchstone of Complexions and other works such as An Herbal for the Bible … Drawen into the English by Thomas Newton, London, Edward Bollifant, 1587, which covered the 'Similarities, Parables, and Metaphors, both in the olde Testament and the Newe, as are borrowed and taken from Herbs, Plants, Trees, Fruits, and Simples', indicate that the household use of plants and their effects upon the body was clearly central to his work as both doctor and cleric. UKc.1550
1587
1865
ResidentialBedroom, Social and Sitting Spaces
6680‘Of Our Innes and Thorowfairs’Like W. B. Rye's England as Seen by Foreigners of 1865 (see cross-references) F. J. Furnivall's Harrison's Description of England in Shakspere's Youth, published in three volumes in the late nineteenth century, is as valuable a primary source for gauging nineteenth-century interest in the history of the built environment as it is in providing easy access to sixteenth- and seventeenth-century 'eye-witness' accounts of British culture from a range of sources. The burgeoning nineteenth-century antiquarian interest in this period and its literary and material culture led to a broader Shakespeare revival at the turn of the century, manifest in all areas of culture including architecture and design for the home. This coincided with a mood of imperial triumphalism which annexed the Tudor past, fin de siecle reflection, the death of Victoria and soon after the anniversary of the death of Elizabeth, and the 300-year anniversary of William Shakespeare's most prolific period. This revival demonstrated a deepening interest in the full range of the nation's domestic space and practice, not just that associated with royal and noble households as an extension of the political realm. As Furnivall put it, Harrison's account was a 'Historicall description of the Iland of Britaine' and 'the book is full of interest, not only to every Shakspere student, but to every reader of English history … from its Parliament and Universities, to its beggars and its rogues; from its castles to its huts, its horses to its hens; from how the state was managd, to how Mrs Wm Harrison (and no doubt Mrs William Shakspere) brewd her beer; all is there. The book is a deliberately drawn picture of Elizabethan England'. Furnivall was Rector of Radnor, Canon of Windsor, and the Secretary of the New Shakspere Society, under whose auspices his volumes of contemporary accounts were published in the late nineteenth century.UKc.1570
1878
Commercial ,
6681‘London Houses’This extract, from Fynes Moryson's Itinerary of 1617, is typical of visitors' accounts of London in the late sixteenth and early seventeenth centuries which praised the condition of citizens' homes, often in the same breath as royal palaces, as evidence of the city's, and by extension the nation's, prosperity. Published accounts of the city in this vein also influenced personal reflection in the form of diary writing, which was also increasing in this period (see cross-references).UK1617
1911
Commercial , ResidentialWork Space, Other / Unknown
6682‘Notes on London churches and buildings, and on public events in England, A.D. 1631-5, set down in the years 1656, 1657, and 1658, by an Old Man’This is an example of how the domestic space of the poor in the form of almshouses was reported as evidence of the City's benevolence and prosperity. Compare this literary representation of the Fishermen's Almshouses (and the late-nineteenth-century volume by the New Shakespeare Society in which it is contained) with the watercolours made of the building's principal rooms by an antiquarian two years before their demolition in 1848 (see cross-references).UK1618
1631
1632
1633
1634
1635
1656
1657
1658
1908
Institutional , Bedroom, Kitchen, Social and Sitting Spaces, Other / Unknown
6683‘Re-Building of London’This is an extract relating to London of the 1690 diary of Robert Kirk, Gaelic scholar and Minister of Aberfoyle. The diary gives details of his time in London during that year where he was supervising the printing of Bedell's Gaelic Bible. In contrast to some of the other accounts of London houses lauding their high civilisation as evidence of the city's prosperity, Kirk is here more equivocal, perhaps because this was a diary for personal reflection despite its panegyric style (see cross-references). He sees from the outside what other diarists describe from the inside, that of the close relationship between the shop and the rest of the house. Kirk was the author of The Secret Commonwealth of Elves, Faunes and Fairies (1691).UK1689
1690
1933
6684Of BuildingThe architectural analysis of seventeenth-century house types by the Hon. Roger North (1653-1734) describes how houses were planned and how they should be planned. In the light of research into contemporary diaries and inventories which reveals the flexible use of the spaces called 'office', 'counting house', 'study' and 'closet' (see cross references), North's presentation of the closet as a place of devotion, study, and/or retreat from household labour and company, provides evidence from prescriptive literature for the multiple uses which the closet was expected to provide.UK17thResidentialWork Space, Multifunctional Living Space, Transitional, Utility, Bedroom
6654A Plann of the Premises demised to Ann HowardThis plan shows two adjoining properties, both shops with dwelling houses attached, in Houndsditch, City of London. It was surveyed c.1713 but depicts buildings which were probably built at least sixty years earlier. It belongs to one of two surviving volumes recording City of London property made c.1680-1720 covering a range of houses from one room tenements to courtyard mansions and also non-residential property. These plans usually survey only the ground floor of the house including any external space included in the lease and were usually made when the lease was due to expire or was contested in some way. The Corporation was particularly interested in any alterations, deterioration or changes in use which would affect its value. The premises in this plan were demised to Ann Howard, spinster, extending south from Houndsditch to London Wall, a bulwark of which can be seen at the end of the garden. The left-hand house had a shop-kitchen-shed-yard arrangement, and that on the right a shop, kitchen, and a room and a parlour at the same depth which both had access to the garden. The City Lands Committee clearly did not like this arrangement and noted that following Mrs Howard's petition for the premises above, they were 'of the opinion that the same ought to be new built' with the proviso that the 'premises and others next adjoining towards Aldgate ought to be divided so that the particion betwixt them shall run on a streight line from Houndsditch to London Wall.' Mrs Howard was one of the few people in possession of City land who was also listed as a tenant of part of the same property. Like the other plans in the volume they are useful indicators of ground floor room position, naming, and use. The surveyor was John Olley who also leased property from the Corporation.
UK1713
1650
Commercial , ResidentialKitchen, Transitional, Utility, Undifferentiated Spaces, Work Space, Multifunctional Living Space
6655A Plann of the premises demised to Robert PikeRobert Pike, citizen and joiner, who leased other properties from the city, gained the leases of these three tenements and their warehousing behind from Anne Richardson in 1712; the buildings were probably mainly seventeenth-century in origin. They were known by the signs of the Walnut Tree, the Lanthorns, the Pestle and Mortar. Pike told the City Lands Committee he paid a £50 fine and £14 p.a. rent for leasing the premises, which was considered too little since he had built 'severall warehouses and other conveniences for his trade as a joyner' over the yard thus raising the value of the plot. The two other tenements facing the street were let to Robert Hall and John Knightsbridge at £16 p.a. each and a 'backhouse' in Pike's yard let at £8 p.a. Pike subsequently agreed to pay a £200 fine, to reflect the increased value of the plot and to lay out £150 in repairs in the next five years. This survey shows the common mix of domestic, commercial and artisanal buildings which constituted individual leases in much Corporation property. It is not clear whether Pike lived on the premises, but he did use the warehouses for his trade. Whether by lack of space or combined function, the 'best' rooms are often connected to commercial and workspaces like the parlour in this plan. Although it has been argued that parlours were built deep within such properties, often next to gardens, they were also commonly found behind the shop (or at the front of the building in areas where there were no shops) and next to yards. In contrast to houses surveyed a century earlier by Ralph Treswell, kitchens are now almost always incorporated into the main body of the house rather than being a separate outbuilding in the garden or yard. Large kitchens on the ground floor behind a shop may indicate that the premises were selling food and drink; unspecified ‘rooms’ near kitchens and shops may indicate customers’ seating space both within the house and in the yard or garden. As a group the surveys indicate the numbers of houses still constructed from timber in the post-Fire period. Brickwork is indicated by red, timber by yellow, stone by grey, and hedging by green. Note the common feature of timber warehousing and a summer house built into the old London Wall at the foot of the property. Unusually, no vaults or privies are indicated.UK1713Commercial , ResidentialKitchen, Transitional, Multifunctional Living Space, Work Space, Utility, Social and Sitting Spaces
6656Demised to John WilmottOn September 1716 John Willmott, citizen and joiner, leased two 'messuages’ and a back room in Houndsditch, and a building over a passage or gateway (excluding passage), for twenty-one years with a covenant to repair. The plan shows a pair of two-room plan brick houses which were probably part of a continuous street front (probably dating from the mid to late seventeenth century) with joint access to a private yard, in the corner of which is a 'roome' that exploits the two brick walls to include a fireplace. As this room is not included in the lease as a further tenement, and is not described as a kitchen or shed, it may have functioned as something like a summer house for customers or family. As evidence from inventories of properties in the same area at this time indicates, the often found position of the parlour behind the shop may suggest that the parlours had a commercial role in addition to or instead of a wholly familial one.UK1716Commercial , ResidentialKitchen, Work Space, Utility, Transitional, Social and Sitting Spaces
6657A plan of the premises demised to William WarrenThis plan shows the ground floor of the timber-framed Three Tun Tavern with its drinking room and kitchen in Houndsditch. It was surveyed c.1710 but was probably at least sixty years older than the survey. Where dates of original building are indicated in surviving deeds, some houses could be a century old at the time of survey, having been through a series of leases during which much additional building at the back may have occurred. The City often specified alterations and improvements as a condition of a new lease. Although not every man practised the trade through which he became a citizen of London, the property may not have been occupied by the principal leaseholder, William Warren, citizen and draper, since the whole of the ground-floor house rooms and cooper's workshop would have been involved with tavern business including, possibly, the garden for games and extra seating. The Corporation evidently preferred to deal with a small number of primary leaseholders (most of whom were either freemen of the City or ‘Gentlemen’) rather than the thousands of individual tenants who sublet from the leaseholders approved by the Corporation. Women, often widows and spinsters, were also registered as leaseholders of City property and, unlike their male counterparts, were usually recorded as living and working in part of the property under lease.UKc.1710 Commercial , ResidentialKitchen, Social and Sitting Spaces, Work Space, Utility
6658A Plann of the Premises demised to Mrs Frances Pollard; A plan of the premises demised to Mr SumpnerThe City Lands Commission reports and deeds show that as the sixty-one-year lease on these adjoining premises neared its expiry in 1711, Frances Pollard, widow, and Mr Sumpner, citizen and blacksmith, successfully petitioned to renew for another twenty-one years the leases on their neighbouring powder shop and coffee house in the Minories. The houses may have been built in 1650, though on the site of older buildings given their location, like the Houndsditch properties surveyed in the same volume against London Wall. Although Sumpner was a freeman of the Blacksmith's Company, the right hand property was known as Sumpner's Coffee House, illustrating that not all freemen of the City followed their trades. Diary and other evidence shows that the numbers of coffee houses in London continued to grow through the eighteenth century, though this is the only one listed by name in the first volume of the City Lands Plans. It appears in this instance to differ very little from other sorts of contemporary drinking houses.
The unspecified ‘room’ fronting the street with a large fire place would also have been for customers’ use. Like many of the shop dwellings in the surveys, this had a large private garden attached at the rear, though it is not clear from the plans how gardens were used. Many gardens and yards contained wash houses, especially those behind premises selling food and drink, so outdoor spaces would presumbly have been used for drying and airing washing. Summer houses were also surveyed in gardens and yards in the City but especally in outlying suburbs. City inventories from this period occasionally list skittle alleys or goods in sheds and other out buildings which suggest they were may have been used by customers for entertainment.
UK1650
1711
Commercial , ResidentialLeisure / Games Room, Social and Sitting Spaces, Work Space, Utility, Undifferentiated Spaces
6659A Plann of the Premises demised to John RowtonJohn Rowton, citizen and cordweyner, leased this timber-framed two-room plan shop and dwelling lying off the south side of Dukes Place, near London Wall in the suburb of Aldgate. This has a large kitchen on the ground floor behind the shop so it may be that Rowton did not live or make shoes for sale on these premises (kitchens in this location indicate the sale of food and drink). The rear of the premises appears to have been added later, and houses a succession of differently functioning rooms including an ‘airy’ between the wash house and backshop. Airys or airies were covered or uncovered yards at the heart of a property which had no direct access to the exterior. They were surveyed in similar interior positions at the centre of Smithfields Market. The premises also contains a counting house built into the corner of the backshop next to the garden. Although they were more often found at the front of houses in the plans, counting houses appear to be located in order to gain maximum light; like closets, and studies with which they appear to have shared some functions, counting houses were usually built into the corners of existing rooms and were rarely provided with fireplaces. UKc.1710Commercial , ResidentialKitchen, Utility, Work Space, Transitional
6660Demised to Tho Rand in Ropemakers Alley The plan shows a pair of semi-detached brick-built houses, possibly two rooms deep in plan, although no room divisions or fireplaces are indicated. They are provided with front yards, part of which is either fenced in, or overhung by an upper storey creating a sheltered space which elsewhere in the surveys was called a ‘piazza’. This pair of houses with their large gardens and summerhouses attached at the sides was leased by Thomas Rand, a 'Gentleman', in Finsbury in 1712. Summerhouses were also recorded at the corners of gardens and yards elsewhere, particularly in the outlying suburbs where there were more gardens and outside space (and fewer building restrictions) but also in denser areas. The surveyor recorded a cluster of summerhouses in the Finsbury area, some of which appear to be two storeys in height. Comparison with other plans indicates that as the surveyor was not much concerned with its internal layout, the house was probably was not used for commercial purposes, though the gardens may possibly have grown crops for purposes other than household consumption.UK1712Commercial , ResidentialTransitional, Utility, Kitchen, Other / Unknown
6661Demised to John ShalerOn the 10th August 1712 it was agreed by the City Lands Committee that John Shaler, citizen and Merchant Taylor of London Wall, should have 'a lease of five brick tenements with appurtenances scituate in Great Sword Bearers Alley in the Lordship of Finsbury' for £5 p.a. with a £100 fine and 3 guineas for the Poor Box, which was standard practice for the acquisition of a new lease after it had been advertised in the London Gazette. Shaler had successfully petitioned to gain the earlier twenty-one-year lease, granted in 1691, from William Boughley. This brick terrace in the suburb of Finsbury to the north of the City of London represents some of the smaller houses (as opposed to single-room garrets) surveyed, with one room and fireplace on each floor which probably did not extend above two storeys plus garret. The large gardens at the rear suggest they may have been occupied by market gardeners. Single-room plan houses were also found in the City's most prosperous streets where land values were highest, such as Cheapside, but, unlike suburban houses, these could extend to six or more storeys and rarely had external space. As in the larger properties with external space such as gardens and yards, the timber vaults (privies) were built as far as possible from the principal dwelling, often back to back, and into existing fences and walls.UK1691
1712
Commercial , ResidentialOther / Unknown
6662A plan of the premises demised to Nathaniel WithersNathaniel Withers, a 'gentleman, of the Parish of St. Giles without Cripplegate' petitioned to acquire the lease of these thirty-three tenements in Bunhill Fields which had fallen into disrepair under the management of his grandfather since the previous lease was granted in 1652. When the City Lands Committee viewed the premises in February 1712/13 following Withers' new petition, it found them 'to be indifferently tenanted being all let to tenants at will and several of them are inmates inhabiting each a separate room, and that many of the houses are out of repair and water comes into the cellars'. Because of the number of tenements and the fact the houses had become multi-occupancy, the surveyor does not delineate interior space or room names; presumably many or most rooms had become sleeping chambers. The majority of the houses, which were brick-built and mostly of one-room plan size (with larger exceptions in the centre and to the left of the image), had substantial gardens attached behind them; the others had similar-sized yards. By 1712 these tenements, in the suburbs where noxious trades were permitted, appear to have housed a colony of metalworkers, judging from the several silver spinners’ and other sheds indicated. The following month Withers proposed to lay out one thousand pounds in new building within seven years, as a condition of his new lease.UK1652
1712
ResidentialWork Space, Other / Unknown, Transitional, Utility
6663[Plan of an unidentified house belonging to the Corporation of London, c. 1700]This is the only house in the surviving City Lands and Bridge House Plans to be surveyed on all four floors, including its 'summer roome on ye leads'. This plan of Corporation of London property was made c.1700 and shows a shopkeeper's house which was three storeys high not including the garret or roof space. Unlike the other surveys, no information was provided about either leaseholder or location. It is also distinctive in other ways. Dining rooms and withdrawing rooms were only described in one other house (see RP1110) and this was in the largest and newest house to be surveyed. The counting house is built into the corner of the shop and, unlike the other counting houses surveyed, had a fireplace. This survey also illustrates the fact that ground-floor plans should be used as guide to overall household space with caution, given that the house extends to the right above ground level, providing space for the dining room, parlour and unnamed chambers on the upper floors. This may have been the reason for the exceptional survey, however. Largely on account of the City Rebuilding Act of 1667 the Corporation disliked household arrangements in which party walls were not perpendicular through the depth of the house and actively sought to correct pre-Fire arrangements in its property. Possibly, because the dining and withdrawing rooms suggest the lessee was familiar with the latest taste in room naming and arrangement, and because of the very small yard, this house was in a central area of the City in which land values were high. This is also the only summer room on the leads to be recorded in the volume. With the exception of a small back extension built of brick over the yard on the east side which provided a buttery and two closets on the upper floors, the house was built entirely of timber, so it was probably not newly built at the time of survey.UKc.1700 Commercial , ResidentialUtility, Kitchen, Work Space, Social and Sitting Spaces, Bedroom, Dining Room, Other / Unknown, Transitional
6664Lutestring CompanyWe know rather more about this house and its occupants than all the other property in the City Lands Plans put together, on account of its size and because it was first leased by 'Judge' George Jeffreys between 1672 and 1685. The deeds to Jeffreys' original lease, dated March 26 1672, tell us that this property was a 'newly built mansion house with the appurtenances in the Parish of St. Mary Aldermanbury, built upon a parcel of ground formerly belonging to Guiban Goddard, Sergeant at Law, dec'd'. Jeffreys leased this house, which he substantially improved, as part of his position as Recorder of London and later Lord Chief Justice. This is one of the very few houses in the City Lands Plans which can be both definitively dated and for which first and subsequent occupants can be identified. Evidence of fixtures and fittings from his tenure also survives. However, this house differed from the others surveyed in several other ways. In the first place it was one of the few houses surveyed in this volume which were built in an area destroyed by the 1666 Fire. It was also probably the largest house surveyed, of a similar type to those pre-Fire houses which John Schofield categorised as being of type four mansion or courtyard houses (Type one being garrets, type two representing the sorts of two- to three-room plan terrace shopkeepers’ houses which are indicated in the cross-references). It was three storeys high not inlcuding garrets and cellars. It was completely brick-built, save for wooden room partitions, in accordance with the 1667 City Rebuilding Act. It is also singular on account of what it potentially tells us about changes in room naming and use. The ground floor contained four large rooms arranged around a central hall. In 1701 these rooms included a parlour, kitchen and washhouse to the left of the hall and a dining room with a counting house and withdrawing room attached on the right. The workspaces and formal rooms are far more carefully separated than was possible in smaller houses. The house was reached via a large courtyard leading from a passage or gateway to the street. We know from other sources that the dining room opened via folding doors onto a balustrade which led to a large ornamental garden and possibly also a kitchen garden containing a garden house which land was leased or bought in a private transaction (for which reason it is not shown in the survey). This changes the footprint of the property as shown in the survey significantly. In the schedule attached to the lease of 1685, the dining room which led to the garden in 1701 and 1713 was called a parlour or great parlour either because the room function had changed, new fashions in room use and naming were introduced, or perhaps indicating the subjectivity of surveyors in this respect. In a series of transactions both before and after Jeffrey's death in 1688, the lease eventually passed to the Lutestring Company in 1701 for use as a Company hall, whereupon it began to disrepair to such an extent that it was advertised to let in 1713. By 1726 the house was occupied by one Madeleine Deade.UK1672
1701
1711
Institutional , ResidentialKitchen, Social and Sitting Spaces, Transitional, Utility, Work Space
6665A Record of the Mercies of God, or a thankful remembranceNehemiah Wallington (1598-1658) of Little Eastcheap in the City of London, was a Turner by trade and a devout Puritan by faith which permeated every aspect of his life. He produced some fifty books of carefully handwritten 'remembrances' of the mercies which God had granted himself, his kin and the Protestant nation, of which six are known to survive; it is not a true diary, being written after the event. These extracts from his Record held at the Guildhall Library record God's mercies to the household. The often life-threatening ill fortunes survived by God's grace ranged from what we would now identify as mental illness, through household accidents and theft, to hostility and violence from political and religious opponents. The background to these books is the English Civil War. Because Wallington records the Mercies which God granted the family in his childhood home as well as in his marital home, nearby, comparisons may be made between two generations of London houses during the first half of the seventeenth century. His parental home had a hall, a parlour and a folks’ chamber, for example, which are not mentioned after he sets up home with his new wife in 1620. Thus this is either a much smaller house, or the rooms or their descriptions are no longer used, or perhaps held less significance as an adult than as a child. His marital home is described as having a kitchen, Nathaniel's ('my') chamber and another chamber, otherwise no rooms are specified. He mentions a gable, a tiled roof with three chimneys and overall the house was probably two rooms deep and three storeys high, excluding the roof space in which there were two garrets. The back garret served as the male servants’ sleeping quarters and as storage space for firewood, tools and shop goods, while the front garret was Wallington's study. This study served many purposes including for shop business and accounting but it also contained his daughter's needlework desk. Above all it was Wallington's prayer room where he retired several times daily to be 'in private' with his God and to write his Mercies; Wallington (and his father and pastor in their home) used the 'study' for the same spiritual purposes as others did their 'closets' (see cross references, for examples of closets and other studies from contemporary inventories). His journey in the morning from the high garret space to the shop below is acknowledged by Wallington to be at once a spatial and a moral and spiritual descent from God to Mammon. For this reason, Wallington was a better Christian than he was a shopkeeper.UK1619
1626
1629
1636
1641

17thCommercial , ResidentialBedroom, Kitchen, Work Space, Utility
6666A Record of the Mercies of God, or a thankful remembrance In addition to the incidental information about the room naming, occupants, contents and use of the Wallington's house in Little Eastcheap in the City of London between 1620-1640, these three entries record how household boundaries could be transgressed. They also show the financial, emotional and ultimately physical impact upon members of the household caused by the incidents of boundary crossing which ranged from enforced entry by the authorities on suspicion that the inhabitants kept banned books or owed debts; breaking, entering and theft by intruders; and pilfering by members of the household such as journeymen but also, on occasion, by kin (Wallington admitted the sin of taking money from his father as a child).UK1629
1632
1641
1643
17thCommercial , ResidentialBedroom, Kitchen, Transitional, Work Space
6667A Record of the Mercies of God, or a thankful remembranceThis is one of many extracts from the Remembrances of Nehemiah Wallington, a wood turner, illustrating the dangers that having a shop within the home incurred. Although he did not make all of the goods which he sold, the raw materials and tools as well as finished products which were stored around the house, all posed real threats to household safety. The shop and back shop, which was sometimes known as 'the next room' to the shop where customers were shown goods, were on the ground floor of Nehemiah Wallington's house on Little Eastcheap into which he moved with his new wife in 1622. These rooms were connected by stairs with the upper storeys of the house and with the cellar. Tools and lumber fell into the shop from the roof garret or off walls, while raw materials and smaller wooden goods kept elsewhere around the house proved everyday fire hazards. Family and servants worked in the shop; children also played there. Customers were also at risk. The Wallington manuscripts support what evidence from contemporary plans and inventories suggests, that in the smaller City house at least, the shop was linked spatially, functionally and socially with the rest of the house as well as to the street outside (see cross-references). The powdering tubs which Wallington sold in his shop alongside other domestic implements were used for the salting of meat and were found in many kitchens inventoried in this period.UK163017thCommercial , ResidentialWork Space, Bedroom, Utility
6668Diary 1706-8Peter Briggins of Bartholomew Close on the West side of the City was a hop grower and merchant who lived and worked in London. He was married with children who frequently accompanied him on his crop-viewing rounds. Briggins does not describe his dwelling directly and it is not clear whether he lived in a house. As in many diaries, details of the interior are incidental. He is more concerned with his business, though this is practised at home as well as outside it. These unpaginated extracts from the manuscript diary at London Metropolitan Archives show how his business activities shaped all aspects of household life and family leisure time both within the home and beyond it. His concern for his hop plantations in particular probably led him to keep the diary in the first place given the emphasis on recording the weather; he kept a weather glass at home for this purpose. In addition to this business, his faith as a Quaker, and his other income collecting rents on domestic property in the City, created a complex web of connections across the city during the first decade of the eighteenth century.UK1706
1707
1708
18thResidentialOther / Unknown
6669The Diary of Dudley Ryder 1715-1716Extracts from the published Diary of Dudley Ryder, 1715-16, edited by William Matthews in 1939, are arranged for the database in three entries which reflect themes emerging from the diary in relation to domestic space and practice. The first, in this entry, deals with Ryder's self-conscious attempts to improve himself, and to acquire those accomplishments, with greater or lesser success, which approached his notion of attaining 'gentility', and the role which the diary itself played in this. As a legal student, Ryder had his own lodgings at the Courts where he entertained friends, but he also spent a great deal of time with his kin at the family house in Hackney and was often at both homes in the same day. Hence the entries concerning domestic space relate to both sorts of dwellings and have not been separated. The second group of extracts is concerned with the interests and relations of a young man with women, particularly in their company and conversations to which he was sometimes privy in the home. Although he spent time with women outside the home, what he perceives as their peculiarities are most clearly defined in relation to domestic matters, while domestic gatherings enabled him to study them more closely. The third group reveals notes of domestic discord, and entries have been selected from records of the intransigence of his grandmother (who lived before her death in a chamber of her son's home) to his mother's shortness with his father, his father's interference in his sons' domestic arrangements and finally his own shortcomings in the housekeeping department. This lack was sharply exposed by his father (who derived a comfortable income from his business as a linen draper and, less successfully, from the domestic property market), who appears to have been exasperated by his sons' financial naivety and continued dependence on him for money in addition to their allowances.UK1715
1716
1939
18thResidentialSocial and Sitting Spaces, Bedroom, Leisure / Games Room
6670The Diary of Dudley Ryder 1715-1716Extracts from the published Diary of Dudley Ryder, 1715-1716, edited by William Matthews in 1939, are arranged for the database in three entries which reflect themes emerging from the diary in relation to domestic space and practice. The first deals with Ryder's self-conscious attempts to improve himself, and the role which the diary itself played in this. As a law student, Ryder had his own lodgings at the Courts, but he also spent a great deal of time with his kin at the family home in Hackney, which was prominent in the local Nonconformist community, and was often at both homes in the same day. Hence the entries concerning domestic space relate to both sorts of dwellings and have not been separated. The second group of extracts, cited here, is concerned with the interests and relations of a young man with women, particularly in their company and conversations to which he was sometimes privy at home. Although he often spent time with women outside the home - at company dinners, spa gardens, and the theatre for example - what he perceives as their peculiarities are most clearly defined in relation to domestic matters, while domestic gatherings enabled him to study the opposite sex more closely. The third group reveals notes of domestic discord, and entries have been selected from records of the intransigence of his grandmother (who lived before her death in a chamber of her son's home) to his mother's shortness with his father, his father's interference in his sons' domestic arrangements and finally his own lack of ability in the housekeeping department. This lack was sharply exposed by his father (who derived a comfortable income from his business as a linen draper and, less successfully, from the domestic property market), who appears to have been exasperated by his sons' financial naivety and continued dependence on him for money in addition to their allowances.UK1715
1716
1939
18thResidentialSocial and Sitting Spaces, Other / Unknown
6671The Diary of Dudley Ryder 1715-1716Extracts from the published Diary of Dudley Ryder, 1715-16, edited by William Matthews in 1939, are arranged in the database as three entries which reflect themes emerging from the diary in relation to domestic space and practice. The first deals with Ryder's self-conscious attempts to improve himself, and the role which the diary itself played in this. As a law student, Ryder had his own lodgings at the Courts, but he also spent a great deal of time with his kin at the family home in Hackney and was often at both homes in the same day. Hence the entries concerning domestic space relate to both sorts of dwellings and have not been separated. The second group of extracts is concerned with the interests and relations of a young man with women, particularly in their company and conversations to which he was sometimes privy in the home. Although he spent time with women outside the home, what he perceives as their peculiarities are most clearly defined in relation to domestic matters, while domestic gatherings enabled him to study them more closely. The third group, cited here, reveals notes of domestic discord, and entries have been selected from records of the intransigence of his grandmother (who lived before her death in a chamber of her son's home) to his mother's shortness with his father, his father's interference in his sons' domestic arrangements and finally Dudley Ryder’s own lack of ability in the housekeeping department. This lack was sharply exposed by his father (who derived a comfortable income from his business as a linen-draper in a city shop separate from his home in the suburbs and, less successfully, from the domestic property market), who appears to have been exasperated by his sons' financial naivety and continued dependence on him for money in addition to their allowances.UK1715
1716
1939
18thResidential
6672Dr. Swift to a Friend, who asked him which were his favourite FurnitureStephen Monteage, accountant to the South Sea House and Custom House, was living at York Buildings House in Winchester Street, Little Moorfields, London, at the time when he began this diary. Even without knowing where 'Home' was, the diaries reveal that he lived east of Newgate, given the route he always travels to and from Westminster and the West End. We know little about the layout of his house (or if it was indeed a house rather than rooms or lodgings, terms both used by contemporaries at this time) save that it had a dining room, an office, and a kitchen which all had chimneys, and a 'garret window'. He also leased a lodging at Brook House, Hackney, at which Monteage, his wife, adult son and servants stayed on weekends. By 1739 Monteage and his wife had moved to a 'house' on Little Winchester Street, by London Wall, nearby. By 1762, after his wife died, Monteage is 'Living in Red Cross Street over against Cripplegate Church'. In each of these dwelling types, domestic comforts remained very important to Monteage, where he took care to record the annual appearance of seasonal foods such as asparagus and peas or turkey and mince pies at Christmas as well as the extraordinary daily events which diarists more commonly noted. The choice of this verse to front the first volume of his diary was therefore of deep personal significance to Monteage who despite - or perhaps because of - spending so much time outside of the home in walking to and from business and leisure activities, was very attached to domestic life.UK1731
1733
18thResidentialOther / Unknown, Social and Sitting Spaces
6673Floraes Paradise, Beautified and adorned with sundry sorts of delicate fruits and flowers, By the industrious labour of H. P. Knight: an offer of an English Antidote, (beeing a present, easie, and pleasing remedy in violent Feavers, and intermitting Agues) as also of some other rare inventions, fitting the times
Sir Hugh Platt (1552-1608) was knighted by James I for his inventions and experiments, particularly in the fields of agriculture and gardening. Many contemporary gardening writers emphasised that their books were the result of experience (as opposed to being copied from earlier texts). Platt stressed this more than most, and made repeated references to his experience of gardening at Bethnal Green and to other gardeners working in London at that time. It is notable that the few books written by gentleman amateur gardeners like Platt, or for those whom gardening was not their primary or sole occupation, made greater reference to the house and domestic interior and advised on how to manage window boxes and other aspects of gardening particularly associated with house and its thresholds. The garden was clearly an intrinsic part of Platt's conception of the home and he was a keen inventor of somewhat ambitious plans for bringing plants into it. But he was probably unusual in articulating this in advice literature because he was an amateur gardener (as opposed to a hired one) and the home interior was thus within his realm of interest, experience and expertise, in ways which would have been less conceivable for a professional gardener.UK1608ResidentialSocial and Sitting Spaces
6674The Jewell House of Art and Nature, Conteining divers rare and profitable Inventions, together with sundry new experimentes in the Art of Husbandry, Distillation, and Moulding, faithfully and familiarly set downe, according to the Authors owne experience, by Hugh Platte, of Lincolnes Inne Gentleman, 1594This long passage from what the author Sir Hugh Platt called his 'book of husbandrie' describes the first part of Dickson's method for improving memory. Although Platt had some reservations about its overall success, he found that the system procured 'an assured and speedie remembrance' of up to forty things but rued the fact that it was now appropriated by card sharps rather than for personal improvement. It is included here to show how the layout of a 'real' room (perhaps the authors’) were the fixed points in the imaginative system described: the door, windows, chimney and ceiling of the chamber and the relationship of these to the bedstead, table, chair and court cupboard and other items would have been familiar to readers and are items which can also be found in late-sixteenth and early-seventeenth-century diaries and inventories. Platt also compiled advice literature such as household almanacks (Delights for Ladies, to Adorn their Persons, Tables, Closets and Distillations, with Beauties, Banquets, Perfumes and Waters (1602) and A Closet for Ladies and Gentlewomen, Or the Art of Preserving, Conserving, and Candying (1608),) and gardening books which also dealt with the decoration and use of the domestic interior.UK1594ResidentialBedroom
6675Paradisi In Sole, Paradisus Terrestris Or A Garden of all sort of pleasant flowers which our English ayre will permit to be noursed up: with a Kitchen garden of all manner of herbes, rootes, & fruites, for meat or sause used with Us, and an Orchard of all sort of fruite-bearing Trees and Shrubbes fit for our Land together with the right orderinge planting and preserving of them an their uses & virtues Collected by John Parkinson Apothecary of LondonJohn Parkinson, 1567-1650, was a London Apothecary, and the King's Herbalist. Referring to the relationship of the garden to the interior was not routine in gardening advice literature (see cross-references) and then, as now, interior and exterior were usually treated separately, either because of the professional background of the authors or their perceived readership. Often the division had a gender aspect, which was also seen within horticultural and herbal literature. Parkinson, for example, dedicated what he called his 'feminine' work of Flowers to the Queen (Paradisi in Sole, 1629) while his 'Manlike Worke of Herbes and Plantes' (Parkinson, Theatrum Botanicum, 1640) was dedicated to the King. However, many writers did pay lip service to the relationship of garden to house after the practice of classical authors who remained much copied in the seventeenth century, noting that although placing gardens near to the city was convenient for reasons of distributing food and flowers, these gardens and orchards should be placed near the house with, ideally, the best rooms connecting with the garden. Like other books both before and after 1629, Paradisi in Sole (a pun on Parkinson) included familiar guidance on the situation, enclosure, layout and cultivation of the garden (specifically attached to a house) and the best sorts of native and foreign plants to grow in it. This taste for imported foreign plants was the counterpart to the acquisition of 'exotic' items (usually also made from plants) for consumption within the interior, including food, drink and spices, or furniture and textiles made from exotic materials. Parkinson was unusual in insisting that not every house could be ideally situated and in itemising the industrial and domestic pollution which should be avoided. When he recommended avoiding common lay-stalls, sewers, brew houses, dye-houses, 'or any other place where there is much smoake, whether it be of straw, wood or specifically of sea-coales' he was probably describing the conditions suffered by many urban households, whether or not they had a garden.UK162917thResidentialOther / Unknown
6685[Inventory of Anthony Abdy]This excerpt from the inventory of the Alderman Antony Abdy shows a number of chambers in the house. ‘Chamber’ was the most common room name in this period, but the way in which these spaces were used was ambiguous. A key function of the chamber was sleeping, as it usually contains a bed. However, the range of goods in the chambers suggests a range of uses. ‘In the next chamber’ on the top right of the inventory, includes virginalls, suggesting that this chamber may have been used for entertainment.UK164017thResidentialMultifunctional Living Space, Social and Sitting Spaces, Undifferentiated Spaces
6686[Inventory of Richard Tenant]This excerpt from the inventory of Richard Tenant, a merchant tailor, is recorded as having been taken in the reign of Charles I. A ‘hall’ is shown. Halls were very common in this period and their contents suggests that they were one of the main living rooms in the house. They do not seem to have been used for sleeping, as they were usually without beds. Objects in halls such as tables, decoration and musical instruments suggest that these could have been spaces for leisure and public display. As the seventeenth century progressed the hall was gradually replaced by the dining room.UK17thResidentialMultifunctional Living Space, Social and Sitting Spaces, Work Space
6687[Inventory of William Marriott]This image shows an excerpt from the inventory of William Marriott of St Angelins. A ‘counting house in the parlour’ is shown. The parlour was less common than the hall in late-sixteenth and early-seventeenth-century London houses. While it has been argued that the parlour was a private, secluded space in the home, this example shows a parlour as a site for commercial activity alongside leisure.UK159416thResidentialMultifunctional Living Space, Work Space, Social and Sitting Spaces, Utility
6688[Inventory of Henry Lusher]This excerpt from the inventory of Henry Lusher, of Fetter Lane, shows a room described as ‘the master’s chamber.’ It was a common practice in inventories from this period to use personal names to describe rooms in the house. The naming of rooms both reflected and created household hierarchy. Masters and mistresses had their own clearly labelled spaces, but rooms for children and servants were also clearly demarcated.UK164317thResidentialBedroom, Multifunctional Living Space, Social and Sitting Spaces
6689[Inventory of Matthias Prosser]This excerpt from the inventory of Matthias Prosser, a brewer from Cripplegate, shows the servants’ rooms in his house: the men’s chamber and the maids’ chamber. It was usual for servants’ rooms to be divided by sex in London homes belonging to the upper middling sort in this period. Servants’ rooms were often surprisingly well furnished, with decorative goods as well as practical necessities.UK165817thResidentialBedroom, Multifunctional Living Space
6690[Inventory of Christopher Raions]This excerpt from the household inventory of Christopher Raions of All Hallows Broad Street shows a nursery. The nursery, a space for the children of the family, was commonly used in the seventeenth-century London home. Although some historians have argued that nursery design did not recieve much attention before the mid-nineteenth century, care was clearly taken over the decor of the nursery from a much earlier date. This room for example has been hung with at least three pictures.UK166417thResidentialNursery
6691[Inventory of Nicholas Wilson]This excerpt from the inventory of Nicholas Wilson of St Clements Danes shows a room labelled ‘the study where the lynen lay.’ The study in this inventory seems to have functioned as a storage space, although diary evidence from the same period shows that the ‘studdie’ was also seen as a place for private thought and prayer. This divergence shows the flexibility of room names and use in the seventeenth-century London home. UK160317thResidentialMultifunctional Living Space
6692[Inventory of Daniel Waldo]This excerpt from the inventory of the clothworker Daniel Waldo shows the ‘wainscot chamber’ in his house. ‘Chamber’ was the most common room name in this period, but the way in which these spaces were used was ambiguous. This chamber includes an impressive bed, but also a number of chairs, suggesting that the room had a semi-public function. A chess set has been listed, which also indicates that the chamber may have been used for socialising.UK166117thResidentialBedroom, Multifunctional Living Space, Social and Sitting Spaces, Undifferentiated Spaces
6693[Inventory of Thomas Deane]This excerpt from the inventory of Thomas Deane, a fletcher, shows a wash house, yard and shop. Inventories from this period often included external as well as internal spaces. This inventory shows the relationship between the inside and the outside of the house. In the seventeenth-century London house work and day-to-day living were often intermingled.UK157116thResidentialUtility, Work Space
6694[Inventory of John Williams]This excerpt from the inventory of John Williams, a draper from Aldgate, shows an ‘entry’ and ‘great parlour.’ The parlour was less common than the hall in houses belonging to the seventeenth-century London middling sort. Some houses, however, had two parlours rather than a hall or dining room. It is unclear what this distinction meant as parlours, as in this example, often contained chairs and tables, so were clearly used for dining. The parlour was not always the most well decorated room in the house. On this inventory the most opulent room in the house is the ‘great chamber’, which contained a bed and an impressive array of textiles. UK163717thResidentialSocial and Sitting Spaces, Dining Room
6695Photograph of Betsy Lee’s StudyThis family photograph from the Documentary Photographic Archive at Greater Manchester Record Office shows Freda Mary Yates at work in the study of her aunt, Betsy Lee, in 1910. Betsy Lee had worked as a hospital matron and owned a hydro at 14 Sussex Road in Southport. Betsy Lee’s professional role may have lead to her appropriation of the study, which was usually represented as a masculine space in this period. The accompanying notes also record that Betsy Lee favoured a masculine style of dress.UK191020thResidentialLibrary / Study
6696Photograph of Allyn Robinson’s BedroomThis family photograph is from the Documentary Photographic Archive at the Greater Manchester Record Office, and shows a bedroom belonging to Allyn Robinson in the 1950s. Allyn was the daughter of Brian Robinson and Olive Mary Robinson, who lived at Cromwell Grove, Levenshulme. The accompanying records suggest that Brian Robinson may have worked in the Manchester town clerk’s office. The photograph was probably taken by Brian Robinson, and reveals the toys and personal objects of a young girl in the 1950s.UK1950s20thResidentialBedroom
6697Photograph of Doctor and Mrs MacBain at dinnerA family photograph from the Documentary Photographic Archive at the Greater Manchester Record Office, showing Dr and Mrs MacBain, and a child who is presumably their daughter, at dinner. The family lived in central Manchester. In contrast to the popular image of the Victorian family home as stuffy and repressed, this group seems quite relaxed. The father openly smokes a cigar in front of the women, and the daughter has been allowed to have dinner with her parents. This may have been a special occasion as it was more usual for middle-class parents to take meals separately from their children in the late nineteenth century. UK19thResidentialDining Room
6698Photograph of Christmas at Butterworth LaneThis is a family photograph from the Documentary Photographic Archive at the Greater Manchester Record Office, showing Christmas at Butterworth Lane, Chadderton, in 1940. The photograph shows John Edward Milne, Nellie Milne and their daughter Margaret. During the first half of the twentieth century, the sitting room was a favourite location for middle-class family portraits.UK1940ResidentialSocial and Sitting Spaces
6699Photograph of the Museum at FrondegThis is a family photograph from the Documentary Photographic Archive at the Greater Manchester Record Office. The image shows two boys in an attic and was probably taken at ‘Froendeg’, the home of the Warisborough family, at Weston-super-mare. The accompanying notes state ‘Monty was allowed to use the room at the top of the house as a sort of museum.’ The photograph is of high quality and was taken by a professional photographer. The boys’ specimens have been carefully laid out for the photograph, and their posture emphasises that this is a space for study and personal improvement. Two Union Jack flags are visible on the wall, linking national pride with a desire to catalogue and label the natural world.UK191020thResidentialOther / Unknown
6700The drawing room at FroendegA family photograph from the Documentry Photographic Archive at the Greater Manchester Record Office. The image is listed as the drawing room at ‘Froendeg,’ the family home of the Warisborough family in Weston-super-mare. On the reverse of the photograph is noted ‘G Warnsey (54) taken by Henry at 12.’ The woman seated at the writing desk may be a friend of the family, or a governess. UK191020thResidentialSocial and Sitting Spaces
6701Ralph Hindle and his son PeterThis is a family photograph from the Documentary Photographic Archive at the Greater Manchester Record Office. It shows Ralph Hindle and his son Peter inside their house at Queen’s Street, Darwen in 1951. Ralph Hindle worked at Leech’s Printing Works and was a keen amateur photographer. It is likely that he set up this portrait himself. The domestic interior in the background shows household tools and is probably the kitchen. The choice to portray father and son in this space suggests that Ralph Hindle is taking a hands-on role in bringing up his son.UK195120thResidentialUndifferentiated Spaces
6702The breakfast room at BrentwoodThis is a family photograph from the Documentary Photographic Archive at the Greater Manchester Record Office. The image shows the breakfast room at ‘Brentwood’, the Manchester home of Percy H. Leigh, a silk merchant. Few nineteenth-century middle-class houses contained a breakfast room: it was only houses of the upper-middle class that were large enough to accommodate them. Besides being used for taking breakfast, the room could also be used as a study or work room during the day. UK19thResidentialOther / Unknown
6703The drawing room at Durham RiseThis is a family photograph from the Documentary Photographic Archive at the Greater Manchester Record Office. The image shows the drawing room at ‘Durham Rise,’ in Altrincham, which was occupied by the German de Witte family who moved there in 1901. The father worked as a shipping merchant and was also a dealer in art objects. He may have been responsible for the ‘art’ screen, emblazoned with lilies, that appears on the right-hand side of the picture. The family appear to be engaged in the 5 o’ clock tea, a ritual that took place in middle-class drawing rooms throughout Britain in this period. Helen de Witte, the daughter of the family, is on the right and her parents are on the left. The female figures assume prominence in the scene - women were the arbiters of this domestic ritual.UK1900s20thResidentialSocial and Sitting Spaces
6704Helen’s salon at Durham RiseThis is a family photograph from the Documentary Photographic Archive at the Greater Manchester Record Office. The manuscript on the reverse of the image notes that this is ‘Helen’s salon.’ The room is from ‘Durham Rise,’ the home of the de Witte family in Altrincham, Manchester, where they moved in 1901. The family were from Germany. Female portraits, delicate fabrics, and elaborate ornaments seem to mark this out as a female space. The choice to label it as a ‘salon’, rather than a boudoir or morning room, suggests that the de Wittes continued some European domestic practices when they arrived in Britain.UK1900s20thResidentialSocial and Sitting Spaces
6705The Workhouse Master’s Drawing RoomThis is a family photograph from the Documentary Photographic Archive at the Greater Manchester Record Office. It shows herbery Edward Blackaby, his wife Emily Blackaby, nee Thatcher, and their son Henry Herbert Thatcher Blackaby in the Workhouse Master’s Drawing room at Ware Workhouse in 1905. Emily had worked at Kendall Mill before her marriage, and Herbert trained for the post office but had recently taken over his father’s role as Relieving Officer for the Ware Union at Stanstead Abbots when this was taken. This photograph probably shows the family on a social visit.UK190520thResidentialSocial and Sitting Spaces
6706An invalid in bedThis is a family photograph from the Documentary Photographic Archive at the Greater Manchester Record Office. It shows an invalid in the sick room. The invalid is Henry Blackaby (the father of Herbert Edward Blackaby). He retired through ill health from his post as Relieving Officer for the Ware Union at Stanstead Abbots, and was bedridden towards the end of his life. He retired to Brighton and died in 1907. It was unusual for the bedroom to be photographed in this period, so the image provides a rare glimpse into the material culture of the sick room. UK1900s20thResidentialBedroom, Social and Sitting Spaces
6707The boys’ dormitory at Observatory House SchoolThis is a postcard from the Documentary Photographic Archive at the Greater Manchester Record Office. The image shows the boys’ dormitory at the Observatory House School at Westgate on Sea. It is not dated, but is from the early twentieth century. Although the room is bright and welcoming, it is noticeable that there is little space for the boys to display personal possessions.UK20thInstitutional , Bedroom
6708The wireless room at QueechyThis is a family photograph from the Documentary Photographic Archive at the Greater Manchester Record Office. The image shows the wireless room at ‘Queechy’, the home of Leonard and Dorothy Hilton at 155 Bispham Road, Blackpool, which they built in the 1920s. There are few photographs of the domestic interior in this family collection, as the preferred location for family portraits was the garden. This image, however, seems to have been deliberately used to record fhe arrival of new technology in the home. Later in the collection this theme is repeated in a photograph of the family television.UK1920s20thResidentialUtility
6709A display of wedding presentsThis is a family photograph from the Documentary Photographic Archive at the Greater Manchester Record Office. The image shows the wedding presents received by Mrs June Jones of Cleveley, Lancashire, on her marriage to Stan Jones in 1948. The accompanying notes comment that these were all the presents they received, but many people gave money. June Jones deposited these photographs herself, so the commentary shows that she was still anxious that her gifts should be interpreted in the best possible light many years after her wedding. The practice of displaying wedding gifts immediately before and after the wedding was common among the British middle classes from at least the mid-nineteenth century.UK194820thResidentialOther / Unknown
6710June and Stan Jones recieving Christmas presents in bedThis is a family photograph from the Documentary Photographic Archive at the Greater Manchester Record Office. The image shows Stan and June Jones unwrapping Christmas presents in bed in 1976. Stan is holding an electric adaptor reel and June is holding face cream and a book. A very intimate part of the domestic interior is used as a backdrop for a relaxed marital portrait. The pose is a product of both advanced photographic technology and a relaxation in social mores. It would have been technically difficult and socially unacceptable to portray a married couple in this way a century previously.UK197620thResidentialBedroom
6711Leonard Hilton and the TVThis is a family photograph from the Documentary Photographic Archive at the Greater Manchester Record Office. The image, from the Jones family collection, shows Leonard Hilton (the father of June Jones) in front of the TV at his house ‘Queechy’ in the 1960s. The accompanying notes record that the television was bought soon after the coronation. The majority of the Jones family photographs are of the family in the garden rather than the domestic interior, and a deliberate decision seems to have been made to record the presence of new technology in the home in this image.UK1960s20thResidentialSocial and Sitting Spaces
6712The sitting room at DoenbeyThis is a family photograph from the Documentary Photographic Archive at the Greater Manchester Record Office. It shows a very grand ‘sitting room’ at ‘Doenbey,’ Whalley Range, Manchester. The photograph is one of a series of professional shots of the domestic interiors of ‘Doenbey’, and is presented in an album embossed with ‘Doenbey 1899.’ The house was built by Robert Rohleder, who was of German origin and an agent for silk goods. He married Laura Johnston in 1893. This photograph, along with the rest of the album, was clearly meant to show their impressive home in its best light.UK1899ResidentialSocial and Sitting Spaces
6713Hugh Horrocks and his wife EsmeThis is a family photograph from the Documentary Photographic Archive at the Greater Manchester Record Office. It shows Hugh Horrocks and his wife Esme. This slightly stiff marital portrait was taken in their home, shortly after their wedding. Hugh Horrocks is thought to have worked at Hardcastle’s Bleaching and Dyeing Works in Bradshaw. Middle-class married couples were often photographed together in the drawing room in the nineteenth century.UK19thResidentialSocial and Sitting Spaces
6714Alice Susannah CatchpoleThis is a family photograph from the Documentary Photographic Archive at the Greater Manchester Record Office. It is a portrait of Alice Susannah Catchpole, taken by her husband, who was a cotton goods merchant. The couple lived at 85 Brunswick Street, Manchester. The accompanying notes record that the mirror was brought down from the bedroom specially for the occasion, so it is clear that the domestic interior shown here was carefully staged for the portrait. UK19thResidentialOther / Unknown
6746Surfacing'Surfacing' (1972) is the story of a Canadian woman, newly divorced, returning to her family home to confront her past. The log cabin of her parents is described in detail as it represents what is under threat. It is first seen as it was intended to be, and then, during the narrator's own personal crisis. Ideals of home and origin are exposed to tensions, manifested in the clash between new 'American' and old 'Canadian' values, and changing moral and sexual attitudes. The idea of living in nature is central to the book. Canada197220thResidentialSocial and Sitting Spaces
6747The Production of SpaceHenri Lefebvre (1901-1991) was a leading French sociologist and philosopher whose writings, including The Critique of Everyday Life and The Production of Space, have been important theoretical texts for interpreting the historical change in domestic and public life in the period of modernity. In The Production of Space, Lefebvre commented on interpretations of space that stressed the political and economic (Marxist and neo-Marxist) and those derived from experience and a search for absolutes (Phenomenology).
This extract reveals Lefebvre's working through Gaston Bachelard's ideas to explain how memories of 'home' and the 'house' can remain, even when within modernity, domestic space may have undergone significant change.
France197420thResidentialOther / Unknown
6748The Production of SpaceHenri Lefebvre (1901-1991) was a leading French sociologist and philosopher whose writings, including The Critique of Everyday Life and The Production of Space, have been important theoretical texts for interpreting the historical change in domestic and public life in the period of modernity. In The Production of Space, Lefebvre commented on interpretations of space that stressed the political and economic (Marxist and neo-Marxist) and those derived from experience and a search for absolutes (Phenomenology).
In these pages Lefebvre interrogates the interest of academic anthropology to study the co-existence of traditional notions of the home in the context of modern, global technology.
France197420thResidentialOther / Unknown
6749The Production of SpaceHenri Lefebvre (1901-1991) was a leading French sociologist and philosopher whose writings, including The Critique of Everyday Life and The Production of Space, have been important theoretical texts for interpreting the historical change in domestic and public life in the period of modernity. In The Production of Space, Lefebvre commented on interpretations of space that stressed the political and economic (Marxist and neo-Marxist) and those derived from experience and a search for absolutes (Phenomenology).
In this extract, Lefebvre offers analysis of the move to abstraction in modern architecture of Frank Lloyd Wright and Le Corbusier, and the implications for the building, rooms and notions of space.
France197420thResidentialOther / Unknown
6750World Within WorldThe English poet Stephen Spender (1909-1995) spent much time in Germany of the Weimar Republic in late 1920s and 30s. His autobiography offers a sympathetic, outsider's view of the movement of 'die neue Wohnkultur' (the new culture for living) which was strongly Modernist in outlook.UK195120thResidentialMultifunctional Living Space
6751World Within WorldThis extract from English poet Stephen Spender's autobiography offers a strong contrast with entry 2036 in which he described his encounter with German modernism. Spender's encounter with the English intellectual aristocracy, centred around Bloomsbury, conjures up their own particular blend of modernity and the pastoral. UK195120thResidentialOther / Unknown
6815Imagined InteriorsCatherine Richardson discusses stage constructions of domestic space in ‘Home, Household and Domesticity in Drama in Early Modern London’.Italy159516thResidentialTransitional, Bedroom, Other / Unknown
6816[Orthello]Catherine Richardson discusses stage constructions of domestic space in ‘Home, Household and Domesticity in Drama in Early Modern London. Italy1603-417thResidentialBedroom
6811The Dissolute HouseholdDiscussing the representation of the domestic interior in seventeenth-century Dutch art, John Loughman discusses Jan Steen’s domestic interior painting The Dissolute HouseholdNetherlands c.1663-6517thResidentialOther / Unknown
6812Portrait of Jan SixDiscussing the representation of the domestic interior in seventeenth-century Dutch art, John Loughman discusses Rembrandt Harmenszoon van Rijn’s domestic interior painting Portrait of Jan Six .Netherlands 164717thResidentialLibrary / Study
6813The Intruder: A Lady at Her Toilet Suprised by Her LoverJohn Loughman discusses public, private and gendered spaces in the art of Pieter de Hooch.Netherlands c.166517thResidentialOther / Unknown
6804‘In the Corner’Rebecca Preston describes the relationship between prescriptive literature and illustration centred around home-based stories. The Illustrator Walter Crane produced images for one such series of books, an example of which is included here.UK188119thResidentialOther / Unknown
6807[Jewel coffer]Carolyn Sargentson explores the inner spaces of French eighteenth-century furniture. She argues that in comprising hidden areas and secret compartments the design and operation of the items in question ‘related closely to the development of specialized, flexible spaces within the home, as well as to the development of subtly different levels of access to space, and its control, within the household environment.’Francec. 178018th
6808Design for an InteriorMichael Snodin describes the development of different methods of architectural representation of the domestic interior.Italy, UKc.1640-60
6809The Gallery at Strawberry Hill, MiddlesexMichael Snodin describes the development of different methods of architectural representation of the domestic interior.UK178118thResidentialOther / Unknown
6810Musical CompanyDiscussing the representation of the domestic interior in seventeenth-century Dutch art in Imagined Interiors (V&A Publications, 2006) John Loughman describes one of the spatial types for the indoor setting for scenes of sociability. The image here typifies the use of ‘shallow, stage-like settings...sparsely furnished and ill-defined’ but nevertheless, immediately recognizable as interior space.

Loughman contrasts this indistinct representational trope with the much more elaborate rooms with identifiable features the second type of setting used by these artists. (See HM 1141)
Netherlands 1632-517thResidentialOther / Unknown, Undifferentiated Spaces
6741AkenfieldRonald Blythe first published Akenfield in 1969. It was subtitled 'A Portrait of an English Village'. The village selected was a characteristic farming community in East Anglia with a population of 298, which was undergoing significant demographic change through the impact of changed agricultural technology at the time. Blythe used oral testimony taken from in-depth interviews with many of the inhabitants. The circumstances of domestic dwelling are frequently commented on. The book was adapted for film and television in 1975.

An adapted resettlement hut and railway carriage.
UK196920thResidentialMultifunctional Living Space, Utility
6742SaturdayIan McEwan's (2005) novel 'Saturday' portrays a day in the life of a London neurosurgeon in the period following the 9/11 disaster and the immanence of war in Iraq. The novel is structured by the close attention given to the immediate environments of Perowne - his home, the nursing home where his mother lives, his car and place of work. Through these, the author characterises the life of the protagonist, his negotiation of class and generational difference, and the challenges made to it by an incident of aggression towards his family.

Perowne's home
UK200521stResidentialBedroom, Kitchen, Library / Study
6743SaturdayIan McEwan's (2005) novel 'Saturday' portrays a day in the life of a London neurosurgeon in the period following the 9/11 disaster and the immanence of war in Iraq. The novel is structured by the close attention given to the immediate environments of Perowne - his home, the nursing home where his mother lives, his car and place of work. Through these, the author characterises the life of the protagonist, his negotiation of class and generational difference, and the challenges made to it by an incident of aggression towards his family.

Perowne’s mother’s nursing home.
UK200521stInstitutional , ResidentialBedroom, Kitchen, Social and Sitting Spaces, Transitional
6744SaturdayIan McEwan's (2005) novel 'Saturday' portrays a day in the life of a London neurosurgeon in the period following the 9/11 disaster and the immanence of war in Iraq. The novel is structured by the close attention given to the immediate environments of Perowne - his home, the nursing home where his mother lives, his car and place of work. Through these, the author characterises the life of the protagonist, his negotiation of class and generational difference, and the challenges made to it by an incident of aggression towards his family.

Perowne’s home.
UK200521stResidentialSocial and Sitting Spaces, Transitional
6745Surfacing'Surfacing' (1972) is the story of a Canadian woman, newly divorced, returning to her family home to confront her past. The log cabin of her parents is described in detail as it represents what is under threat. It is first seen as it was intended to be, and then, during the narrator's own personal crisis. Ideals of home and origin are exposed to tensions, manifested in the clash between new 'American' and old 'Canadian' values, and changing moral and sexual attitudes. The idea of living in nature is central to the book. Canada197220thResidentialSocial and Sitting Spaces, Bedroom
6829The Bedroom, Hotel Intercontinental, SydneyThis representation of a bedroom is one of three designs by Oliver Ford for the Hotel Intercontinental in Sydney. In this design Ford drew on traditional English styles to create a comfortable, homely room. The floral upholstery is reminiscent of English chintzes, a popular style for furnishing fabrics since the eighteenth century. The furniture forms, particularly the bed and seat are imitative of the classical ‘Adam’ style that Ford often drew on in his work. This hand painted design gives a sense of the atmosphere Ford wished to create in the room.
For other designs of the Hotel Intercontinental by Oliver Ford see OF1000 and OF1002.
Australiaundated20thCommercial , Bedroom
6830The Entrance Hall, Hotel Intercontinental, SydneyThis representation of an entrance hall is one of three designs by Oliver Ford for the Hotel Intercontinental in Sydney. In this design Ford drew on traditional English styles to create an elegant, classical interior. The influence of eighteenth-century decorative arts and design can be seen in the choice of furniture forms and the patterning of the rug. This hand-painted design gives a sense of the atmosphere Ford wished to create in the room.
For other designs of the Hotel Intercontinental by Oliver Ford see OF1000 and OF1001.
Australiaundated20thCommercial , Transitional
6831The Lounge, The Dorchester, LondonThis postcard from the Dorchester Hotel in London shows the lounge as designed by Oliver Ford in 1962. Often drawing on eighteenth-century decorative styles in his work Ford evoked the ‘Adam’ style in his design for the Dorchester lounge, its classical forms, elegant clean lines and emphasis on symmetry in both architectural elements and furnishings. Throughout the ninteenth and twentieth centuries Georgian styles remained very popular for interiors and were continuously revived. Often associated with traditionalism and an idealised sense of the past, the simple grandeur of the ‘Adam’ style would have been considered particularly appropriate for the Dorchester, connoting history, provenance, and conservative values. This postcard would have been available to buy in the hotel shop and gives a sense of the identity the hotel wished to portray to its clients. Acting as a form of advertising, it illustrates the integral nature of design in forming corporate identity.
For other entries on the Dorchester Hotel decoration by Oliver Ford see OF1004-OF1007.
UK196220thCommercial , Social and Sitting Spaces
6832‘New Decor at London’s Dorchester’This article in the International Hotel Review describes the design and redecoration of the Dorchester Hotel by Oliver Ford in 1962. The article details Ford’s use of the ‘Adam’ style, noting in particular the half-dome, the Corinthian columns and the brass lanterns. Describing the most sensational and ‘ambitious’ aspects of Ford’s design, the silk-lined walls, the hand-made Spanish carpets and stunning floral displays, the article emphasises the spectacle and opulence of the new decor, casting the hotel as a luxurious place to stay. This article exemplifies the way in which interior design and decoration can be mobilised as an advertisement, and illustrates the integral nature of design in forming corporate identity.
For other entries on the Dorchester Hotel decoration by Oliver Ford see OF1003-OF1007.
UK196220thCommercial , Social and Sitting Spaces, Transitional
6833The Orchid Room, The Dorchester, LondonThis photograph shows the Orchid Room at the Dorchester Hotel, designed by Oliver Ford in 1962. This room still survives and is today used for entertainment, dining and conferences. Ford’s design clearly shows the influence of elite eighteenth-century decorative styles. Described as sparkling with chandeliers, mirrors and cabinets of white and blue china, both the design and representation of Ford’s interior evoke the elegant magnificence and grandeur that one might associate with dining in an aristocratic eighteenth-century home.
For other entries on The Dorchester Hotel decoration by Oliver Ford see OF1003-OF1007.
UK1962
2006
Commercial , Social and Sitting Spaces, Dining Room
6834King Hussein of Jordan’s luncheon banquet, the Dorchester ballroomThis photograph shows the luncheon banquet in the Dorchester ballroom given by King Hussein of Jordan for HM Queen Elizabeth and Prince Philip in 1966. The image, although in black and white, gives a sense of the magnificence of the display. Ford not only filled the room with a wealth of floral arrangements, but even created an artificial lake with plants and goldfish in the centre of the room. Traditionally the practice and material culture of entertaining and dining in the home functioned as an arena for socialising, patronage and display. This image shows that although large banquets and parties were, by the mid twentieth century, often held at hotels, they often still retained many of their traditional functions.
For other entries on the Dorchester Hotel decoration by Oliver Ford see OF1003 - OF1007.
196620thCommercial , Dining Room
6835‘Jennifers Diary, Thursday’This article in The Queen magazine features Oliver Ford’s design for the luncheon banquet in the Dorchester ballroom, given by King Hussein of Jordan for HM Queen Elizabeth and Prince Philip in 1966. Detailed in ‘Jennifer’s Diary’, the extract gives an account of the decoration and a sense of the magnificance and splendour of the display. Traditionally the practice and material culture of entertaining and dining in the home functioned as an arena for socialising, patronage and display. Ford’s design shows that although large banquets and parties were, by the mid twentieth century, often held at hotels, they often still retained many of their traditional functions.
The Queen magazine, first published as a weekly newspaper during the ninteenth century, was aimed at women, featuring social events, fashion and literary interests. Although written in 1966, the description of Ford’s banquet, by emphasising the decorative aspects such as flower arranging and the glamour of a high-society event, exemplifies the continuity in subject matter traditionally targetted at women.
For other entries on the Dorchester Hotel decoration by Oliver Ford see OF1003-OF1006.
UK196620thCommercial , Dining Room
6836‘A Drawing Room Fit for a Queen’This article in the News of the World’s Sunday Magazine details the drawing room at Royal Lodge, Windsor after restoration by Oliver Ford in the late 1970s. Not solely an interior designer, Ford also undertook the restoration of many historic properties, during a period of increasing interest in national heritage and its preservation. The enormous task of restoring Royal Lodge is described, the structural repairs, the re-panelling, painting and plasterwork and the movement of valuable antique furniture and fittings. However, the emphasis in this article is on continuity and the exact replication of the original design. The arrangement and atmosphere of the drawing room are described as ‘identical’ to how it was when the Queen Mother and King George first moved into the house in 1931. Royal Lodge is cast not as a splendid royal residence, but rather as a comfortable, relaxing home, with rooms and objects imbued with personal memories and nostalgia.
For another entry on Royal Lodge see OF1009.
UK198620thResidentialSocial and Sitting Spaces
6837The Drawing Room at Royal Lodge under restorationThis photograph shows the drawing room at Royal Lodge, Windsor in the process of restoration by Oliver Ford in the late 1970s. Not solely an interior designer, Ford also undertook the restoration of many historic properties, during a period of increasing interest in national heritage and its preservation. The enormous task of restoring Royal Lodge is clearly visible; the structural repairs, the re-panelling, painting and plasterwork and the storage of valuable antique furniture and fittings. In his restoration of Royal Lodge Ford strove for an exact replication of the old, retaining the traditional grandeur of the Royal residence.
For another entry on Royal Lodge see OF1008
UKLate 1970s20thResidentialSocial and Sitting Spaces
6838Sketch for an InteriorOliver Ford studied decoration and the decorative arts at the Southern College of Art in Bournemouth during the late 1940s. This design for an interior in his college workbook exemplifies the importance of preliminary rough sketches in interior design practice. With little focus on perspectival representation, the emphasis appears to be on the furniture forms and decorative details such as the wallpaper. The design appears to be for a sitting room, however it is unclear if Ford developed this any further, although similar sketches do appear throughout his sketchbook. UKLate 1940s20thResidentialSocial and Sitting Spaces
6271Lark Rise to CandlefordLark Rise to Candleford is Flora Thompson’s autobiographical narrative of life in rural England at the end of the nineteenth century. Here she describes the hamlet of her childhood - which in the book she calls Lark Rise - and the character based on herself, Laura. Thompson herself was brought up in a similar-sized community, Juniper Hill, on the Oxfordshire-Northamptonshire border. In this episode Thompson describes the cooking following the killing of the family pig, an important annual or twice-yearly occurrence, providing the main source of meat for the families. As those cottages without ovens make use of their neighbour’s bread-baking ovens situated in the external wash-house, the extract suggests the workings of a fairly self-sufficient, mutually co-operative village community where the idea and functions of the home extend beyond the boundaries of each cottage into their outbuildings, and those of neighbours.UK193920thResidentialOther / Unknown
6272Lark Rise to CandlefordLark Rise to Candleford is Flora Thompson’s autobiographical narrative of life in rural England at the end of the nineteenth century. Here she describes the hamlet of her childhood - which in the book she calls Lark Rise - and the character based on herself, Laura. Thompson herself was brought up in a similar-sized community, Juniper Hill, on the Oxfordshire-Northamptonshire border.
This extract describes the cottage of the schoolteacher at the Parish National School where Laura is invited to tea. The hamlet children had to walk the mile and a half in each direction to the school, and this account of the teacher’s domestic interior suggests how far it is from her earlier experiences of others’ houses.
UK193920thResidentialSocial and Sitting Spaces
6273Lark Rise to CandlefordLark Rise to Candleford is Flora Thompson’s autobiographical narrative of life in rural England at the end of the nineteenth century. Here she describes the hamlet of her childhood - which in the book she calls Lark Rise - and the character based on herself, Laura. Thompson herself was brought up in a similar-sized community, Juniper Hill, on the Oxfordshire-Northamptonshire border.
Here Laura describes the house, in the nearby village, Candleford Green, belonging to Miss Dorcas Lane, the village postmistress, wheelwright and blacksmith. Her interior represents an oasis of continuity amongst changing fashions.
UK193920thResidentialSocial and Sitting Spaces
6274Lark Rise to Candleford Lark Rise to Candleford is Flora Thompson’s autobiographical narrative of life in rural England at the end of the nineteenth century. Here she describes the hamlet of her childhood - which in the book she calls Lark Rise - and the character based on herself, Laura. Thompson herself was brought up in a similar-sized community, Juniper Hill, on the Oxfordshire-Northamptonshire border.
Here Laura describes the house in the nearby village, Candleford Green, belonging to Miss Dorcas Lane, the village postmistress, wheelwright and blacksmith. The telegraph machine in the parlour suggests a fruitful blending of the domestic and the world of outside labour.
UK193920thResidentialSocial and Sitting Spaces
6275Lark Rise to Candleford Lark Rise to Candleford is Flora Thompson’s autobiographical narrative of life in rural England at the end of the nineteenth century. Here she describes the hamlet of her childhood - which in the book she calls Lark Rise - and the character based on herself, Laura. Thompson herself was brought up in a similar-sized community, Juniper Hill, on the Oxfordshire-Northamptonshire border.
Here Laura describes the house in the nearby village, Candleford Green, belonging to Miss Dorcas Lane, the village postmistress, wheelwright and blacksmith. Her incorporation of the post office into her house fascinates the narrator, who recognises the arrival of the modern.
UK193920thResidentialTransitional
6276Lark Rise to CandlefordLark Rise to Candleford is Flora Thompson’s autobiographical narrative of life in rural England at the end of the nineteenth century. Here she describes the hamlet of her childhood - which in the book she calls Lark Rise - and the character based on herself, Laura. Thompson herself was brought up in a similar-sized community, Juniper Hill, on the Oxfordshire-Northamptonshire border.
Here Laura describes the house in the nearby village, Candleford Green, belonging to Miss Dorcas Lane, the village postmistress, wheelwright and blacksmith, and the arrangements for bathing and washing by Miss Dorcas, Zillah the maid, the men who work in the forge, and Laura herself, who at this point is living with Miss Dorcas and working for the Post Office.
UK193920thResidentialBedroom, Utility
6277Period Piece: A Cambridge ChildhoodPeriod Piece is Gwen Raverat’s memoir of her childhood. Raverat (artist and writer, b.1885) was a granddaughter of Charles Darwin, and her father a Cambridge academic. Here Gwen describes a visit to the ‘good poor’. The accompanying illustration verges on caricature - see entry CG1159.UK195219thResidentialMultifunctional Living Space
6278Period Piece: A Cambridge ChildhoodPeriod Piece is Gwen Raverat’s memoir of her childhood. Raverat (artist and writer, b.1885) was a granddaughter of Charles Darwin, and her father a Cambridge academic. Here Gwen describes a visit to the ‘good poor’. For a verbal description see entry CG1158.UK195219thResidentialMultifunctional Living Space
6734‘Santa’s Children’Italo Calvino's 1963 short stories 'Marcovaldo' tell of a humorous, anti-hero of humble background, who finds himself living through the post war Italian economic recovery. Marcovaldo's encounters with the modernity of a nondescript northern city and his ability to find natural wonder even there, highlight the rapid social and cultural changes of the time and the displacement of 'home'.

In this comic extract, Calvino offers wry commentary on religion, domesticity and consumption.
Italy196320thResidentialLeisure / Games Room
6735PygmalionStage directions written by playwrights offer condensed descriptions of domestic interiors, often indicating how important the designed context is for the understanding of the characters and plots of the play.

Bernard Shaw's 1912 play Pygmalion tells the story of Professor Higgins's transformation of the speech of a working-class London flower girl, Eliza Doolittle. It became an international success as a film, first in 1938 as Pygmalion (dir. Anthony Asquith and Leslie Howard, 1938), then as My Fair Lady (dir. George Cukor, 1964).

This extract gives directions of a set for a domestic interior adapted to office use, characteristic of élite London professions in areas such as Wimpole Street, Harley Street and the Inns of Court. The interior is recognisably masculine in character.
UK191420thInstitutional , ResidentialOther / Unknown
6736PygmalionStage directions written by playwrights offer condensed descriptions of domestic interiors, often indicating how important the designed context is for the understanding of the characters and plots of the play.

Bernard Shaw's 1912 play Pygmalion tells the story of Professor Higgins's transformation of the speech of a working-class London flower girl, Eliza Doolittle. It became an international success as a film, first in 1938 as Pygmalion (dir. Anthony Asquith and Leslie Howard, 1938), then as My Fair Lady (dir. George Cukor, 1964).

The second extract of the stage directions reveals the contrast Shaw sought to establish between Professor Higgins's laboratory and his wife, Mrs Higgins's drawing room. It is an Aesthetic Movement interior in origin installed in building of earlier period. The room combines furniture from other historical periods, which, by 1912, would be considered to be an established and unremarkable taste for a woman of this position. It is recognisably a result of 'feminine' taste.
UK191420thResidentialSocial and Sitting Spaces
6737AkenfieldRonald Blythe first published Akenfield in 1969. It was subtitled 'A Portrait of an English Village'. The village selected was a characteristic farming community in East Anglia with a population of 298, which was undergoing significant demographic change through the impact of changed agricultural technology at the time. Blythe used oral testimony taken from in-depth interviews with many of the inhabitants. The circumstances of domestic dwelling are frequently commented on. The book was adapted for film and television in 1975.

Sharing bedrooms.
UK196920thResidentialBedroom
6738AkenfieldRonald Blythe first published Akenfield in 1969. It was subtitled 'A Portrait of an English Village'. The village selected was a characteristic farming community in East Anglia with a population of 298, which was undergoing significant demographic change through the impact of changed agricultural technology at the time. Blythe used oral testimony taken from in-depth interviews with many of the inhabitants. The circumstances of domestic dwelling are frequently commented on. The book was adapted for film and television in 1975.

Private service.
UK196920thResidentialKitchen
6739AkenfieldRonald Blythe first published Akenfield in 1969. It was subtitled 'A Portrait of an English Village'. The village selected was a characteristic farming community in East Anglia with a population of 298, which was undergoing significant demographic change through the impact of changed agricultural technology at the time. Blythe used oral testimony taken from in-depth interviews with many of the inhabitants. The circumstances of domestic dwelling are frequently commented on. The book was adapted for film and television in 1975.

The Forge - restoration of houses.
UK196920thCommercial , Undifferentiated Spaces
6740AkenfieldRonald Blythe first published Akenfield in 1969. It was subtitled 'A Portrait of an English Village'. The village selected was a characteristic farming community in East Anglia with a population of 298, which was undergoing significant demographic change through the impact of changed agricultural technology at the time. Blythe used oral testimony taken from in-depth interviews with many of the inhabitants. The circumstances of domestic dwelling are frequently commented on. The book was adapted for film and television in 1975.

Life in a caravan.
UK196920thResidentialUndifferentiated Spaces, Bathroom, Kitchen, Leisure / Games Room
6249Pamela; or, Virtue RewardedSamuel Richardson’s epistolary novel Pamela was published in 1740, caused a huge controversy, was widely read and very influential in the mid-century culture of sensibility. Pamela is a serving maid from a poor but honest family who has found favour with her mistress. When her mistress dies the son, Mr B., attempts to seduce her, she resists, reforms him and marries him. Her story is thus intimately related to the house, to domestic labour and domestic duty, and to the complex hierarchy of spaces in the mid-eighteenth-century wealthy home. The little-read second volume, much of it narrated through Pamela's journal, records the trials and tribulations of her married life, providing a detailed account of household management and domestic duty. In this extract the heroine, Pamela, having reformed and married Mr. B., is reading to their children in the nursery, observed by visiting ladies as Pamela has now become a paragon of a virtuous and domestic mother. Miss Godwin is Mr. B.’s illegitimate daughter whom Pamela benevolently welcomes into the family. This illustration comes from an edition with engravings by Gravelot and Hayman. UK1740-4118thResidentialSocial and Sitting Spaces
6250Pamela; or, Virtue RewardedSamuel Richardson’s epistolary novel Pamela was published in 1740, caused a huge controversy, was widely read and very influential in the mid-century culture of sensibility. Pamela is a serving maid from a poor but honest family who has found favour with her mistress. When her mistress dies the son, Mr B., attempts to seduce her, she resists, reforms him and marries him. Her story is thus intimately related to the house, to domestic labour and domestic duty, and to the complex hierarchy of spaces in the mid-eighteenth-century wealthy home. The little-read second volume, much of it narrated through Pamela's journal, records the trials and tribulations of her married life, providing a detailed account of household management and domestic duty. Here the heroine, Pamela, having reformed and married Mr. B., is reading to their children in the nursery, observed by visiting ladies as Pamela has now become a paragon of a virtuous and domestic mother. Miss Godwin is Mr. B.’s illegitimate daughter whom Pamela benevolently welcomes into the family. UK1740-4118thResidentialNursery
6251Mr B Finds Pamela WritingSamuel Richardson’s epistolary novel Pamela was published in 1740, caused a huge controversy, was widely read and very influential in the mid-century culture of sensibility. Pamela is a serving maid from a poor but honest family who has found favour with her mistress. When her mistress dies the son, Mr B., attempts to seduce her, she resists, reforms him and marries him. Her story is thus intimately related to the house, to domestic labour and domestic duty, and to the complex hierarchy of spaces in the mid-eighteenth-century wealthy home. The little-read second volume, much of it narrated through Pamela's journal, records the trials and tribulations of her married life, providing a detailed account of household management and domestic duty.
There were illustrated editions of the novel and it also provided the inspiration for a series of twelve paintings by Joseph Highmore. The paintings are important as they are one of the first sequences of narrative paintings in the period. Several show interior scenes. This is Mr B. discovering Pamela writing to her parents to tell them of her mistress’s death. The images can be compared to contemporary conversation pieces, but convey something of the drama of the narrative.
UK1743-418thResidential
6252‘The Woman’s Labour, An Epistle to Mr. Stephen Duck’Mary Collier was one of several labouring poets who published in the mid-eighteenth century. Her poem was a response to the ‘thresher poet’ Stephen Duck who had been disparaging about women’s labour in his poem ‘The Thresher’s Labour’. Collier argues that not only do women work hard in the fields, but that they come home and work hard there too. UK173918thResidentialMultifunctional Living Space
6253‘The Woman’s Labour, An Epistle to Mr. Stephen Duck’Mary Collier was one of several labouring poets who published in the mid-eighteenth century. Her poem was a response to the ‘thresher poet’ Stephen Duck who had been disparaging about women’s labour in his poem ‘The Thresher’s Labour’. Collier argues that not only do women work hard in the fields, but that they come home and work hard there too. Here she describes going out ‘a Charing’, arriving at the great house when the maids are still asleep and working all day.UK173918thResidential
6254‘The Woman’s Labour, An Epistle to Mr. Stephen Duck’Mary Collier was one of several labouring poets who published in the mid-eighteenth century. Her poem was a response to the ‘thresher poet’ Stephen Duck who had been disparaging about women’s labour in his poem ‘The Thresher’s Labour’. Collier argues that not only do women work hard in the fields, but that they come home and work hard there too. Here she describes going out ‘a Charing’, at the great house, where, having done the laundry, the women then proceed to clean the kitchen utensils.UK173918thResidential
6255‘Crumble-Hall’Mary Leapor was one of several labouring poets who published in the mid-eighteenth century. ‘Crumble Hall’ is written in the tradition of traditional country-house poems which praised the generosity and sociability of the owners, but here the focus is on the labour required for the upkeep of such a place. Leapor worked as a kitchen maid until 1745 at Edgecote House, likely to have been the model for the house she describes.UK175118thResidentialKitchen
6256‘Crumble-Hall’Mary Leapor was one of several labouring poets who published in the mid-eighteenth century. ‘Crumble Hall’ is written in the tradition of traditional country-house poems which praised the generosity and sociability of the owners, but here the focus is on the labour required for the upkeep of such a place. Leapor worked as a kitchen maid until 1745 at Edgecote House, likely to have been the model for the house she describes.UK175118thResidentialSocial and Sitting Spaces
6257‘Crumble-Hall’Mary Leapor was one of several labouring poets who published in the mid-eighteenth century. ‘Crumble Hall’ is written in the tradition of traditional country-house poems which praised the generosity and sociability of the owners, but here the focus is on the labour required for the upkeep of such a place. Leapor worked as a kitchen maid until 1745 at Edgecote House, likely to have been the model for the house she describes. Here the poem’s narrator leads the reader through the storage rooms with farm equipment.UK175118thResidentialTransitional
6258‘Crumble-Hall’Mary Leapor was one of several labouring poets who published in the mid eighteenth century. ‘Crumble Hall’ is written in the tradition of traditional country-house poems which praised the generosity and sociability of the owners, but here the focus is on the labour required for the upkeep of such a place. Leapor worked as a kitchen maid until 1745 at Edgecote House, likely to have been the model for the house she describes. Here the poem’s narrator leads the reader from the outside into the house, describing the carvings in the entrance hall. The poem’s focus includes the presence of animals - here spiders and mice which inhabit the nooks and crannies.UK175118thResidentialOther / Unknown
6259The GovernessRedgrave’s painting shows the governess as an isolated individual, divorced from her own home and from the comforts available to the family with whom she lives and works. Exhibited at the Royal Academy in 1845, the catalogue stresses the central figure’s alienation from the ideal of home:
‘she sees no kind domestic visage here.’
UK184419thResidentialSocial and Sitting Spaces
6260I am hospitably received by Mr PegottyHere Mr Peggotty’s improvised house in a boat offers David a warm welcome. Often in Dickens it is such odd domestic spaces which are the most homely. David says of it: “If it had ever been meant to be lived in, I might have thought it small, or inconvenient, or lonely; but never having been designed for any such use, it became a perfect abode.”185018thResidential
6261Sesame and LiliesJohn Ruskin’s abstractions evoke an ideal of home as a place secluded from and offering a refuge from the outside world. He evokes a classical ideal and uses that to reinforce what is a typically Victorian fantasy of the domestic interior as a sanctuary.UK186519thResidentialOther / Unknown
6262Lady Chatterley’s LoverD.H. Lawrence’s last novel, Lady Chatterley’s Lover was banned in 1928 on account of its graphic depictions of sex between Lady Chatterley and her gamekeeper, Mellors. Here he returns to his cottage. Elsewhere it is made clear he is an educated man who has returned to live a simple life in his home environment. Their sexual relationship is juxtaposed with social convention and with the onslaught of technology and attendant social change. In the paragraphs preceding this one Mellors reflects bitterly on the encroaching lights and noise of ‘the mechanical greedy, greedy mechanism and mechanized greed, sparkling with lights and gushing hot metal and roaring with traffic, there lay the vast evil thing, ready to destroy what did not conform.’ The simplicity of his cottage suggests his stand against industrialisation.UK192820thResidentialMultifunctional Living Space
6263Lady Chatterley’s Lover D.H. Lawrence’s last novel, Lady Chatterley’s Lover was banned in 1928 on account of its graphic depictions of sex between Lady Chatterley and her gamekeeper, Mellors. Here she is sorting out the lumber rooms in her husband’s house. The discussion skirts round the fact that Sir Clifford has been paralysed, and they have not as yet produced a child, so the cradle represents the failure of their marriage.UK192820thResidentialUtility
6264Lady Chatterley’s Lover D.H. Lawrence’s last novel, Lady Chatterley’s Lover was banned in 1928 on account of its graphic depictions of sex between Lady Chatterley and her gamekeeper, Mellors. Their sexual relationship is juxtaposed with social convention and with the onslaught of technology and attendant social change. In this scene Connie, Lady Chatterley, visits Leslie Winter in his beautiful eighteenth-century house which is now surrounded by the collieries which have made him rich. Following this visit, Lawrence describes the demise of the estate following Winter’s death - the house is knocked down and replaced by ‘new little streets of semi-detacheds’ called ‘The Shipley Hall Estate’. In this paragraph, the language with which Lawrence describes the house is highly sensual.UK192820thResidentialUtility
6265Lady Chatterley’s Lover D.H. Lawrence’s last novel, Lady Chatterley’s Lover was banned in 1928 on account of its graphic depictions of sex between Lady Chatterley and her gamekeeper, Mellors. Their sexual relationship is juxtaposed with social convention and with the onslaught of technology and attendant social change. The idea of home is, Connie feels, one of the important ‘great words’ ‘cancelled for her generation’. UK192820thResidentialOther / Unknown
6266A Souvenir of Charles Dickens This painting commemorates Dickens and was a model for other newspaper illustrations following his death. He sits in a chair, desk visible on the right, whilst pictures of the characters he has invented obscure the bookshelves. It’s not clear whether they are emerging from the books, but they appear as a kind of animated wallpaper.UKc.187519thResidentialLibrary / Study
6267Charles Dickens’s Legacy to EnglandFollowing a painting by R.W. Buss, a series of images of Dickens appeared following his death. In this version he sits at his desk whilst images of the characters he has invented float above him and above the bookshelf partially visible behind him. Mr Pickwick appears on the desk, the others float and dance above their creator. Dickens’s works not only portrayed the home, as serial publications they also had a very intimate relationship to the home-based readership.UKc.187019thResidentialLibrary / Study
6268Lark Rise to CandlefordLark Rise to Candleford is Flora Thompson’s autobiographical narrative of life in rural England at the end of the nineteenth century. Here she describes the hamlet of her childhood - which in the book she calls Lark Rise - and the character based on herself, Laura. Thompson herself was brought up in a similar-sized community, Juniper Hill, on the Oxfordshire-Northamptonshire border.UK193920thResidentialBedroom
6269Lark Rise to Candleford Lark Rise to Candleford is Flora Thompson’s autobiographical narrative of life in rural England at the end of the nineteenth century. Here she describes the hamlet of her childhood - which in the book she calls Lark Rise - and the character based on herself, Laura. Thompson herself was brought up in a similar-sized community, Juniper Hill, on the Oxfordshire-Northamptonshire border.UK193920thResidentialMultifunctional Living Space
6270Lark Rise to CandlefordLark Rise to Candleford is Flora Thompson’s autobiographical narrative of life in rural England at the end of the nineteenth century. Here she describes the hamlet of her childhood - which in the book she calls Lark Rise - and the character based on herself, Laura. Thompson herself was brought up in a similar-sized community, Juniper Hill, on the Oxfordshire-Northamptonshire border. UK193920thResidentialOther / Unknown
6239The Portrait of a Lady Here Isabel is introduced to Gilbert Osmond’s art collection, to his daughter and his sister in her first visit to the apartment he occupies in a villa on the outskirts of Florence. She later marries him, becoming an object in his collection, and the experience is, as this passage hints briefly, oppressive. Having described Osmond’s objects elsewhere, here James merely gestures at the display of things, conveying instead Isabel’s fatigue and her desire to be thought well of.Italy, USA, UK188119thResidentialOther / Unknown
6240A Room of One’s Own In Woolf’s famous lecture of 1928 she speculates on the history of women’s writing, and, as her title suggests, on the importance of the physical location of writing - the desirability of a woman writer having ‘a room of one’s own’. In this extract she is talking about nineteenth-century novelists and quotes the well-known description of Jane Austen writing in the family sitting-room from her nephew’s account of her life. Here mental and physical spaces are equated, and Woolf draws attention to the fact that women’s time has traditionally been occupied - letter writing was widespread, but circumstances made other forms of literary expression difficult though clearly not impossible.UK192820thResidentialSocial and Sitting Spaces
6241A Sentimental Journey Sterne’s unfinished A Sentimental Journey caused a sensation with its comic rambling narrative strung together with associations, up-to-the-moment descriptions and digressions. Here in the final chapter, entitled ‘The Case of Delicacy’, Yorick describes having to share his bed-chamber at a roadside inn with a lady traveller and her maid.France, UK176818thCommercial , ResidentialBedroom
6242A Sentimental Journey Sterne’s unfinished A Sentimental Journey caused a sensation with its comic rambling narrative strung together with associations, up-to-the-moment descriptions and digressions. Here in the final chapter, entitled ‘The Case of Delicacy’, Yorick describes having to share his bed-chamber at a roadside inn with a lady traveller and her maid. These paragraphs lay out the physical problem of the proximity of the two beds without referring directly to the anxiety about sexual intimacy leading on from physical proximity.France, UK176818thCommercial , ResidentialBedroom
6243A Sentimental Journey Sterne’s unfinished A Sentimental Journey caused a sensation with its comic rambling narrative strung together with associations, up-to-the-moment descriptions and digressions. Here in the final chapter, entitled ‘The Case of Delicacy’, Yorick describes having to share his bed-chamber at a roadside inn with a lady traveller and her maid. This is the end of the volume, typically inconclusive, typically ending with a pun. Having agreed that the maid should sleep in the closet, and that he and the lady are to have the beds despite their dangerous proximity, Yorick and the lady agree on an elaborate treaty to preserve their privacy and propriety, including agreeing not to speak. Unable to sleep he utters an exclamation, and the treaty is broken. The language of battle here, as elsewhere in Sterne’s Tristram Shandy, stands for the language of sexual relations so that the maid’s fear ‘that hostilities would ensue in course’ refers to sexual rather than marital engagement. Typically nothing happens, except in the imaginations of participants and readers.France, UK176818thCommercial , ResidentialBedroom
6244Assembly at Wanstead House This is a group portrait in the style of a conversation piece, the mid-century style of portraiture popularised by Arthur Devis and Hogarth among others. Here the activities shown include tea drinking - a key mode of sociability in the eighteenth century - and playing cards. Some of the people are recognisable as Sir Richard Child and his family and friends. They are shown in the ballroom of his new house, but whilst elements of the interior furnishings are traceable to other rooms in his house, the exact assemblage shown is not an accurate representation of any one particular room.UK1728-3118thResidentialSocial and Sitting Spaces
6245The White Library A late development of the conversation-piece genre. Turner’s watercolours of Petworth exhibit a blurred informal style whilst representing the formal gatherings typical of the period.UK182719thResidentialLibrary / Study
6246Music in The White Library Turner made a number of watercolour and gouache paintings of Petworth in Sussex. This image is unusual in showing an empty room, whilst referring to the room’s customary activities in the title - Music in the White Library. The instrument shown is a spinet.UK182719thResidentialLibrary / Study
6247The Fortunate Mistress: or, a History of the life and vast variety of fortunes of Mademoiselle de Beleau, afterwards call’d the Countess of Wintselsheim, in Germany, being the person known by the name of the Lady Roxana, in the time of King Charles II [Frontispiece] In this, the frontispiece to Daniel Defoe’s Roxana, the protagonist stands, revealing herself in the Turkish costume from which in the course of the story she is given the name 'Roxana', against a backdrop of opening doorways in what looks like a grand enfilade. The scene evokes the entertainment spaces of her West End house, but whilst theatrical, gives few details of the interior. In fact, it is suggested in this none-too-domestic interior, that it is Roxana herself, or at least her story, appropriately enough since this is the frontispiece to her narrative and Roxana is 'a lady of pleasure', that we are invited to enter. Here, her body seems to stand for the pleasures on offer in the rooms beyond.UK172418thResidential
6248Pamela; or, Virtue RewardedSamuel Richardson’s epistolary novel Pamela was published in 1740, caused a huge controversy, was widely read and very influential in the mid-century culture of sensibility. Pamela is a serving maid from a poor but honest family who has found favour with her mistress. When her mistress dies the son, Mr B., attempts to seduce her, she resists, reforms him and marries him. Here the heroine, Pamela, is found writing to her parents by her late mistress’s son. This illustration comes from an edition with engravings by Gravelot and Hayman. Richardson’s text records that this episode takes place in the mistress’s dressing-room.UK1740-4118thResidentialOther / Unknown
6232Period Piece: A Cambridge ChildhoodPeriod Piece is Gwen Raverat’s memoir of her childhood. Raverat (artist and writer, b.1885) was a granddaughter of Charles Darwin, and her father a Cambridge academic. This is Gwen’s description of her famous grandfather’s study at Down, her grandmother’s rather old-fashioned country house in Kent. UK195219thResidentialWork Space
6233Period Piece: A Cambridge Childhood Period Piece is Gwen Raverat’s memoir of her childhood. Raverat (artist and writer, b.1885) was a granddaughter of Charles Darwin, and her father a Cambridge academic. Here in a chapter called ‘Ghosts and horrors’ she describes things that scared her in her childhood. Down is her grandmother’s house in Kent. The tigers are illustrated in record CG1115.UK195219thResidentialBedroom, Nursery
6234Period Piece: A Cambridge Childhood Period Piece is Gwen Raverat’s memoir of her childhood. Raverat (artist and writer, b.1885) was a granddaughter of Charles Darwin, and her father a Cambridge academic. This illustration comes from a chapter called ‘Ghosts and horrors’ where she describes things that scared her in her childhood. Down is her grandmother’s house in Kent. The tigers are described in record CG1114.UK195219thResidentialBedroom
6238The Portrait of a Lady Madame Merle, cynical and materialistic, here gives the heroine Isabel Archer her view on the importance of property in an admirer. However, what starts as a purely material account ends up sounding, as James puts it, ‘very metaphysical’. Merle’s ‘shell’ includes the surroundings of a domestic interior - ‘one’s house, one’s furniture’ as well as choices in reading and clothing and social behaviour, enlisted, as she explains, in the display of self for other people.Italy, USA, UK188119thResidentialOther / Unknown
6226Period Piece: A Cambridge ChildhoodPeriod Piece is Gwen Raverat’s memoir of her childhood. Raverat (artist and writer, b.1885) was a granddaughter of Charles Darwin, and her father a Cambridge academic. This is Aunt Etty and Uncle Richard’s drawing room. Etty was Gwen Raverat’s father’s sister, and was continually preoccupied with concerns about her and others’ health, a Darwin family trait, as the author describes. The drawing room is described in record CG1108.UK195219thResidentialSocial and Sitting Spaces
6227Period Piece: A Cambridge Childhood Period Piece is Gwen Raverat’s memoir of her childhood. Raverat (artist and writer b. 1885) was a granddaughter of Charles Darwin, and her father a Cambridge academic. Here Raverat contrasts the taste of her Uncle Richard, married to her father’s sister Etty, and his passion for Ruskin and Morris with the general indifference of the rest of the Darwin family to fashion in interior design. The drawing room is illustrated in record CG1107.UK195219thResidentialSocial and Sitting Spaces
6228Period Piece: A Cambridge ChildhoodPeriod Piece is Gwen Raverat’s memoir of her childhood. Raverat (artist and writer, b.1885) was a granddaughter of Charles Darwin, and her father a Cambridge academic. Here Raverat remembers visiting her Aunt Etty and Uncle Richard, whose drawing room is illustrated in record CG1107. Unlike the rest of the family, Uncle Richard is passionate about Ruskin and Morris, reflected here in the dining-room curtains of Morris design, and the access their London house gives Raverat to the works of the English engraver Thomas Bewick. The young Raverat’s longing to be an artist is here transposed into the apparently more realisable fantasy of being married to an artist, if not Rembrandt, then Bewick. In a characteristically amusing and charming shorthand depiction of domestic life she reasons that if she carries out her wifely duties to perfection she might be allowed to help him with his drawing and engraving. Given that this is a memoir, and illustrated, the reader knows that Gwen does achieve her childhood ambition of being an artist, and the book ends not with her marriage, but with her studying at the Slade school in London.UK195219thResidentialDining Room
6229Period Piece: A Cambridge ChildhoodPeriod Piece is Gwen Raverat’s memoir of her childhood. Raverat (artist and writer, b.1885) was a granddaughter of Charles Darwin, and her father a Cambridge academic. This image shows her grandmother, Darwin’s widow, in her eighties, at home by the fire at Down, the Darwins’ country house in Kent. Elsewhere Raverat describes her arrival at the house:
‘And as soon as the door was opened, we smelt again the unmistakeable cool, empty, country smell of the house, and we rushed all over the big, under-furnished rooms in an ecstasy of joy. They reflected the barer way of life of the early nineteenth-century, rather than the crowded, fussy mid-Victorian period. The furnishing was ugly in a way, but it was dignified and plain.’ (p.142)
UK195219thResidentialSocial and Sitting Spaces
6230Period Piece: A Cambridge ChildhoodPeriod Piece is Gwen Raverat’s memoir of her childhood. Raverat (artist and writer, b.1885) was a granddaughter of Charles Darwin, and her father a Cambridge academic. This is Gwen’s description of the servants’ quarters at Down, her grandmother’s rather old-fashioned country house in Kent.UK195219thResidentialSocial and Sitting Spaces, Other / Unknown
6231Period Piece: A Cambridge ChildhoodPeriod Piece is Gwen Raverat’s memoir of her childhood. Raverat (artist and writer, b.1885) was a granddaughter of Charles Darwin, and her father a Cambridge academic. This is Gwen’s description of her favourite lavatory and cupboard at Down, her grandmother’s rather old-fashioned country house in Kent. Here these marginal spaces are given great significance, appropriate in a memoir of childhood.UK195219thResidentialBathroom, Transitional
6728The Poetics of SpaceGaston Bachelard (1884-1962), a leading European philosopher, explored the meaning of home in his 1958 study, The Poetics of Space. Bachelard took elements of the house, 'from cellar to garret', in order to understand what might be considered to be their ontological meaning. His ideas were extremely influential on subsequent philosophers, as well as on art, architecture and design in general.

In this section Bachelard develops an analogy between the psychology and phenomenology of the nest and domestic space.
France195820thResidentialOther / Unknown
6729The Poetics of SpaceGaston Bachelard (1884-1962), a leading European philosopher, explored the meaning of home in his 1958 study, The Poetics of Space. Bachelard took elements of the house, 'from cellar to garret', in order to understand what might be considered to be their ontological meaning. His ideas were extremely influential on subsequent philosophers, as well as on art, architecture and design in general.

Here, Bachelard explores the process of projection and imagination that takes place when looking at depictions of habitable space.
France195820thResidentialOther / Unknown
6730The Catcher in the RyeJ. D. Salinger's 1951 novel explores the mixed emotions of the non-conformist adolescent Holden Caulfield in his schoolboy rebellion. In the flashback scene referenced, he gives an account of returning to the New York family apartment, where he enters his sister Phoebe's room, allowing him to reflect on his feelings for his sibling. USA195120thResidentialBedroom, Transitional
6731‘The Fall of the House of Usher’The short story 'The Fall of the House of Usher' (1839) takes the form of a narrator's description of his visit to the home of a childhood friend. The details of Roderick Usher and his twin sister Madeline's interior contribute to the sense of derangement and dissipation central to the story. The narrator encounters the terror, mysterious illness and death of the last in the line of the Usher family, where the house has become the symbolic embodiment of the individual. USA1839ResidentialTransitional, Other / Unknown
6732Mr. Sammler’s Planet'Mr Sammler' (1970) has been described as a study of the crisis of early modern European masculinity. Sammler, a displaced figure from the Holocaust, living in New York City at the time of a growing counter culture of the 1960s, finds himself increasingly out of sympathy with his wider surroundings. In this extract, he performs apparently trivial daily functions that guarantee a level of continuity in his increasingly difficult life. USA197020thResidentialBedroom
6733‘A journey with the cows’Italo Calvino's 1963 short stories 'Marcovaldo' tell of a humorous, anti-hero of humble background, who finds himself living through the post war Italian economic recovery. Marcovaldo's encounters with the modernity of a nondescript northern city and his ability to find natural wonder even there, highlight the rapid social and cultural changes of the time and the displacement of 'home'.

In this story Calvino describes the heat of a summer night and the penetration of sounds of the city into the interior
Italy196320thResidentialBedroom
6222Period Piece: A Cambridge ChildhoodPeriod Piece is Gwen Raverat’s memoir of her childhood. Raverat (artist and writer, b.1885) was a granddaughter of Charles Darwin and her father a Cambridge academic. This scene takes place in her family home in Cambridge, as the children watch the guests at one of her parents’ formal dinners walk through into the dining room. The scene is described in record CG1104. UK195219thResidentialTransitional
6223Period Piece: A Cambridge ChildhoodPeriod Piece is Gwen Raverat’s memoir of her childhood. Raverat (artist and writer, b.1885) was a granddaughter of Charles Darwin, and her father a Cambridge academic. This scene takes place in her family home in Cambridge. Raverat describes watching the guests at one of her parents’ many formal dinner parties. Elsewhere (p.78) she describes how guests were seated according to the dates of the foundation of their colleges and subjects. UK195219thResidentialTransitional
6224Period Piece: A Cambridge ChildhoodPeriod Piece is Gwen Raverat’s memoir of her childhood. Raverat (artist and writer, b.1885) was a granddaughter of Charles Darwin, and her father a Cambridge academic. Here, acting as chaperone, she watches a young lady curling her fringe at a gas-burner in her bedroom, whilst her suitor waits downstairs in the drawing-room.UK195219thResidentialBedroom
6225Period Piece: A Cambridge ChildhoodPeriod Piece is Gwen Raverat’s memoir of her childhood. Raverat (artist and writer, b.1885) was a granddaughter of Charles Darwin, and her father a Cambridge academic. Here, acting as chaperone, she has been told to ‘talk nicely till I come’ to the suitor of a young lady who is curling her fringe at a gas-burner in her bedroom (see CG1105). They have played a game and he is now in a state of ‘insufferable agitation at the thought of seeing his lady’ (p.106).UK195219thResidentialSocial and Sitting Spaces
6802‘The Pear’Rebecca Preston discusses the image ‘The Pear’, an engraving from Dean Thomas’s Dean’s Pictorial Reward Books, London, 1868.UK186819thResidentialSocial and Sitting Spaces
6803‘Now be quiet, all of you, I’m going to begin’Rebecca Preston describes the relationship between prescriptive literature and illustration centred around home-based stories. The Illustrator Walter Crane produced images for one such series of books, an example of which is included here.UK188419thResidentialOther / Unknown
6796‘Small Drawing Room, Levens Hall, Westmoreland’Amanda Girling-Budd describes Joseph Nash’s idiosyncratic style of illustrating the period interior.

This illustration Small Drawing Room, Levens Hall, Westmoreland was included in Nash’s The Mansions of England in Olden Time published in 1839-49.
UK1839-4919thResidentialSocial and Sitting Spaces
6797[‘Home Bright Hearts Light’, Sunlight Soap Poster]Amanda Girling-Budd describes the use of artist Louise Jopling’s painting Home Bright, Hearts Light set in an Aesthetic movement interior as an advertisement for Sunlight Soap. The poster illustrated here was produced in 1896.UK189619thResidentialDining Room
6798The Bottle, Plate VMark Jones describes deptictions of the domestic interior in two different educative scenarios set up by the Temperance movement.
See HM1129
UK184719thResidentialMultifunctional Living Space
6799The Bottle, Plate IMark Jones describes deptictions of the domestic interior in two different educative scenarios set up by the Temperance movement.
See HM1128
UK184719thResidentialMultifunctional Living Space
6800Poor Old Woman’s ComfortJohn Styles discusses William Redmore Bigg’s 1793 painting Poor Old Woman’s Comfort . He compares it with Redmore Bigg’s work The Husbandman’s Enjoyment also of 1793. (See HM 1131)UK179318thResidentialMultifunctional Living Space
6801The Husbandman’s EnjoymentJohn Styles discusses William Redmore Bigg’s 1793 painting Husbandman’s Enjoyment. He compares it with Redmore Bigg’s work Poor Old Woman’s Comfort also of 1793. (See HM1130)UK179318th
6203Where The Wild Things AreIn Maurice Sendak’s fantasy a little boy behaves badly, his mother calls him ‘wild thing’ and he says ‘I’ll eat you up’ so he is sent to bed without supper. His bedroom then turns into a forest and he sails away to where the wild things are. When he feels lonely he goes back home and finds his supper waiting. The illustrations are very evocative, here trees emerge from the cross-hatching of walls, floor and carpet. USA196320thResidentialBedroom
6204‘The Dead’ James Joyce (born in Dublin in 1882) published Dubliners in 1914, although the stories were written a decade earlier whilst Joyce lived in Trieste. Throughout his writing career he reflected on his home city from a distance, producing some of the most experimental of Modernist writing. The passage indicated is the opening of ‘The Dead’, the longest of the stories, and describes the guests arriving at the Misses Morkham’s annual dance from the point of view of Lily, a servant. Ireland191420thResidentialTransitional, Bathroom, Utility
6205‘Eveline’James Joyce (born in Dublin in 1882) published Dubliners in 1914, although the stories were written a decade earlier whilst Joyce lived in Trieste. Throughout his writing career he reflected on his home city from a distance, producing some of the most experimental of Modernist writing. ‘Eveline’ tells the story of a woman poised to leave her home in Dublin to make a new life in Buenos Aires. Her decision to leave is complicated by a promise to her mother to ‘keep the home together as long as she could’. Ireland191420thResidentialOther / Unknown
6206‘The Boarding House’ James Joyce (born in Dublin in 1882) published Dubliners in 1914, although the stories were written a decade earlier whilst Joyce lived in Trieste. Throughout his writing career he reflected on his home city from a distance, producing some of the most experimental of Modernist writing.
Mrs Mooney, the ‘Madam’ of the boarding house of the title, is a ruthless manager. The passage indicated has her making sure that nothing is wasted, crusts of bread saved to be re-used, sugar and butter locked up. Polly is her daughter whom she has been watching become involved with one of the lodgers, and in this scene Mrs Mooney is making up her mind as to how to ensure her marriage to the man in question. As often with Joyce, the presence of the Church is felt, here, the noise of bells and the sight of people coming out of Mass. Mrs Mooney calculates that she can sort out her business and still be in time for the ‘short twelve’ Mass.
Ireland191420thCommercial , Dining Room
6207‘Eveline’ James Joyce (born in Dublin in 1882) published Dubliners in 1914, although the stories were written a decade earlier whilst Joyce lived in Trieste. Throughout his writing career he reflected on his home city from a distance, producing some of the most experimental of Modernist writing. ‘Eveline’ tells the story of a woman poised to leave her home in Dublin to make a new life in Buenos Aires. Her decision to leave is complicated by a promise to her mother to ‘keep the home together as long as she could’. Discussed here is the opening paragraph of the short story, which forms a written equivalent of an ‘a la fenêtre’ scene familiar from French nineteenth-century painting. Dust proliferates through the story and the central character’s passivity is clear from the opening.Ireland191420thResidentialOther / Unknown
6208Thomas Comes to BreakfastThis story comes from the very successful and nostalgic Thomas the Tank Engine series. Here Thomas has gone out of the engine shed without his driver, initially as a joke, but then because the ‘careless cleaner had meddled with his controls’ he ends up out of control and crashing into the Station-master’s house.

Gender roles are clearly defined in this house: in this scene the Station-master’s wife is serving up breakfast - their ‘favourite one of ham and eggs’ as the Station-master reads his paper.
UK198520thResidentialSocial and Sitting Spaces
6209Thomas Comes to BreakfastThis story comes from the very successful and nostalgic Thomas the Tank Engine series. Here Thomas has gone out of the engine shed without his driver, initially as a joke, but then because the ‘careless cleaner had meddled with his controls’ he ends up out of control and crashing into the Station-master’s house.

Here Thomas crashes into the house interrupting breakfast. On the next page the mother complains: ‘You miserable engine...just look at our breakfasts - covered in plaster. Now I shall have to cook some more.’
UK198520thResidentialSocial and Sitting Spaces
6210An Evening at Alfie’sOne of Shirley Hughes’s Alfie series of children’s books. A very successful author, Hughes’s domestic interiors are noticeable for their realistic clutter.

Here, while Mum and Dad get ready to go out Alfie watches, dressed in his pyjamas and dresing-gown and holding his favourite elephant. In the next room the neighbour’s daughter Maureen has come to babysit.
UK198420thResidentialTransitional
6211An Evening at Alfie’sOne of Shirley Hughes’s Alfie series of children’s books. A very successful author, Hughes’s domestic interiors are noticeable for their realistic clutter.

Here, while Mum and Dad get ready to go out Alfie watches, dressed in his pyjamas and dressing-gown and holding his favourite elephant. In the next room the neighbour’s daughter Maureen has come to babysit.
UK198420thResidentialTransitional
6212An Evening at Alfie’sOne of Shirley Hughes’s Alfie series of children’s books. A very successful author, Hughes’s domestic interiors are noticeable for their realistic clutter.

Whilst Alfie’s parents are out there is a flood. Maureen the babysitter has called her mother on the phone, who comes over from across the street to help.
UK198420thResidentialTransitional
6213The Cat in the Hat Comes BackIn this sequel to The Cat in the Hat the two children are left at home whilst the mother goes out and are visited by the Cat in the Hat who makes a mess. In the scene indicated the Cat’s helpers who have been magicked out of his hat are trying to clean up the pink spots which the Cat has left on the bed.USA195720thResidentialBedroom
6214A Child’s Christmas in WalesThis scene at Christmas registers comfort and discomfort as aunts and uncles gather. Dylan Thomas’ narrative draws on his childhood in small-town Wales.UK197820th
6215Curious George Flies a KiteCurious George the Monkey lives with the man with the yellow hat. Here, left alone, he plays with a ball and follows it from one room to another. The illustrations have an interesting point of view, bringing us near to the monkey’s viewpoint, with the rooms’ extremities cut off by the shape of the pages.USA195820thResidentialBedroom
6216DoggerIn this the penultimate page of Shirley Hughes’ Dogger, brother and sister are going to bed. During the course of the story, Dave has lost and re-found his favourite toy dog Dogger with his sister’s help. Children’s stories, often read at bedtime, often end with a bedtime scene. Here Hughes conveys comfort through a minimum of detail.UK197720thResidentialBedroom
6217Bob the Builder Roley and the Rock StarBob the Builder is a sucessful BBC television animation series. The books show the figures in their modelled surroundings. Bob’s living room is shown here as he looks at the barometer and talks to his fish Finn.UK200121stResidentialSocial and Sitting Spaces
6218Goodnight MoonA classic bedtime tale for small children with somewhat surreal elements. In the story the rabbits behave like people, the small rabbit appears tucked up in bed in stripy pyjamas whilst a larger rabbit sits on a rocking chair knitting. However the kittens and the mouse act like animals.UK1947ResidentialNursery
6219The Lion, the Witch and the WardrobeThe Lion, the Witch and the Wardrobe is the first of C.S. Lewis’ Narnia stories, written for children, and widely read, not just by children, ever since their publication.

Peter, Susan, Edmund and Lucy have been evacuated from London during the war and sent to the country house of an old professor. On their first morning it is raining and the children start to explore the house. Elsewhere we are told it is a house visited by tourists, an ‘old and famous house’.

This illustration shows the wardrobe through which the children’s adventures start. The shadows of the four children are visible on the bottom left-hand corner of the image.
UK1950ResidentialBedroom
6220The Magician’s NephewIn this story from C. S. Lewis’ Chronicles of Narnia, two children, Polly and her neighbour Digory, begin their adventures or ‘indoor exploration’ in the attic of Polly’s family house. This image illustrates the moment when, having climbed along the tunnel formed by the intercommunicating roof spaces of the terrace, the children find themselves in Digory’s house. They are outside the attic study belonging to his uncle which he has been forbidden to enter. An air of mystery is produced by the cobwebs and lit candles the children carry.UK195520thResidentialLibrary / Study
6221Period Piece: A Cambridge ChildhoodPeriod Piece is Gwen Raverat’s memoir of her childhood. Raverat (artist and writer b.1885) was a granddaughter of Charles Darwin, and her father a Cambridge academic. This scene takes place in her family home in Cambridge. The description of the child’s illicit pleasure in drawing with lipstick on the white walls of her mother’s bedroom, like ‘frescoing the walls of heaven’, links the young Raverat to Michelangelo. Domestic life, the tediousness of parental rules and the shock of punishment, although here clearly not traumatic, emerge vividly.UK195219thResidentialBedroom
6723Small IslandThe 2004 novel Small Island explores the destiny of newly arrived Jamaican immigrants to London in the 1950s. The contrast between the colour found in nature in the Caribbean, described earlier in the book, and the cold, grey and dilapidated bed-sit environment of west London is brought directly into focus by Hortense's arrangement of her blanket in her lodgings.UK200420thResidentialMultifunctional Living Space
6724Small IslandIn this extract, the owner of the lodging house, ex-RAF serviceman Gilbert Joseph returns to his family home to reminisce about his childhood and the associations the staircase and the rooms of the building evoke. UK200420thResidentialMultifunctional Living Space
6725The Poetics of SpaceGaston Bachelard (1884-1962), a leading European philosopher, explored the meaning of home in his 1958 study, The Poetics of Space. Bachelard took elements of the house, 'from cellar to garret', in order to understand what might be considered to be their ontological meaning. His ideas were extremely influential on subsequent philosophers, as well as on art, architecture and design in general.

This extract explores the psychology of space.
France195820thResidentialBedroom, Social and Sitting Spaces
6726The Poetics of SpaceGaston Bachelard (1884-1962), a leading European philosopher, explored the meaning of home in his 1958 study, The Poetics of Space. Bachelard took elements of the house, 'from cellar to garret', in order to understand what might be considered to be their ontological meaning. His ideas were extremely influential on subsequent philosophers, as well as on art, architecture and design in general.

In this extract, Bachelard explores the qualities of the hut and the idea of basic shelter.
France195820thResidentialSocial and Sitting Spaces
6727The Poetics of SpaceGaston Bachelard (1884-1962), a leading European philosopher, explored the meaning of home in his 1958 study, The Poetics of Space. Bachelard took elements of the house, 'from cellar to garret', in order to understand what might be considered to be their ontological meaning. His ideas were extremely influential on subsequent philosophers, as well as on art, architecture and design in general.

In this section, Bachelard explores the paradox of living in a cottage or a palace and longing for the circumstances of the other. He casts broadly across a range of literature and other cultural writing for his references.
France195820thResidentialOther / Unknown
6201Cloudless MayMargaret Storm Jameson (1891-1986), born in Whitby, Yorkshire, worked in Britain and Europe and published fifty novels between 1919 and her death. Here the houses of the poor are described as though housing animals, ants and maggots.UK194520th
6202Cloudless MayMargaret Storm Jameson (1891-1986), born in Whitby, Yorkshire, worked in Britain and Europe and published fifty novels between 1919 and her death. Here the houses of the poor are described as though housing animals, ants, maggots. The description is fuelled by sensory impressions imagined at second hand by the narrator, producing a visceral and reluctant identification.UK194520thMultifunctional Living Space
6793[Front cover from Economy with a Difference: Heal and Sons Catalogue 1933]The British firm Heal and Sons first produced a sales catalogue in the 1860s illustrating ‘Bedsteads, Bedding and Bathroom Furniture for India, China and the Colonies’ as a selling tool at the height of the Empire.

During the inter-war period, the changed economic climate of the Depression years occasioned the styling of catalogues that used room-sets illustrating stylish ‘economy’ lines.
UK193320thResidentialSocial and Sitting Spaces
6794Study from LifeTrevor Keeble discusses the creation of interiors as photographic studio sets in the second half of the nineteenth century. This albumen print by Lady Clementina Hawarden ‘Study from Life’ appears in Trevor Keeble, ‘Photographing Home’ in Imagined Interiors, (V&A Publications, 2006).

See also HM 1125
UKc.1863-6419thCommercial , Other / Unknown
6795Suggestions for House DecorationTrevor Keeble discusses the creation of interiors as photographic studio sets in the second half of the nineteenth century.
The image was originally included as a plate in T. Knight and Sons, Suggestions for House Decoration, 1881.
UK188119thCommercial , Other / Unknown
6199Middlemarch; A Study of Provincial LifeIn this extract, Lydgate, the doctor who is to marry Rosamond Vincy, buys an expensive dinner service on the grounds that he hates ugly crockery. An interesting example of a man choosing an important item for domestic use, and doing so in advance of his marriage. The lack of concern about cost is indicative of his general behaviour.UK187019thSocial and Sitting Spaces
6200Middlemarch; A Study of Provincial LifeIn this extract, Lydgate and Rosamond Vincy make purchases to prepare for their impending marriage. Eliot hints at the need for economy, but shows how neither has a real grasp on the financial implications of their spending. Lydgate is haunted by his memories of the ugly domestic setup of his predecessor which Eliot gives us a feel of in a very effective shorthand, and offers a view of a couple setting up home where both are making purchases independently.UK187019th
6342‘Melodrama Inside and Outside the Home’Film historian Laura Mulvey developed the concept of separate spheres in relation to the cinematic representation of women in the home and various narrative tropes. In this extract, she exposed the underlying assumptions of Walter Benjamin's influential writings, offering a long-awaited gendered critique.UK198920thOther / Unknown
6792‘Cleanup can even be part of the evening’s pleasures’Tim Benton analyses the ‘Guide to Easier Living’ a text by Mary and Russel Wright, published in the United States in 1951. This book, he argues exemplified the changing popularization of modern architecture and design that had taken place before the war. For example, Benton points out, whilst the book contained an unambiguous modernist message, it did break with convention in that it not only used perspective and colour images (thereby portraying a greater impression of space and comfort) but also, untypically, peopled the rooms illustrated.

The image here depicts a scene in which, whilst the atmosphere is convivial, a Taylorist sense of a functionally efficient washing-up assembly-line is portrayed. The picture’s title is Cleanup can even be part of the evening’s pleasures.
USA195120thResidentialKitchen, Dining Room
6788‘Falkewood, the Dining Hall’Tim Benton comments on the Aesthetic and Arts and Crafts movements’ extension of the use of the woodcut as the typical medium for architectural representation in the nineteenth century. This, Benton says, came about ‘because of the desire to control colour and line without the mediation of the engraver.’ He argues that ‘ the watercolourist can choose his viewpoint with equanimity, to bring out the colour scheme and fill the interior with coloured light.’ As in this image, drawn perspective also allowed an architect to illustrate a room with a wide angle view, which, he points out, I would have been technologically impractical for the photographer at this time.UK190620thResidentialDining Room
6789Musikzimmer, Apartment for Arthur Friedman, BellariastrasseTim Benton compares two modes of architectural representation of the Arts and Crafts interior. The problems inherent in photographing these richly textured rooms are compared with watercolour illustration, for instance, that were used by M.H. Baillie Scott for his buildings. (See HM1118)UK20th
6790‘In the little girls bedroom’Tim Benton comments on the interiors illustrated in Carl Larsson’s book Ett Hem (At home) of 1899, reprinted in German in 1922. In this image, he suggets the childlike and the vernacular are closely linked.Sweden192220thResidentialBedroom
6791Gymnastics room in a sports teacher’s home, BerlinTim Benton discusses the inclusion of women in the Modernist representation of Marcel Breuer’s interior design for a female gym instructor’s house in Berlin.Germany193020thResidentialLeisure / Games Room
6198Northanger AbbeyHere Catherine Moreland, the novel’s heroine, visits Henry Tilney’s parsonage in the company of his father, the General, and his sister, her friend. Catherine’s enthusiasm for the house is a sign of her enthusiasm for Henry Tilney, but Austen does describe a pretty and appealing house suggesting that Henry is an appropriate match for Catherine. The General’s disparaging remarks are in part false modesty, in part informed by the misapprehension he is under that Catherine is an heiress. The passage gives us a sense of the ways in which Austen’s period saw home improvements - rooms here are clearly in the process of being ‘fitted up’, and, as elsewhere, it seems the norm that the lady of the house should have a say in the furnishing of the drawing-room, so Catherine’s refusal to comment on appropriate colours for wallpaper and hangings suggests her consciousness of the inappropriateness of her doing so given that she and Henry are not yet engaged. There is a clear sense of different spaces in the house being particularly male or female. The reference to the cottage in the immediate view suggests Catherine’s innate good taste informed by her recent lecture from Henry on the Picturesque, and the General’s response ‘you approve it as an object ... the Cottage remains’ suggests both his desire to please her, and his own lack of feeling - since it implies that had she not mentioned it, it would have been knocked down - though Austen gives no indication as to whether or not it is inhabited.UK181819thResidentialSocial and Sitting Spaces, Dining Room
6785The Thirty Nine StepsRod Mengham writes about the way in which British film of the 1930s and 1940s made use of ‘up-to-the-minute’ interiors for film sets as a means of providing a blank canvas for narrative and action; domestic interiors which ‘have no history, precisely because what they lay claim to is a way of managing the future.’

In this extract Mengham describes the way in which director Alfred Hitchcock’s 1935 film of John Buchan’s novel The Thirty-Nine Steps (1915) departs from the original text in emphasising not the past, but the present moment, the tension of which has greater dramatic impact if focussed on the here and now rather than being diluted by historical reference. This is even more importantly the case, Mengham proposes (here discussing key protagonist Richard Hannay’s London flat) in a film such as The Thirty-Nine Steps which deals with the subject of enemy infiltration into British life. The deliberate references to Bauhaus-inspired modernity’s intervention into the key arena of everyday activity - the domestic interior- in the set described here, parallel the film’s theme of fifth columnist incursion into civilian life.
UK193520thResidentialKitchen
6786Went the Day WellIn ‘Anthropology at Home: domestic interiors in British film and fiction in the 1930s and 1940s’, Rod Mengham discusses the interiors of the Alberto Cavalcanti film, Went the day Well (1942).

Mengham makes the point that, particularly during the Blitz, the domestic interior was a space that might literally collapse at any moment. Structural disintegration, blown-out windows or doors that would not close as a result of bomb damage; all might create a situation in which the outside world beyond the domestic interior could make an incursion into it.

The image here is a scene from the film.
UK194220thResidentialOther / Unknown
6787Citizen KaneIn his study of Hollywood studio design, Christopher Frayling explains how, according to the architect and interior designer Robert Mallet-Stevens’, set decor might be used to introduce the personalities of the key protagonists before they were seen on screen. ‘Sometimes’, Frayling states, ‘enough drawings, photographs and studio memos have survived’ to enable the historian to piece together the process by which this was made possible. Orson Wells’ 1941 film Citizen Kane provides an example of just this situation.UK194120th
6716‘The New Apartment’The extracts from this short story satirise the growing preoccupation with interior design, in this case, in the Federal Republic of Germany. Published in 1958, at the time that the Wirtschaftswunder (the Economic Miracle) was making its impact, the passages offer a wry commentary on the concern for tasteful 'gute Form' (good design) and can be interpreted as a parody of the prescriptiveness prominent in design journalism.Germanyn.d.20thResidentialTransitional
6717‘The New Apartment’The extracts from this short story satirise the growing preoccupation with interior design, in this case, in the Federal Republic of Germany. Published in 1958, at the time that the Wirtschaftswunder (the Economic Miracle) was making its impact, the passages offer a wry commentary on the concern for tasteful 'gute Form' (good design) and can be interpreted as a parody of the prescriptiveness prominent in design journalism.Germanyn.d.20thResidentialSocial and Sitting Spaces
6718‘The New Apartment’The extracts from this short story satirise the growing preoccupation with interior design, in this case, in the Federal Republic of Germany. Published in 1958, at the time that the Wirtschaftswunder (the Economic Miracle) was making its impact, the passages offer a wry commentary on the concern for tasteful 'gute Form' (good design) and can be interpreted as a parody of the prescriptiveness prominent in design journalism.Germanyn.d.20thResidentialSocial and Sitting Spaces
6719Modern French Decoration

On the Emergence of the interior decorator:
In this early interpretation of the twentieth-century phenomenon of elite French interior decoration, Katharine Morrison Kahle, an American commentator, identified an important distinction between architect and decorator. Although instances of drawings of complete interiors can be found before 1910 in France and beyond, Kahle recognised an important professional distinction that would become more pronounced as the century progressed.
USA193020thResidentialOther / Unknown
6720Look Back in AngerStage directions written by playwrights offer condensed descriptions of domestic interiors, often indicating how important the designed context is for the understanding of the characters and plots of the play.

Look Back in Anger
John Osborne was recognised as a leading member of a group of British playwrights dubbed by critic Kenneth Tynan the 'Angry Young Men' after performances at the Royal Court Theatre in London from 1956. Osborne used the claustrophobic setting of a drab and poorly equipped flat to suggest the sense of social isolation, political disillusionment and emotional frustration among a generation of young people in postwar Britain.
UK195720thResidentialMultifunctional Living Space
6721Death of a SalesmanStage directions written by playwrights offer condensed descriptions of domestic interiors, often indicating how important the designed context is for the understanding of the characters and plots of the play.

The stage set of Arthur Miller's most famous play Death of a Salesman allows the characters to witness scenes that expose their emotional states to each other. While not an interior that would be found in the real world, it reinforces the dramatic tension between father and sons, and provides a physical framework for the crisis of emotional boundaries which the play explores.
USA194920thResidentialBedroom, Kitchen
6722The CaretakerStage directions written by playwrights offer condensed descriptions of domestic interiors, often indicating how important the designed context is for the understanding of the characters and plots of the play.

First performed in 1960, The Caretaker is set in a room whose attributes suggest displacement of conventional meaning, borne out in the dialogue of the three male characters' lines. The odd juxtaposition of items of furniture and apparently discarded belongings accentuate the disjointed dialogue, which suggests tension, misunderstanding and vulnerability.
UK196020thInstitutional , Multifunctional Living Space
6715‘The New Apartment’The extracts from this short story satirise the growing preoccupation with interior design, in this case, in the Federal Republic of Germany. Published in 1958, at the time that the Wirtschaftswunder (the Economic Miracle) was making its impact, the passages offer a wry commentary on the concern for tasteful 'gute Form' (good design) and can be interpreted as a parody of the prescriptiveness prominent in design journalism.Germanyn.d.20thResidential
6197Slinky Malinki, Open the DoorIn Lynley Dodd’s rhyming story the cat Slinky Malinki and his friend the parrot Sticky Beak Syd create havoc in a house. In this scene they mess up the sitting room. The animals are always the focus of her stories; humans appear, but we don’t generally see their faces. The house is here portrayed as a series of spaces to transgress as Slinky Malinki opens one door afer another.199320thResidentialSocial and Sitting Spaces
6340‘Family China’Mark Haworth-Booth was a senior curator of photographs at the Victoria and Albert Museum, London between 1977 and 2004. His first book of poems, Wild Track, was published in 2005. The poems reveal close attention to the particularity of things, people’s relation to them and the importance of a sense of place. UK200521stResidentialBedroom, Kitchen
6341‘Things‘Mark Haworth-Booth was a senior curator of photographs at the Victoria and Albert Museum, London between 1977 and 2004. His first book of poems Wild Track was published in 2005. The poems reveal close attention to the paticularity of things, people’s relation to them and the importance of a sense of place. UK200521stResidentialBedroom, Kitchen
6306‘The Catalog of Johns-Manville Building Materials, Johns-Manville, New York’


The promotion of Johns-Manville Asbestos flexboard shows how the same building material and technology could be applied to different kinds of interior - commercial, professional and domestic. This could be seen to lead to a levelling of experience between the consumer and home-owner and the homogenisation of their environment. USA193720thCommercial , ResidentialKitchen, Social and Sitting Spaces, Work Space
6307‘Masonite in Home Design, Construction, Decoration’
The text of this trade catalogue reflected the enthusiasm for progress and new technologies prominent in 1930s America. The commentary went on to outline three major developments in the American house of the 1930s: ‘adequate insulation to help provide warmth in winter, coolness in summer; simplicity of architectural style and interior construction and the utilization of the emotional value of color’.USA193720thResidentialOther / Unknown
6308‘Masonite in Home Design, Construction, Decoration’The Masonite trade catalogue combined artists’ renditions of specific interiors with technical commentary on the materials employed. The illustrations on these two pages interpret the application of Masonite Tempered Presdwood for floor and wall surfaces. The style of interior decoration was identified as ‘Classic Modern’ with its combination of modern materials and classical motifs.USA193720thMultifunctional Living Space, Transitional
6309‘Masonite in Home Design, Construction, Decoration’
This example of product endorsement appeared in the Masonite trade catalogue. Grant Wood, one of the most famous American artists of the time, is featured for having chosen Masonite Presdwood to ‘restore traditional loveliness to an old, age-withered landmark, but to do it economically yet permanently’.USA193720thResidentialKitchen, Social and Sitting Spaces, Transitional
6310‘Practical Suggestions for the Interesting Use of Glass and Paint in your Home’The emphasis of the Pittsburgh Plate Glass Company was to stress modern approaches to window design and glass fixtures and fittings. To avoid excluding some customers, however, the examples drew from different styles. Here, a Howe and Lescaze modernist house with ribbon windows is placed alongside a colonial-style house with classical window seen from the inside, catering for diverging tastes.USA193720thResidentialSocial and Sitting Spaces, Transitional
6311‘Practical Suggestions for the Interesting Use of Glass and Paint in your Home’

These examples of bathrooms from the Pittsburgh Glass Company catalogue reveal how the bathroom became glamorised through the introduction of colour, moulding, streamlining, mirrors and other reflective surfaces, focus lighting, chrome, and aluminium. In particular, the interiors deployed Carrara Structural Glass, a product of the PGC.USA193720thResidentialBathroom
6312‘Practical Suggestions for the Interesting Use of Glass and Paint in your Home’While the visual presentation of the kitchen on these pages was highly stylised, the textual commentary emphasised the practical considerations of the tiled kitchen. The surfaces, it suggested, ‘do not absorb cooking odours, never craze, check, stain, fade in colour or deteriorate from the action of moisture, chemicals, grease or grime’. USA193720thResidentialKitchen
6313‘Plan and description of the new de luxe motorliner Kungsholm, first class and second cabin. Deluxe Motorliner Kungsholm - direct to the land of sunlit nights’
The Kungsholm was one of three luxury liners run by the Swedish American Line, the others being Motorliner Gripsholm and S. S. Drottningholm. For passengers, it combined the comforts of the private domestic interior of its cabins with the up-to-date facilities of public environments, such as a foyer, a library, restaurant, garden lounge, smoke room and promenade decks.USA193220thCommercial , Social and Sitting Spaces
6314‘Plan and description of the new de luxe motorliner Kungsholm, first class and second cabin. Deluxe Motorliner Kungsholm - direct to the land of sunlit nights’The description of the interior design of the Kungsholm liner reveals the interest to portray Sweden as both nation of historical tradition and new modernity. USA193220thLibrary / Study, Social and Sitting Spaces
6315‘Plan and description of the new de luxe motorliner Kungsholm, first class and second cabin. Deluxe Motorliner Kungsholm - direct to the land of sunlit nights’The leaflet was addressed to potential US travellers to Sweden. Interior design of the public and private rooms were a central feature of the publicity. Spaces such as the foyer, lounge and library were given domestic attributes, such as fireplaces, rugs, occasional tables, which would assist in making the traveller feel ‘at home’.USA193220thLibrary / Study, Social and Sitting Spaces, Leisure / Games Room
6316‘Plan and description of the new de luxe motorliner Kungsholm, first class and second cabin. Deluxe Motorliner Kungsholm - direct to the land of sunlit nights’The de luxe cabin combined a sleeping area, which could be curtained off, with a seating corner for entertainment, equipped with upholstered furniture. The commentary suggested, ‘The artistic wood inlay, rich textiles in unusual designs, and sumptuous furniture make this room the perfect combination of luxury, elegance and comfort. Every detail has a studied modernism and the result is a room of extremely smart simplicity.’USA193220th
6317First prize design. Model Kitchens, Delco-Light CompanyThe 1926 Frigidaire booklet, aimed at home-owners and contractors alike, shows how quickly the rhetoric of scientific management in the home, as promoted by Christine Frederick and other writers, was incorporated into sales strategies for commercial companies. The text and illustrations stressed circulation routes in rooms, the organisation of equipment and the home as a site of efficient labour.USA192620thResidentialKitchen
6318First prize design. Model Kitchens, Delco-Light CompanyThe 1926 Frigidaire booklet, aimed at home-owners and contractors alike, shows how quickly the rhetoric of scientific management in the home, as promoted by Christine Frederick and other writers, was incorporated into sales strategies for commercial companies. The text and illustrations stressed circulation routes in rooms, the organisation of equipment and the home as a site of efficient labour.USA192620thResidentialKitchen
6319Second prize design, Model Kitchens, Delco-Light Company
The 1926 Frigidaire booklet, aimed at home-owners and contractors alike, shows how quickly the rhetoric of scientific management in the home, as promoted by Christine Frederick and other writers, was incorporated into sales strategies for commercial companies. The text and illustrations stressed circulation routes in rooms, the organisation of equipment and the home as a site of efficient labour.USA192620thResidentialKitchen
6320Spanish Influence on American Architecture and DecorationR. W. Sexton was a prolific author on American architecture and also associate editor of the periodical The American Architect. His other books included The Logic of Modern Architecture, American Apartment Houses, Hotels and Apartment Hotels of Today and Interior Architecture. Sexton propounded Arts and Crafts and early Modernist principles, among them truth to materials and simplicity. He was openly critical of what he saw as unnecessary decoration. He applied these criteria to his assessment in Spanish Influence on American Architecture and Decoration. USA192720thResidentialOther / Unknown
6321Spanish Influence on American Architecture and Decoration
The photograph features the patio of a large Palm Beach residence, complete with ornamental pond, fountain and exotic planting. Cane furniture with extra cushions and a large sunshade add to the effect of comfort and leisure. The book’s author R. W. Sexton commented, “The patio is the outstanding feature of the plan. It immediately gives character to the house. But that is not intended to imply that a patio must necessarily be included in the plan of an American adaptation of the Spanish house.”USA192720thResidentialMultifunctional Living Space, Other / Unknown
6322Spanish Influence on American Architecture and Decoration

The colonnaded loggia and the courtyard patio planted with trees and potted plants enhance the idea of an enclosed oasis in this elite residence. The paved patio served as an outside room with cane furniture under cover and metal furniture in the open. USA192720thResidentialMultifunctional Living Space
6323Spanish Influence on American Architecture and DecorationThe photograph depicts a shuttered room with tiled floor, covered by an antique carpet. The feature fireplace, exposed beams and informal arrangement of wooden and metal seating all conform to the Spanish theme. In the chapter, ‘Spanish Influence on the Design of the Interior’ the author commented on the distinctive relationship between interior and exterior, ‘The Spanish seem especially anxious and skilful at creating an atmosphere which we more naturally associate with the exterior of a building. It is due to this atmosphere that the Spanish interior possesses such a satisfying, natural appearance. The design of the interior is peculiarly architectural, and its style is peculiarly Spanish, just as is the style of the exterior. Inside, one never forgets that he is in a Spanish house.’USA192720thResidentialMultifunctional Living Space
6324Spanish Influence on American Architecture and DecorationThe photograph shows a view from a hallway looking into the drawing room with a formal arrangement of furniture. The decorative scheme of candelabra, mounted historical sculpture and iron-grille doorway in the entrance conforms to the ingredients of a ‘Spanish’ interior.
The author commented,
“Contrasts, too, are evident in the interior design. Simple textured walls are strikingly contrasted with tile floors of brilliant hues, and the simplicity of the wall treatment is further accentuated by richly ornamented door surrounds, surmounted by occasional ornament of elaborate and intricate design, suggestive of the Moorish inheritance of the people.”
USA192720thResidentialMultifunctional Living Space
6325Spanish Influence on American Architecture and Decoration

This hallway illustrates how exterior and interior could be treated in similar fashion, a feature the author R. W. Sexton was interested to stress. To be noted here is the staircase, the plain rendering of the walls and tiled floor. Sexton commented, “Visible construction, which is such a feature of the exterior of the Spanish house, is just as prominent in the design of the interior. In fact, the interior design is governed by the same principles and is true to the same traditions as the exterior. There is a noticeable absence of meaningless decoration and ornament, and every detail which lends interest to and increases the decorative value of the scheme has its origin in the structure.” USA192720thResidentialTransitional
6326Sherwin-Williams Paint and Colour Style Guide - Color Suggestions for Your HomeSpanish-style decoration was a popular choice in the American home of the 1930s and 40s.

Sherwin-Williams Paint and Color Style Guide, Color Suggestions for your Home of 1942 was a large-format catalogue of images and commentary aimed at the American householder. It acted as a guide to paint application in the home for a range of rooms and was available for loan from retailers selling decorating materials. The introduction stated,
“In creating the Sherwin-Williams Paint and Color Style Guide, it was our purpose to establish a new and easier way to select home decoration …. To portray the beauty, a simplicity and distinction that accounts for the increasing popularity of painted walls and painted homes. The old method of colour selection, based upon choosing paint colors from tiny color-card samples, has always left much to be desired.” And it continued, “Home decorating, at last, has been simplified, brought right into the home and made available to even the most modest of incomes.”
Most remarkable in the Color Style Guide was the use of what it called ‘natural-colour photography’ and the large format of the publication, which could be compared with wallpaper sample books.
The volume measures 16 x 19 inches.
USA194220thResidentialTransitional
6327Sherwin-Williams Paint and Colour Style Guide - Color Suggestions for Your HomeThe Sherwin-Williams colour style guide used the familiar trope of the ‘before’ and ‘after’ comparison to show how a room could be changed by the application of new paint surfaces. Here the transformation was from a ‘sombre’ to a ‘sprightlier’ atmosphere, largely through a newly decorated fireplace and the simplification of aspects of the interior.

Sherwin-Williams Paint and Color Style Guide, Color Suggestions for your Home of 1942 was a large-format catalogue of images and commentary aimed at the American householder. It acted as a guide to paint application in the home for a range of rooms and was available for loan from retailers selling decorating materials. The introduction stated,
“In creating the Sherwin-Williams Paint and Color Style Guide, it was our purpose to establish a new and easier way to select home decoration …. To portray the beauty, a simplicity and distinction that accounts for the increasing popularity of painted walls and painted homes. The old method of colour selection, based upon choosing paint colors from tiny color-card samples, has always left much to be desired.” And it continued, “Home decorating, at last, has been simplified, brought right into the home and made available to even the most modest of incomes.”
Most remarkable in the Color Style Guide was the use of what it called ‘natural-colour photography’ and the large format of the publication, which could be compared with wallpaper sample books.
The volume measures 16 x 19 inches.
USA194220thResidentialSocial and Sitting Spaces
6328Sherwin-Williams Paint and Colour Style Guide - Color Suggestions for Your HomeThe emphasis of this interior scheme was on comfort, with relaxed colours for enhancing mood and atmosphere. The reference to nature in the colour scheme was extended by the exterior views onto a conservatory and garden.

Sherwin-Williams Paint and Color Style Guide, Color Suggestions for your Home of 1942 was a large-format catalogue of images and commentary aimed at the American householder. It acted as a guide to paint application in the home for a range of rooms and was available for loan from retailers selling decorating materials. The introduction stated,
“In creating the Sherwin-Williams Paint and Color Style Guide, it was our purpose to establish a new and easier way to select home decoration …. To portray the beauty, a simplicity and distinction that accounts for the increasing popularity of painted walls and painted homes. The old method of colour selection, based upon choosing paint colors from tiny color-card samples, has always left much to be desired.” And it continued, “Home decorating, at last, has been simplified, brought right into the home and made available to even the most modest of incomes.”
Most remarkable in the Color Style Guide was the use of what it called ‘natural-colour photography’ and the large format of the publication, which could be compared with wallpaper sample books.
The volume measures 16 x 19 inches.
USA194220thResidentialSocial and Sitting Spaces
6329Sherwin-Williams Paint and Colour Style Guide - Color Suggestions for Your HomeRegional references were often made in American home-decorating manuals as well as books of architectural commentary. In this decorative room scheme, the choice of paint surfaces was made to complement pale-toned Yucca wood furniture for a ‘Californian’ effect.

Sherwin-Williams Paint and Color Style Guide, Color Suggestions for your Home of 1942 was a large-format catalogue of images and commentary aimed at the American householder. It acted as a guide to paint application in the home for a range of rooms and was available for loan from retailers selling decorating materials. The introduction stated,
“In creating the Sherwin-Williams Paint and Color Style Guide, it was our purpose to establish a new and easier way to select home decoration …. To portray the beauty, a simplicity and distinction that accounts for the increasing popularity of painted walls and painted homes. The old method of colour selection, based upon choosing paint colors from tiny color-card samples, has always left much to be desired.” And it continued, “Home decorating, at last, has been simplified, brought right into the home and made available to even the most modest of incomes.”
Most remarkable in the Color Style Guide was the use of what it called ‘natural-colour photography’ and the large format of the publication, which could be compared with wallpaper sample books.
The volume measures 16 x 19 inches.
USA194220thResidentialSocial and Sitting Spaces
6330Sherwin-Williams Paint and Colour Style Guide - Color Suggestions for Your Home
Regional styles were popular in American home-decorating manuals, just as in publications on architecture. The paint treatments are central to the effectiveness of the dining-room scheme in Pennsylvania Dutch style, with painted antique furniture of trestle table, dresser and sideboard.

Sherwin-Williams Paint and Color Style Guide, Color Suggestions for your Home of 1942 was a large-format catalogue of images and commentary aimed at the American householder. It acted as a guide to paint application in the home for a range of rooms and was available for loan from retailers selling decorating materials. The introduction stated, “In creating the Sherwin-Williams Paint and Color Style Guide, it was our purpose to establish a new and easier way to select home decoration …. To portray the beauty, a simplicity and distinction that accounts for the increasing popularity of painted walls and painted homes. The old method of colour selection, based upon choosing paint colors from tiny color-card samples, has always left much to be desired.” And it continued, “Home decorating, at last, has been simplified, brought right into the home and made available to even the most modest of incomes.”
Most remarkable in the Color Style Guide was the use of what it called ‘natural-colour photography’ and the large format of the publication, which could be compared with wallpaper sample books.
The volume measures 16 x 19 inches.
USA194220thResidentialDining Room
6331Sherwin-Williams Paint and Colour Style Guide - Color Suggestions for Your HomeThe impact of the decorative scheme for this kitchen was created through strong colour contrasts. Enamel paints, promoted as washable and hard-wearing, formed an alternative to other popular surface treatments, such as linoleum and ceramic tiling.

The Sherwin-Williams Paint and Color Style Guide of 1942 was a large-format catalogue of images and commentary aimed at the American householder. It acted as a guide to paint application in the home for a range of rooms and was available for loan from retailers selling decorating materials. The introduction stated, “In creating the Sherwin-Williams Paint and Color Style Guide, it was our purpose to establish a new and easier way to select home decoration …. To portray the beauty, a simplicity and distinction that accounts for the increasing popularity of painted walls and painted homes. The old method of colour selection, based upon choosing paint colors from tiny color-card samples, has always left much to be desired.” And it continued, “Home decorating, at last, has been simplified, brought right into the home and made available to even the most modest of incomes.”
Most remarkable in the Color Style Guide was the use of what it called ‘natural-colour photography’ and the large format of the publication, which could be compared with wallpaper sample books.
The volume measures 16 x 19 inches.
USA194220thResidentialKitchen
6332Sherwin-Williams Paint and Colour Style Guide - Color Suggestions for Your HomePaint treatments offered opportunities to devise themed rooms, as here, a Jonquil yellow ‘master’ bedroom, with soft furnishings co-ordinated with wall and floor surfaces.

Sherwin-Williams Paint and Color Style Guide, Color Suggestions for your Home of 1942 was a large-format catalogue of images and commentary aimed at the American householder. It acted as a guide to paint application in the home for a range of rooms and was available for loan from retailers selling decorating materials. The introduction stated, “In creating the Sherwin-Williams Paint and Color Style Guide, it was our purpose to establish a new and easier way to select home decoration …. To portray the beauty, a simplicity and distinction that accounts for the increasing popularity of painted walls and painted homes. The old method of colour selection, based upon choosing paint colors from tiny color-card samples, has always left much to be desired.” And it continued, “Home decorating, at last, has been simplified, brought right into the home and made available to even the most modest of incomes.”
Most remarkable in the Color Style Guide was the use of what it called ‘natural-colour photography’ and the large format of the publication, which could be compared with wallpaper sample books.
The volume measures 16 x 19 inches.
USA194220thResidentialBedroom
6333Sherwin-Williams Paint and Colour Style Guide - Color Suggestions for Your HomeThe text for this room scheme reads, “A room of her own - it is so easy and inexpensive! Fondest dreams can come true as simply as this, with daughter the principal work man.” The bedroom shows a gendered treatment of a single bedroom for a girl, with dressing table, easy chair and a small selection of books on a chest of drawers.

Sherwin-Williams Paint and Color Style Guide, Color Suggestions for your Home of 1942 was a large-format catalogue of images and commentary aimed at the American householder. It acted as a guide to paint application in the home for a range of rooms and was available for loan from retailers selling decorating materials. The introduction stated,
“In creating the Sherwin-Williams Paint and Color Style Guide, it was our purpose to establish a new and easier way to select home decoration …. To portray the beauty, a simplicity and distinction that accounts for the increasing popularity of painted walls and painted homes. The old method of colour selection, based upon choosing paint colors from tiny color-card samples, has always left much to be desired.” And it continued, “Home decorating, at last, has been simplified, brought right into the home and made available to even the most modest of incomes.”
Most remarkable in the Color Style Guide was the use of what it called ‘natural-colour photography’ and the large format of the publication, which could be compared with wallpaper sample books.
The volume measures 16 x 19 inches.
USA194220thResidentialBedroom
6334Sherwin-Williams Paint and Colour Style Guide - Color Suggestions for Your HomeThe room illustrates the move to transform bathrooms from the purely functional into decorative spaces through colour co-ordination and painted decorative devices.

Sherwin-Williams Paint and Color Style Guide, Color Suggestions for your Home of 1942 was a large-format catalogue of images and commentary aimed at the American householder. It acted as a guide to paint application in the home for a range of rooms and was available for loan from retailers selling decorating materials. The introduction stated, “In creating the Sherwin-Williams Paint and Color Style Guide, it was our purpose to establish a new and easier way to select home decoration …. To portray the beauty, a simplicity and distinction that accounts for the increasing popularity of painted walls and painted homes. The old method of colour selection, based upon choosing paint colors from tiny color-card samples, has always left much to be desired.” And it continued, “Home decorating, at last, has been simplified, brought right into the home and made available to even the most modest of incomes.”
Most remarkable in the Color Style Guide was the use of what it called ‘natural-colour photography’ and the large format of the publication, which could be compared with wallpaper sample books.
The volume measures 16 x 19 inches.
USA194220thResidentialBathroom
6335Sherwin-Williams Paint and Colour Style Guide - Color Suggestions for Your HomeThe basement in the American home could be used to house functional equipment for heating, air-conditioning and laundry as well as be a recreational space for children or adults alike. Here, a playful and fanciful room was created through choice of paint colours and decorating ideas.

Sherwin-Williams Paint and Color Style Guide, Color Suggestions for your Home of 1942 was a large-format catalogue of images and commentary aimed at the American householder. It acted as a guide to paint application in the home for a range of rooms and was available for loan from retailers selling decorating materials. The introduction stated,
“In creating the Sherwin-Williams Paint and Color Style Guide, it was our purpose to establish a new and easier way to select home decoration …. To portray the beauty, a simplicity and distinction that accounts for the increasing popularity of painted walls and painted homes. The old method of colour selection, based upon choosing paint colors from tiny color-card samples, has always left much to be desired.” And it continued, “Home decorating, at last, has been simplified, brought right into the home and made available to even the most modest of incomes.”
Most remarkable in the Color Style Guide was the use of what it called ‘natural-colour photography’ and the large format of the publication, which could be compared with wallpaper sample books.
The volume measures 16 x 19 inches.
USA194220thResidentialOther / Unknown
6336Sherwin-Williams Paint and Colour Style Guide - Color Suggestions for Your HomeThe basement in the American home could be used to house functional equipment for heating, air-conditioning and laundry as well as be a recreational space for children or adults alike. In this example, ‘a Mexican theme fantasy was played out in the basement’. Earthy colours and Mexican blanket patterns were adapted to the linoleum and painted floors.

Sherwin-Williams Paint and Color Style Guide, Color Suggestions for your Home of 1942 was a large-format catalogue of images and commentary aimed at the American householder. It acted as a guide to paint application in the home for a range of rooms and was available for loan from retailers selling decorating materials. The introduction stated,
“In creating the Sherwin-Williams Paint and Color Style Guide, it was our purpose to establish a new and easier way to select home decoration …. To portray the beauty, a simplicity and distinction that accounts for the increasing popularity of painted walls and painted homes. The old method of colour selection, based upon choosing paint colors from tiny color-card samples, has always left much to be desired.” And it continued, “Home decorating, at last, has been simplified, brought right into the home and made available to even the most modest of incomes.”
Most remarkable in the Color Style Guide was the use of what it called ‘natural-colour photography’ and the large format of the publication, which could be compared with wallpaper sample books.
The volume measures 16 x 19 inches.
USA194220thResidentialLeisure / Games Room
6337Sherwin-Williams Paint and Colour Style Guide - Color Suggestions for Your HomeThe porch or veranda of an American house could frequently serve as a transitional space between the interior and exterior. This illustration from a decorating manual concentrated on the impact of coordinated external paint surfaces. The commentary highlighted the white trim around windows, dark green shutters, and use of natural wood, suggesting that similar design principles could be applied to external and internal decorative schemes.

Sherwin-Williams Paint and Color Style Guide, Color Suggestions for your Home of 1942 was a large-format catalogue of images and commentary aimed at the American householder. It acted as a guide to paint application in the home for a range of rooms and was available for loan from retailers selling decorating materials. The introduction stated,
“In creating the Sherwin-Williams Paint and Color Style Guide, it was our purpose to establish a new and easier way to select home decoration …. To portray the beauty, a simplicity and distinction that accounts for the increasing popularity of painted walls and painted homes. The old method of colour selection, based upon choosing paint colors from tiny color-card samples, has always left much to be desired.” And it continued, “Home decorating, at last, has been simplified, brought right into the home and made available to even the most modest of incomes.”
Most remarkable in the Color Style Guide was the use of what it called ‘natural-colour photography’ and the large format of the publication, which could be compared with wallpaper sample books.
The volume measures 16 x 19 inches.
USA194220thResidentialTransitional
6338Sherwin-Williams Paint and Colour Style Guide - Color Suggestions for Your HomeThe message of this page from a decorating manual was that there could be a suitable decorative solution for every requirement in the home, with multiple variations in colour, units and equipment.

Sherwin-Williams Paint and Color Style Guide, Color Suggestions for your Home of 1942 was a large-format catalogue of images and commentary aimed at the American householder. It acted as a guide to paint application in the home for a range of rooms and was available for loan from retailers selling decorating materials. The introduction stated, “In creating the Sherwin-Williams Paint and Color Style Guide, it was our purpose to establish a new and easier way to select home decoration …. To portray the beauty, a simplicity and distinction that accounts for the increasing popularity of painted walls and painted homes. The old method of colour selection, based upon choosing paint colors from tiny color-card samples, has always left much to be desired.” And it continued, “Home decorating, at last, has been simplified, brought right into the home and made available to even the most modest of incomes.”
Most remarkable in the Color Style Guide was the use of what it called ‘natural-colour photography’ and the large format of the publication, which could be compared with wallpaper sample books.
The volume measures 16 x 19 inches.
USA194220thResidentialKitchen
6339Sherwin-Williams Paint and Colour Style Guide - Color Suggestions for Your HomeThe message of this page from a decorating manual was that there could be a suitable decorative solution for every requirement in the home, with multiple variations in colour, units and equipment.

Sherwin-Williams Paint and Color Style Guide, Color Suggestions for your Home of 1942 was a large-format catalogue of images and commentary aimed at the American householder. It acted as a guide to paint application in the home for a range of rooms and was available for loan from retailers selling decorating materials. The introduction stated, “In creating the Sherwin-Williams Paint and Color Style Guide, it was our purpose to establish a new and easier way to select home decoration …. To portray the beauty, a simplicity and distinction that accounts for the increasing popularity of painted walls and painted homes. The old method of colour selection, based upon choosing paint colors from tiny color-card samples, has always left much to be desired.” And it continued, “Home decorating, at last, has been simplified, brought right into the home and made available to even the most modest of incomes.”
Most remarkable in the Color Style Guide was the use of what it called ‘natural-colour photography’ and the large format of the publication, which could be compared with wallpaper sample books.
The volume measures 16 x 19 inches.


USA194220thResidentialBathroom
6195The Tiger Who Came to TeaA tiger comes to tea at Sophie’s house and eats everything they can find in Judith Kerr’s children’s story. As with much fiction for children, the pleasure lies in the mixture of the normal and the unexpected. This is played out in the illustrations where Kerr shows a well ordered household turned upside down by the presence of the large, smiling and cuddly tiger. The period detail is well observed: mid-century modern furniture, Formica table, a partially fitted kitchen with yellow worktop.

Here the tiger is eyeing up the food in the kitchen. The shelves display period ceramics, and hanging bunches of onions.
196820thResidential
6196We’re going on a Bear HuntIn Michael Rosen’s story a family consisting of father, three children and a baby go for a walk. They are ‘going on a bear hunt’, but find a real bear who pursues them home. Here they get back inside the house, but forget to shut the door. Having shut and locked the door they run into the bedroom and take refuge in the bed. As with much children’s literature there is a blurring of everyday domestic detail with fantasy elements, and as often, a focus on the boundaries of the house and the outside world, here the front door.198920thResidentialTransitional, Bedroom
6191Cold Comfort FarmIn Stella Gibbons’ novel, Flora Poste, whose parents have died, decides to go and live with relatives in Sussex. She arrives in their rural existence and sets about organising the place and its inhabitants. Here she explores her room for the first time.UK193220thResidentialBedroom
6192Cold Comfort FarmIn Stella Gibbons’ novel, Flora Poste, whose parents have died, decides to go and live with relatives in Sussex. She arrives in their rural existence and sets about organising the place and its inhabitants. Here she ventures downstairs into the kitchen on her first morning. The passage is typical in its representation of semi-genteel squalor and the country speech and manners seen from the point of view of a self-assured urban twenty-year-old.UK193220thResidentialTransitional, Kitchen
6303‘Delco-Frigidaire’
The publicity for Delco air-conditioning used the popular strategy of appealing to parents to invest in their children’s future. ‘You can have complete year ‘round air conditioning now or at some later date.’USA193720thLeisure / Games Room
6304‘Delco-Frigidaire’

Air-conditioning inevitably links the interior and exterior of the household in the imagination. Four different visual methods appeared on a single page of this catalogue: an atmospheric photograph of a couple at home; simplified technical drawings of installation layout; simple renditions of housing types, and two cut-away illustrations of house layouts. USA193720thResidentialSocial and Sitting Spaces
6305‘Mountain Fresh … Ocean Bathed Climate at Home’
Two contrasting pictorial styles appeared on opposite pages of this trade catalogue for a heating and air-conditioning company. On the left-hand page, a simple diagrammatic format explains the movement of hot and cold air, while on the right, the benefits of the system are celebrated in a painting of children playing in a basement executed in a popular style of commercial illustration.USA193720thResidentialLeisure / Games Room, Multifunctional Living Space
6188Ann VeronicaThe novel charts the life of Ann Veronica, who, born into a conventional family, wants a different life. In charting her journey from the tedious London suburb of Morningside Park where her widowed father lives to her realisation of her relative social, sexual and economic freedom, Wells produced a novel which caused a sensation when first published in 1909. In this scene at the end of the novel, the heroine, who has married her lover despite his having already been married when she met him, waits for her father and aunt to come and visit in recognition of their reconciliation. The arrangement of the flat and the dinner acts as a sign of their respectability.UK190920thResidentialSocial and Sitting Spaces, Dining Room
6189Ann VeronicaThe novel charts the life of Ann Veronica, who, born into a conventional family, wants a different life. In charting her journey from the tedious London suburb of Morningside Park where her parents live to her realisation of her relative social, sexual and economic freedom, Wells produced a novel which caused a sensation when first published in 1909. Here, in the opening chapter, Ann Veronica figures her life as one in waiting, and uses the simile of a house shut up for the summer to suggest the latent possibilities she feels await her. The simile places her economically and socially among the kind of people who leave their town house in the summer for the countryside.UK190920thResidentialOther / Unknown
6622The Winslow BoyMade in 1948, The Winslow Boy was adapted from a play by Terence Rattigan (and directed by Anthony Asquith). Its domestic interiors recreate an era immediately before the First World War, and ‘belong’ to the respectable and upper-middle-class Winslow family. Bell boards such as these were common in substantial middle-class homes until the Second World War, and allowed the occupants to summon servants to particular rooms. Note the differentiation between ‘front door’ and ‘tradesmen’.UK1948
1900-1914
20thResidentialWork Space, Other / Unknown
6623The Winslow BoyMade in 1948, The Winslow Boy was adapted from a play by Terence Rattigan (and directed by Anthony Asquith). Its domestic interiors recreate an era immediately before the First World War, and ‘belong’ to the respectable and upper-middle-class Winslow family. Within middle- and upper-class homes it was accepted for children to form more familiar relationships with servants, provided that these bonds weakened in adolescence. Note, too, the set of golf clubs in the corner next to the hall stand. Leisure activities such as golf were an important part of the middle-class gentlemanly identity. The display of such items within the interior was consequently significant.UK1948
1900-1914
20thResidentialMultifunctional Living Space, Transitional, Social and Sitting Spaces, Other / Unknown
6624The Winslow BoyMade in 1948, The Winslow Boy was adapted from a play by Terence Rattigan (and directed by Anthony Asquith). Its domestic interiors recreate an era immediately before the First World War, and ‘belong’ to the respectable and upper-middle-class Winslow family. The naval cadet Ronnie Winslow (played by Neil North) is shown sitting in the impersonal, comfortless hallway to indicate his anxious and distracted mental state.UK1948
1900-1914
20thResidentialSocial and Sitting Spaces, Multifunctional Living Space, Transitional, Other / Unknown
6625The Winslow BoyMade in 1948, The Winslow Boy was adapted from a play by Terence Rattigan (and directed by Anthony Asquith). Its domestic interiors recreate an era immediately before the First World War, and ‘belong’ to the respectable and upper-middle-class Winslow family. The suitor of Kate Winslow (played by Margaret Leighton) is shown here reaching for the servants’ bell on the wall beside the fireplace in Mr. Winslow’s study. Larger middle-class homes of the era separated servants’ quarters from domestic spaces as much as possible. Often using a separate (and narrower) staircase, the decoration of servants’ quarters was also pared down and basic.UK1948
1900-1914
20thResidentialLibrary / Study, Social and Sitting Spaces, Multifunctional Living Space
6626The Winslow BoyMade in 1948, The Winslow Boy was adapted from a play by Terence Rattigan (and directed by Anthony Asquith). Its domestic interiors recreate an era immediately before the First World War, and ‘belong’ to the respectable and upper-middle-class Winslow family. Kate Winslow (played by Margaret Leighton) and Ronnie Winslow (played by Neil North) are shown here on the stairs. By the 1920s and 1930s, the Victorian and Edwardian elements of middle-class interiors such as these had disappeared: the embossed and patterned wallpaper, the patterned hallway tiling, the dark and heavy dado rails.UK1948
1900-1914
20thResidentialTransitional, Other / Unknown
6627The Blue LampDirected by Basil Dearden, The Blue Lamp (1950) was inspired by the contemporary public perception that new forms of youth culture in the major cities were giving rise to a wave of criminality. Here Tom and Spud (played by Dirk Bogarde and Patrick Doonan) are shown in the living room of their flat. Their depravity and criminality is mirrored in the grime and dilapidation of the interior which, in its lack of care and attention, also suggests their rootlessness and incomprehension of domestic virtues.UK195020thResidentialKitchen, Dining Room, Multifunctional Living Space, Social and Sitting Spaces
6628The Blue LampDirected by Basil Dearden, The Blue Lamp (1950) was inspired by the contemporary public perception that new forms of youth culture in the major cities were giving rise to a wave of criminality. Here the murderer Tom (played by Dirk Bogarde) is shown in his flat with his girlfriend. The disorder of the interior and the gash in the plasterwork represent their moral dissolution. Here and elsewhere, the film also reflects through such interiors the equally common perception that young working-class women were abandoning traditional female roles and virtues.UK195020thResidentialKitchen, Multifunctional Living Space, Social and Sitting Spaces
6629The Blue LampDirected by Basil Dearden, The Blue Lamp (1950) was inspired by the contemporary public perception that new forms of youth culture in the major cities were giving rise to a wave of criminality. Here, Diana, the girlfriend of the murdered Tom (played by Dirk Bogarde) is shown lying on the bed in his flat. The moral judgment intended by the film on Diana lies not merely in her cohabitation with Tom. Through the pictures of film stars she has stuck to the wall, and the copy of Movie Life clasped in one hand, she is shown to have succumbed to the empty blandishments of popular culture. The freer access of working-class people to consumer practices in this period was often seen as morally degenerative.UK195020thResidentialBedroom
6630The Blue LampDirected by Basil Dearden, The Blue Lamp (1950) was inspired by the contemporary public perception that new forms of youth culture in the major cities were giving rise to a wave of criminality. This image shows a policeman using a commercial telephone, while an open door allows us to look into a working-class domestic interior. Even after the Second World War, it was still common for working-class housing to have no bathroom facilties, and for toilets to be separate (and sometimes communal) outside structures.UK195020thResidentialDining Room, Leisure / Games Room, Multifunctional Living Space, Social and Sitting Spaces, Bathroom
6631The Blue LampDirected by Basil Dearden, The Blue Lamp (1950) was inspired by the contemporary public perception that new forms of youth culture in the major cities were giving rise to a wave of criminality. The good-natured decency of the veteran policeman George Dixon (played by Jack Warner) is the foil against which criminal immorality is set. Equally, his wife - shown here in the kitchen - is presented as the organising spirit of a simple but happy home. The absence of this warm, secure and feminised domesticity is presented as central to the predicament of modern youth.UK195020thResidentialDining Room, Kitchen, Multifunctional Living Space, Social and Sitting Spaces
6185The Magician’s NephewIn this story from C S Lewis’ Chronicles of Narnia, two children, Polly and her neighbour Digory, begin their adventures or ‘indoor exploration’ in the attic of Polly’s family house. In this extract the children have climbed along the tunnel formed by the intercommunicating roof spaces of the terrace and find themselves in Digory’s house. They are in the attic study belonging to his uncle which he has been forbidden to enter. Here the description draws on a tradition of studies as masculine spaces, and specifically, the mediaeval and Renaissance study where books are a privileged source of knowledge, sometimes, as here, of a magic nature. The passage moves from the everyday and the modern - the reference to the sound of a Hoover - to the unusual, the beautiful shiny rings which turn out to have magical powers.UK 195520thResidentialLibrary / Study
6186The Railway ChildrenE. Nesbit’s enduringly popular children’s book tells the story of a well-off family whose father is convicted (wrongly) of spying, and who have to leave the comfort of their suburban life for a very different life in the country. As Nesbit puts it, ‘they did not know how happy [they were] till the pretty life in Edgecombe Villa was over and done with, and they had to live a very different life indeed.’
Their economic and social status is here conveyed in the opening paragraphs of the book as a matter of domestic comfort where Nesbit has only to gesture at fashionable modern conveniences for a whole way of life to be represented.
UK1906ResidentialBathroom, Transitional, Nursery
6187The Railway ChildrenE. Nesbit’s enduringly popular children’s book tells the story of a well-off family whose father is convicted (wrongly) of spying, and who have to leave the comfort of their suburban life for a very different life in the country. As Nesbit puts it, ‘they did not know how happy [they were] till the pretty life in Edgecombe Villa was over and done with, and they had to live a very different life indeed.’
Their economic and social status is here conveyed in the opening paragraphs of the book as a matter of domestic comfort where Nesbit has only to gesture at fashionable modern conveniences for a whole way of life to be represented.
UK190620thResidentialTransitional, Kitchen
6609The Winslow BoyMade in 1948, The Winslow Boy was adapted from a play by Terence Rattigan (and directed by Anthony Asquith). Its domestic interiors recreate an era immediately before the First World War, and ‘belong’ to the respectable and upper-middle-class Winslow family. This image shows Ronnie Winslow (played by Neil North) speaking to his elder brother in the latter’s bedroom. The allocation of a bedroom to each child (at least once they had reached adolescence) was a key feature of middle-class domesticity. For middle-class people, personal space - and the space to display objects and tastes - was associated with notions of individuality. This nexus operated to distinguish the middle classes from the working class and its supposedly undifferentiated ‘crowded masses’.UK1948
1900-1914
20thResidentialBedroom, Library / Study, Multifunctional Living Space, Social and Sitting Spaces
6610The Winslow BoyMade in 1948, The Winslow Boy was adapted from a play by Terence Rattigan (and directed by Anthony Asquith). Its domestic interiors recreate an era immediately before the First World War, and ‘belong’ to the respectable and upper-middle-class Winslow family. This image shows one of the servants bringing a tray of glasses to Mr. Winslow (played by Sir Cecil Hardwicke) in the sitting room. For middle-class families in the pre-First World War era, employing domestic servants was a universal practice. The domestic interior was consequently the location not merely for family relationships, but for a complex and sometimes fraught interaction between social classes.UK1948
1900-1914
20thResidentialLeisure / Games Room, Multifunctional Living Space, Social and Sitting Spaces
6611The Winslow BoyMade in 1948, The Winslow Boy was adapted from a play by Terence Rattigan (and directed by Anthony Asquith). Its domestic interiors recreate an era immediately before the First World War, and ‘belong’ to the respectable and upper-middle-class Winslow family. While Mr. Winslow (played by Sir Cecil Hardwicke) is shown in numerous active and exterior contexts, his wife is depicted passively occupying the domestic interior. Here, in the highly feminised context of the marital bedroom, she is shown awaiting her husband’s return from an important meeting.UK1948
1900-1914
20thResidentialBedroom, Multifunctional Living Space, Social and Sitting Spaces
6612The Winslow BoyMade in 1948, The Winslow Boy was adapted from a play by Terence Rattigan (and directed by Anthony Asquith). Its domestic interiors recreate an era immediately before the First World War, and ‘belong’ to the respectable and upper-middle-class Winslow family. This image shows Kate Winslow (played by Margaret Leighton) in her bedroom talking to her father (played by Sir Cecil Hardwicke). The middle class had many gradations of income and display. As a bank manager, Mr. Winslow stood at the wealthier end of this spectrum, and the film accurately represents the style of domesticity this made possible. The dimensions of the bedroom shown here (not the main bedroom of the house) are substantial and generous, allowing for a variety of furniture and a full-sized fireplace and mantelpiece.UK1948
1900-1914
20thResidentialBedroom, Multifunctional Living Space, Social and Sitting Spaces
6613The Winslow BoyMade in 1948, The Winslow Boy was adapted from a play by Terence Rattigan (and directed by Anthony Asquith). Its domestic interiors recreate an era immediately before the First World War, and ‘belong’ to the respectable and upper-middle-class Winslow family. Mr. Winslow (played by Sir Cecil Hardwicke) is shown here visiting a bank manager colleague. Note how the bank manager’s office borrows many features from the domestic, male middle-class study. In this way, among others, the position of bank manager was made both class- and gender-specific.UK1948
1900-1914
20thCommercial , Work Space, Social and Sitting Spaces
6614The Winslow BoyMade in 1948, The Winslow Boy was adapted from a play by Terence Rattigan (and directed by Anthony Asquith). Its domestic interiors recreate an era immediately before the First World War, and ‘belong’ to the respectable and upper-middle-class Winslow family. Mr. Winslow (played by Sir Cecil Hardwicke) is shown here in the drawing room of his home with family members and friends. As a rule, working-class families during this period did not use the domestic interior as a setting for sociability beyond the family itself. The middle-class home, however, was in many ways configured around the knowledge that it would be used for ‘entertaining’.UK1948
1900-1914
20thResidentialLeisure / Games Room, Multifunctional Living Space, Social and Sitting Spaces
6615Went the Day Well?Made in 1942, Went the Day Well? was a wartime propaganda film telling the fictional story of a fifth column of German soldiers infiltrating a rural English village community. It was directed by Alberto Cavalcanti and produced by Michael Balcon. As with so many films of the period, the various class groupings involved in the narrative are rapidly identified to the audience through the representation of their interior domesticity. Here, the lady of the manor entertains the local notables to dinner.UK194220thResidentialDining Room, Social and Sitting Spaces
6616Went the Day Well?Made in 1942, Went the Day Well? was a wartime propaganda film telling the fictional story of a fifth column of German soldiers infiltrating a rural English village community. It was directed by Alberto Cavalcanti and produced by Michael Balcon. This scene shows the local lady of the manor hosting various notables to dinner. They have moved to the drawing room for coffee. The film accurately presents this upper-class interior as sharing many decorative tropes with upper-middle-class domesticity, if on a larger scale. The chintz curtains and upholstery, the plain walls, the Georgian furniture and neo-Georgian wall sconces were common to both environments.UK194220thResidentialLeisure / Games Room, Multifunctional Living Space, Social and Sitting Spaces
6617Went the Day Well?Made in 1942, Went the Day Well? was a wartime propaganda film telling the fictional story of a fifth column of German soldiers infiltrating a rural English village community. It was directed by Alberto Cavalcanti and produced by Michael Balcon. This scene shows a group of evacuee children staying at the village manor house. Working-class evacuees, removed from their homes in the major cities, typically found the domestic material culture of their middle- and upper-class hosts - and the associated cluster of manners and rituals - foreign and alarming.UK194220thResidentialBedroom
6618Went the Day Well?Made in 1942, Went the Day Well? was a wartime propaganda film telling the fictional story of a fifth column of German soldiers infiltrating a rural English village community. It was directed by Alberto Cavalcanti and produced by Michael Balcon. The solidly middle-class character shown seated here (played by Leslie Banks) is introduced early in the film. His interior domesticity - along with his clothing, accent and deportment - is used to associate him with the usual cluster of idealised middle-class qualities, for instance: respectability, patriotism, integrity and leadership. In an unusual departure for this period, the film then subverts this expectation by revealing him to be a traitor.UK194220thResidentialDining Room, Multifunctional Living Space, Social and Sitting Spaces
6619The Blue LampDirected by Basil Dearden, The Blue Lamp (1950) was inspired by the contemporary public perception that new forms of youth culture in the major cities were giving rise to a wave of criminality. This image represents the interior of a working-class tenement. The disorder of the interior - with strewn clothes and washing and dirty cooking pots accentuating the cramped conditions - operates as a metaphor for the social chaos of a working-class generation uprooted by the war.UK195020thResidentialBedroom, Leisure / Games Room, Multifunctional Living Space, Social and Sitting Spaces
6620The Blue LampDirected by Basil Dearden, The Blue Lamp (1950) was inspired by the contemporary public perception that new forms of youth culture in the major cities were giving rise to a wave of criminality. This image shows the veteran police sergeant George Dixon (played by Jack Warner) at home with his wife. The kitchen/living room interior conveys respectable working-class status. Beyond this, its comfortable, homely 1930s solidity is the foil against which the brash, neon postwar world is juxtaposed.UK195020thResidentialDining Room, Kitchen, Leisure / Games Room, Multifunctional Living Space, Social and Sitting Spaces
6621The Blue LampDirected by Basil Dearden, The Blue Lamp (1950) was inspired by the contemporary public perception that new forms of youth culture in the major cities were giving rise to a wave of criminality. This image shows the veteran police sergeant George Dixon (played by Jack Warner) at home with his wife. It accurately represents the narrow dimensions of the hallway of a working-class terraced house. Beyond that, its plainness and modesty are used as a counterpoint to what was frequently portrayed as a consumption-crazed younger generation.UK195020thResidentialTransitional, Other / Unknown
6184The Magician’s NephewIn this story from C S Lewis’ Chronicles of Narnia, two children, Polly and her neighbour Digory, begin their adventures or ‘indoor exploration’ in the attic of Polly’s family house. The extract deals with different kinds of childhood fantasy, from smugglers’ caves to the possibility that a house might be haunted. The story depends on the fact that in this row of London terraced houses the spaces beneath the roofs are interconnected, allowing the boundaries of each domestic space to be crossed. Here the theme of urban proximity gets a particular treatment, as the access into other houses proves to offer access into the fantasy world of Narnia.UK 195520thResidentialOther / Unknown
6182‘My Grandmother's Houses’Kay was brought up in Scotland, and writes about the experience of being a mixed-race child adopted as a baby by a white couple.

This second stanza describes Kay’s grandmother’s flat after she’s been been moved into a new high-rise building. It lists the comforts of the new flat, simultaneously revealing their limitations: foam-backed carpet and the novelty of a bathroom which isn’t shared. The shift to describing the visits to church emphasises the poem’s themes of continuity and change.
UK199120thResidential
6183‘My Grandmother's Houses’ Kay was brought up in Scotland, and writes about the experience of being a mixed-race child adopted as a baby by a white couple.

The third stanza in Kay’s poem about her grandmother gives us the final house of the poem’s title - one of the houses she cleans. It is clearly on a different scale from the flats she lives in, and the child’s view of the grand piano as a ‘one-winged creature’, the hall described as ‘huge’ with rooms leading off it compared to the arms of an octopus gives the description a mythic quality. The encounter with the lady who lives there also raises the issue of racial identity as she remarks on Kay’s colouring, describing it as ‘café au lait’, a reference outside Kay’s vocabulary as a working-class seven-year-old. The references to the hymn and the ambulances pick up on earlier themes of religion and mortality.
UK20thResidential
6599A seamen's mess on board a battleshipThis official Admiralty photograph shows the members of a seamen’s mess having a meal on board a battleship. Although naval officers’ living quarters drew heavily on the private and institutional domesticity of the middle class from which they were largely drawn, the same was not true for the predominantly working-class ‘ratings’. For the great majority, messes such as this would have had no parallel in civilian life.UK1939-194520thInstitutional , ResidentialBedroom, Dining Room, Leisure / Games Room, Multifunctional Living Space, Social and Sitting Spaces, Work Space, Other / Unknown
6600Wardroom dining room of a depot shipTaken in 1943, this official Admiralty photograph shows the wardroom dining room of a naval depot ship. Within the Navy, entirely different socio-cultural worlds could inhabit closely adjoining spaces. The serving hatch pictured here connected the middle-class world of naval officers with the working-class domain of the naval stewards plating up and serving food.UK194320thInstitutional , ResidentialDining Room, Leisure / Games Room, Multifunctional Living Space, Social and Sitting Spaces, Other / Unknown
6601Ward room ante room of a depot shipDating from 1943, this official Admiralty photograph shows part of the officers’ wardroom of a naval depot ship. Within this space, and in the adjoining wardroom dining room, behaviour would reflect the hierarchies of seniority deeply etched in middle-class culture. By explicit ritual or by habit, the more senior officers would occupy particular seats, and newcomers to the mess had to absorb these usages as fast as possible.UK194320thInstitutional , ResidentialLeisure / Games Room, Multifunctional Living Space, Social and Sitting Spaces, Other / Unknown
6602Officers having breakfast in the shore base, HMS DefianceThis official Admiralty photograph shows two officers being served breakfast by WRNS stewards in the wardroom of the shore establishment HMS Defiance. Through corporate domestic interiors such as these, middle-class naval officers (along with the members of many other professional institutions) were able to enjoy a style of life and security of status far beyond their individual means.UK1939-194520thInstitutional , ResidentialDining Room, Social and Sitting Spaces, Other / Unknown
6603Boiler cleaners at their midday meal on the messdeck of a destroyerTaken during the Second World War, this official Admiralty photograph shows a group of naval boiler cleaners having a meal on the messdeck of a destroyer. Although lacking any parallel in working-class civilian life, these environments did accommodate the informal, close-packed working-class sociability of civilian workplaces and pubs.UK1939-194520thInstitutional , ResidentialBedroom, Dining Room, Leisure / Games Room, Multifunctional Living Space, Social and Sitting Spaces, Work Space, Other / Unknown
6604A card game on the mess deck of a cruiserAn official Admiralty photograph showing the seamen’s messdeck of a cruiser in 1942. Designed for living, eating and sleeping, spaces such as this had little in common with the shore-based interior domesticity of their typically working-class occupants. Instead, they continued to communicate the ‘timeless’ visual vocabulary of Nelson’s ‘wooden walls’. In the top left-hand corner of the image, clothes have been hung to dry over the iron ‘cringle bars’ from which hammocks were suspended.UK194220thInstitutional , ResidentialBedroom, Dining Room, Leisure / Games Room, Multifunctional Living Space, Social and Sitting Spaces, Work Space, Other / Unknown
6605Entertainment on board a naval trawlerThis official Admiralty photograph from 1942 shows how the seamen’s living spaces on board a naval trawler could rapidly be converted to another purpose. Here, the mess is hosting a bout of the regular ‘Brains Trust’ general knowledge quiz.UK194220thInstitutional , ResidentialBedroom, Dining Room, Leisure / Games Room, Multifunctional Living Space, Social and Sitting Spaces, Work Space, Other / Unknown
6606The Winslow BoyMade in 1948, The Winslow Boy was adapted from a play by Terence Rattigan (and directed by Anthony Asquith). Its domestic interiors recreate an era immediately before the First World War, and ‘belong’ to the respectable and upper-middle-class Winslow family. This image shows Mr. Winslow returning from his work as a bank manager, having been greeted by his wife in the hallway. Such spaces were not altogether private - note the severe wooden bench seat where visiting tradesmen might be asked to wait. Note too the hunting trophy above the doorway, with its connotations of sporting gentlemanliness.UK1948
1900-1914
20thResidentialMultifunctional Living Space, Social and Sitting Spaces, Other / Unknown, Transitional
6607The Winslow BoyMade in 1948, The Winslow Boy was adapted from a play by Terence Rattigan (and directed by Anthony Asquith). Its domestic interiors recreate an era immediately before the First World War, and ‘belong’ to the respectable and upper-middle-class Winslow family. Mr. Winslow, a bank manager, is shown here standing in front of his desk in his study. Such use of space was common among the middle classes, and the presence of the desk with its assortment of writing and smoking materials coded the room as a repository of masculine authority and control.UK1948
1900-1914
20thResidentialLibrary / Study, Multifunctional Living Space, Social and Sitting Spaces, Work Space, Other / Unknown
6608The Winslow BoyMade in 1948, The Winslow Boy was adapted from a play by Terence Rattigan (and directed by Anthony Asquith). Its domestic interiors recreate an era immediately before the First World War, and ‘belong’ to the respectable and upper-middle-class Winslow family. Mr. Winslow (played by Sir Cedric Hardwicke) is shown here seated in his study. In the context of the period, the identity of this room as a masculine space is communicated by the serried ranks of books, the plain and substantial mahogany furniture, the leather club chair and the unpatterned walls and curtains.UK1948
1900-1914
20thResidentialLibrary / Study, Multifunctional Living Space, Social and Sitting Spaces, Work Space
6585Rear Admiral C.B. Barry in his office ashore An official Admiralty photograph taken in 1943 and showing Rear Admiral Barry seated in his office. Within the Navy, the responsibility of command (and the seniority of the commanding officer) were represented through their solitary possession of their living spaces. Ashore and at sea, the commanding officer was a guest in the officers’ wardroom, and not necessarily a frequent one.UK194320thInstitutional , ResidentialLibrary / Study, Multifunctional Living Space, Social and Sitting Spaces, Work Space, Other / Unknown
6586An Officers' cabin on board HMS Tracker Taken in 1943, this official Admiralty photograph shows an officers’ cabin on board HMS Tracker. Throughout their lives, the junior officers shown here would have learned to associate shared living environments with low status. For middle- and upper-class boys these lessons were instilled at preparatory and public school, where only senior boys were allocated their own private studies. The Navy used the same device to delineate an age-related hierarchy.UK194320thInstitutional , ResidentialBedroom, Multifunctional Living Space, Social and Sitting Spaces, Other / Unknown
6587The captains of HMS Black Prince and HMS Kempenfelt in conversation Taken in 1944, this official Admiralty photograph shows the captain of HMS Black Prince in conversation with the captain of HMS Kempenfelt in the former’s day cabin at sea. Note the fireplace and fender. Besides being significant introductions into the warship of a middle-class vocabulary of interior domesticity, they also accommodated those further middle-class signifiers: the silver-framed photographs or studio portraits of family members.UK194420thInstitutional , ResidentialLeisure / Games Room, Multifunctional Living Space, Social and Sitting Spaces, Work Space, Other / Unknown
6588The hangar deck of a British aircraft carrierThis official Admiralty photograph from 1942 shows an aircraft maintenance crew on the hangar deck of HMS Victorious. Unlike naval officers - who were very rarely obliged to give up or share their accommodation - lower ranks frequently slept where they worked during wartime.UK194220thInstitutional , ResidentialBedroom, Multifunctional Living Space, Work Space, Other / Unknown
6589Christmas entertainment in the Home FleetThis official Admiralty photograph from 1943 shows a group of stokers preparing for a Christmas revue performance on board a depot ship in harbour. The interior of a living space has become the ‘green room’. One consequence of the largely single-sex nature of naval life and the naval interior seems to have been that, within the protected sphere of theatre or ritual, cross-dressing was a relatively frequent activity.UK194320thInstitutional , ResidentialOther / Unknown, Multifunctional Living Space
6590A conference of senior naval officers on board HMS LiverpoolThis official Admiralty photograph from 1952 shows a gathering of senior naval officers in the admiral’s dining cabin of HMS Liverpool. The Navy’s frequent use of the interior to draw a conceptual parallel between the modern Navy and its Nelsonian predecessor can be seen in the engravings of ships of the line decorating the walls. Beyond this, the admiral’s quarters were located at the stern of the ship, as in the days of sail.UK195220thInstitutional , ResidentialDining Room, Multifunctional Living Space, Social and Sitting Spaces, Work Space, Other / Unknown
6591An officer having a haircut on board HMS HolmesThis official Admiralty photograph shows the first lieutenant of HMS Holmes having his hair cut in his cabin in 1944. Within this environment, notions of interior and exterior, public and private were frequently reconfigured.UK194420thInstitutional , ResidentialBedroom, Library / Study, Multifunctional Living Space, Work Space, Other / Unknown, Social and Sitting Spaces
6592Rear Admiral R.L. Burnett at his desk with his Chief-of-StaffTaken in 1942, this official Admiralty photograph shows Rear Admiral R.L. Burnett at his desk with his Chief-of-Staff. With its framed photographs, letter rack, papers, cigarette case and ashtray, the desk was a powerful symbol of middle- and upper-class male mastery and expertise. Its symbolism also straddled domestic, business-related and professional contexts.UK194220thInstitutional , ResidentialLibrary / Study, Multifunctional Living Space, Social and Sitting Spaces, Work Space, Other / Unknown
6593Officers in conversation in the wardroom of a depot shipThis official Admiralty photograph taken during the Second World War shows two submarine officers talking in the wardroom of a depot ship. During this period, officer status and use of the wardroom demanded particular body disciplines and conversational abilities. Interiors such as these were active participants in a corporate, class-related identity.UK1939-194520thInstitutional , ResidentialLeisure / Games Room, Multifunctional Living Space, Social and Sitting Spaces, Other / Unknown
6594End of the day on board the Boys' Training Ship HMS ImpregnableOne of a series of official Admiralty photographs taken on board the Boys Training Ship HMS Impregnable. The Admiralty used objects such as the hammock to draw a conceptual parallel between the modern ‘Jack Tar’ and his eighteenth-century predecessor. The hammock achieved this not simply through its form, but also through its materials: rope and canvas.UK1939-194520thInstitutional , ResidentialBedroom, Multifunctional Living Space, Work Space, Other / Unknown
6595Officers in the wardroom of a destroyerThis official Admiralty photograph shows a group of officers in the wardroom of a destroyer. The relationship of officers to their living quarters was quite different from that experienced by the lower ranks. Officers were not responsible for cleaning or maintaining spaces such as these, and stewards were on hand to serve drinks.UK1939-194520thInstitutional , ResidentialLeisure / Games Room, Multifunctional Living Space, Social and Sitting Spaces, Other / Unknown
6596An evening meal on the mess deck of a cruiserTaken in 1942, this official Admiralty photograph shows an evening meal in progress on the mess deck of a cruiser. Unlike in officers’ quarters little or no attempt was made in spaces such as these to mediate or conceal the structure of the ship. Pipes and ventilation ducts covered the deckheads (ceilings), and the steel sides of the ship were not clad or panelled.UK194220thInstitutional , ResidentialBedroom, Dining Room, Leisure / Games Room, Multifunctional Living Space, Social and Sitting Spaces, Work Space, Other / Unknown
6597Meal time in the seamen's mess of an armed trawlerThis official Admiralty photograph from 1943 shows a meal in progress in the seamen’s mess of a naval armed trawler. As a result of both naval discipline and the lack of available space, the navy’s lower ranks were largely unable to display personal items within their living spaces.UK194320thInstitutional , ResidentialBedroom, Dining Room, Leisure / Games Room, Multifunctional Living Space, Social and Sitting Spaces, Work Space, Other / Unknown
6598A wardroom lunch during rough weatherTaken in 1945, this official Admiralty photograph shows lunch in progress in the wardroom of a British cruiser. Sometimes rough weather would make the usual manners and body disciplines associated with an interior impossible to maintain.UK194520thInstitutional , ResidentialDining Room, Leisure / Games Room, Multifunctional Living Space, Social and Sitting Spaces, Other / Unknown
6181The Adventures of Huckleberry FinnHere Huckleberry Finn describes the house he ends up in when he has been left by his boat. The level of detail registers the novelty of the experience, and the description contains elements built up over time showing his increasing knowledge of the household.USA188419thResidentialSocial and Sitting Spaces
6179The Lion, the Witch and the WardrobePeter, Susan, Edmund and Lucy have been evacuated from London during the war and sent to the country house of an old professor. On their first morning it is raining and the children start to explore the house. Elsewhere we are told it is a house visited by tourists, an ‘old and famous house’.

The Lion, the Witch and the Wardrobe is the first of C.S. Lewis’ Narnia stories, written for children, and widely read, not just by children, ever since their publication. A film version came out in 2005.
UK195020thResidential
6180The Lion, the Witch and the WardrobeThe Lion, the Witch and the Wardrobe is the first of C.S. Lewis’ Narnia stories, written for children, and widely read, not just by children, ever since their publication. A film version came out in 2005.

Peter, Susan, Edmund and Lucy have been evacuated from London during the war and sent to the country house of an old professor. On their first morning it is raining and the children start to explore the house. Elsewhere we are told it is a house visited by tourists, an ‘old and famous house’.

In this passage, Lucy enters Narnia for the first time. With a strong emphasis on sensory perception, Lewis describes her moving from inside to outside through the back of the wardrobe. The blurring of boundaries of inside and outside is a common feature of children’s fantasy literature.
UK195020thResidential
6581Reveille on board the Boys' Training Ship HMS Impregnable One of a series of Admiralty photographs illustrating life on board the Boys’ Training Ship HMS Impregnable. Even in shore establishments, boys such as these (and adult seamen) slept in hammocks until bunks were gradually introduced after the Second World War. To naval authority, the references to the Nelsonian Jack Tar in such interiors provided a useful counterpoint to the more threatening identities of the twentieth-century working class.UK1939-194520thInstitutional , ResidentialBedroom, Multifunctional Living Space, Social and Sitting Spaces, Other / Unknown
6582HMS Kelvin: officers censoring letters in the wardroom An official Admiralty photograph showing two officers in the wardroom of HMS Kelvin in harbour reading and censoring letters from the crew before posting. Note how the middle-class messages of the interior - the club-like furniture, the chintz curtains - are mirrored by the officers’ uniform, a ‘navalised’ facsimile of the gentleman’s suit.UK1939-194520thInstitutional , ResidentialLeisure / Games Room, Multifunctional Living Space, Social and Sitting Spaces, Other / Unknown
6583Officers in the wardroom of HMS Kelvin This official Admiralty photograph shows the officers of HMS Kelvin entertaining the commanding officer of another warship to dinner. The close correlation of officers’ quarters to civilian upper-middle-class masculine environments gave many officers the sense that the warship or shore establishment was a home as much as a workplace, and that they ‘owned’ them rather than merely occupied them.UK1939-194520thInstitutional , ResidentialDining Room, Leisure / Games Room, Multifunctional Living Space, Social and Sitting Spaces, Other / Unknown
6584HMS Queen Elizabeth: Admiral Cunningham broadcasting from cabin Taken in 1942, this official Admiralty photograph shows Admiral Sir Andrew Cunningham broadcasting from his cabin. Although the warship was an all-male environment, its interior contained many feminine references. Note here not only the framed portrait photograph on the desk, but also the matching chintz curtains and seat cover. Such upholstery was frequently chosen by officers’ wives from sample books kept in the royal dockyards.UK194220thInstitutional , ResidentialLibrary / Study, Multifunctional Living Space, Social and Sitting Spaces, Work Space, Other / Unknown
6571First Sea Lord visits Services Club in London This official Admiralty photograph shows the First Sea Lord visiting the Union Jack Club on the Waterloo Road in London. He is pictured in the Club’s married-quarters hostel. Before, and to a greater extent after the Second World War, the Navy provided such accommodation for servicemen and their families. The design of these interiors followed a codified practice that differentiated minutely between different ranks, and therefore between different socio-cultural groupings.UK194420thInstitutional , ResidentialMultifunctional Living Space, Nursery, Social and Sitting Spaces, Other / Unknown
6572The Prime Minister lunching on board HMS King George V An official Admiralty photograph showing Winston Churchill (seated furthest from the camera on the right-hand side of the table) having lunch on board the battleship HMS King George V. While serving professional agendas, meetings such as these - in both war and peace - reinforced the governing credentials of a particular social grouping. A knowledge of conversational tactics, table etiquette and body posture in the context of interiors such as these marked out the cultural familiarities and requirements of those in authority.UK194120thInstitutional , ResidentialDining Room, Social and Sitting Spaces, Other / Unknown
6573Roman Catholic chaplain in his cabin at seaThis official Admiralty photograph shows a Roman Catholic chaplain seated at his desk in his cabin at sea during the Second World War. The fact that chaplains usually shared the socio-cultural and class-related backgrounds of naval officers - demonstrated by their private ‘officer’ cabins and membership of the wardroom - frequently made them seem remote and unsympathetic figures to the lower ranks.UK1939-194520thInstitutional , ResidentialBedroom, Library / Study, Multifunctional Living Space, Social and Sitting Spaces, Work Space, Other / Unknown
6574Washing on board the Boys' Training Ship HMS Impregnable One of a series of Admiralty photographs illustrating life on board the Boys’ Training Ship HMS Impregnable. Many of these working-class boys would become seamen in the Navy, and interiors such as this would accompany their working lives. In designing them, the Admiralty seemed to make concrete the pervading middle-class view that working-class people were an undifferentiated, un-individualised mass.UK1939-194520thInstitutional , ResidentialBathroom, Other / Unknown
6576HMS King George V: officers in the wardroom ante room Taken in 1941, this Admiralty photograph shows the wardroom ante room on board the battleship HMS King George V. References to the interior of the gentlemen’s club are everywhere. Note, in particular, the club fender and fireplace, the rugs, the decorative treatment of the roof beams, and the white-painted walls and ceiling.UK194120thInstitutional , ResidentialLeisure / Games Room, Multifunctional Living Space, Social and Sitting Spaces, Other / Unknown
6577Crew of the submarine HMS Sceptre playing cards in harbour Taken in 1944, this Admiralty photograph shows the seamen’s mess of the submarine HMS Sceptre. Because of the limited space available within such vessels, the elaborate physical and design separation of rank and class practised elsewhere could only be given limited expression. A direct consequence was that the submarine interior gave rise to a more egalitarian and meritocratic spirit among its crew. Boundaries of hierarchy and culture began to erode.UK194420thInstitutional , ResidentialLeisure / Games Room, Dining Room, Multifunctional Living Space, Social and Sitting Spaces, Work Space, Other / Unknown
6578HMS King George V: officers in the wardroom ante room Taken in 1941, this Admiralty photograph shows the wardroom ante room on board the battleship HMS King George V. Note, in particular, the very characteristic low, slouched posture of the officers in their leather armchairs, an attitude typical of deportment in gentlemen’s clubs.UK194120thInstitutional , ResidentialLeisure / Games Room, Multifunctional Living Space, Social and Sitting Spaces, Other / Unknown
6580Crew of a battleship sleeping at action stations An official Admiralty photograph taken in 1944 and showing a group of seamen sleeping or eating at their action station while at sea. Their quarters on board ship were rudimentary at the best of times, but during hostilities it was common for men to sleep in gun turrets and passageways or on top of machinery.UK194420thInstitutional , ResidentialBedroom, Dining Room, Leisure / Games Room, Multifunctional Living Space, Social and Sitting Spaces, Work Space, Other / Unknown
6565SS Gothic: Royal ante room looking to starboard The SS Gothic was a passenger liner chartered by the government to accommodate Princess Elizabeth and the Duke of Edinburgh on their Empire tour. The image shows how interior decorators working for the Royal Family incorporated this upper-middle-class vocabulary of interior furnishing and display. Note the chintz upholstery and standard lamps.UK195220thInstitutional , ResidentialLeisure / Games Room, Multifunctional Living Space, Social and Sitting Spaces, Other / Unknown
6566SS Gothic: Royal ante room looking to portThe SS Gothic was a passenger liner chartered by the government to accommodate Princess Elizabeth and the Duke of Edinburgh on their Empire tour. The image shows how interior decorators working for the Royal Family incorporated this upper-middle-class vocabulary of interior furnishing and display. Note the plain white walls and ceiling and the Georgian mahogany furniture.UK195220thInstitutional , ResidentialLeisure / Games Room, Multifunctional Living Space, Social and Sitting Spaces, Other / Unknown
6567SS Gothic: Royal dining cabin The SS Gothic was a passenger liner chartered by the government to accommodate Princess Elizabeth and the Duke of Edinburgh on their Empire tour. The image shows how interior decorators working for the Royal Family incorporated this upper-middle-class vocabulary of interior furnishing and display. Note the restraint of the decor and the neo-Georgian sconces.UK195220thInstitutional , ResidentialDining Room
6568SS Gothic: vestibule to day cabin in royal apartments The SS Gothic was a passenger liner chartered by the government to accommodate Princess Elizabeth and the Duke of Edinburgh on their Empire tour. The image shows how interior decorators working for the Royal Family incorporated this upper-middle-class vocabulary of interior furnishing and display. Even in this shipboard context the domestic commonplace of freshly cut flowers was maintained.UK195220thInstitutional , ResidentialMultifunctional Living Space, Social and Sitting Spaces, Other / Unknown, Transitional
6569SS Gothic: the Duke of Edinburgh's day cabin The SS Gothic was a passenger liner chartered by the government to accommodate Princess Elizabeth and the Duke of Edinburgh on their Empire tour. The image shows how interior decorators working for the Royal Family incorporated this upper-middle-class vocabulary of interior furnishing and display. The creation of a facsimile of land-based domesticity on board ship was frequently used to denote the status, rank and authority of the occupant. Lower status inhabitants found interior environments that made fewer attempts to conceal the realities of nautical life.UK195220thInstitutional , ResidentialLeisure / Games Room, Multifunctional Living Space, Social and Sitting Spaces, Work Space, Other / Unknown
6570SS Gothic: the Duke of Edinburgh's day cabin The SS Gothic was a passenger liner chartered by the government to accommodate Princess Elizabeth and the Duke of Edinburgh on their Empire tour. The image shows how interior decorators working for the Royal Family incorporated this upper-middle-class vocabulary of interior furnishing and display. Note the neo-Georgian panelling and fireplace.UK195220thInstitutional , ResidentialLeisure / Games Room, Multifunctional Living Space, Social and Sitting Spaces, Work Space, Other / Unknown
6555Submarine HMS Tribune: a corner of the wardroom This official photograph shows part of the wardroom (officers’ quarters) of the submarine HMS Tribune. Even in the extremely cramped interior of the submarine, attempts were made to incorporate the usual, class-specific visual vocabulary of officer status with, for instance, dark wooden panelling, magazine racks and furniture such as wardrobes.UK194520thInstitutional , ResidentialDining Room, Multifunctional Living Space, Social and Sitting Spaces, Work Space, Other / Unknown
6556Commanding officer of HMS Implacable in his cabin An official photograph showing the commanding officer of the training ship HMS Implacable at work in the Great Cabin. The Implacable was a Trafalgar-era wooden ship of the line kept in service as a moored vessel. In a multitude of ways the twentieth-century Royal Navy retained and recreated the material culture of the Nelsonian navy for reasons of institutional promotion and internal social control.UK194420thInstitutional , ResidentialLibrary / Study, Multifunctional Living Space, Social and Sitting Spaces, Work Space, Other / Unknown
6557Admiral Russell in Royal Marines mess of HMS Ladybird The physical, social and cultural worlds of officers and men within the Royal Navy were largely separate, and this separation was powerfully expressed by the location and design of their living quarters. The rare social visits of a senior officer to a seman’s mess (as shown here) could be brittle and awkward affairs.UK1945-195520thInstitutional , ResidentialDining Room, Leisure / Games Room, Multifunctional Living Space, Social and Sitting Spaces, Work Space, Other / Unknown
6558Skipper Heywood at home This official Admiralty photograph shows the skipper of a trawler on weekend leave. In the privacy of his own hearth he has removed his jacket, rolled up his sleeves, taken off his shoes and put up his feet, before relaxing with newspaper and radio. The symbolic security of the hearth became increasingly poignant during the war, and particularly in the context of the Blitz.UK194220thResidentialMultifunctional Living Space, Social and Sitting Spaces
6559Skipper Heywood at home This official Admiralty photograph shows a trawler skipper at home on weekend leave with his family. Its strong implication is that he has temporary respite from the dangerous masculine world beyond the front door, and can recuperate in the nurturing feminine realm of the interior.UK194220thResidentialDining Room, Multifunctional Living Space, Social and Sitting Spaces
6560 First Sea Lord visits Chief Petty Officers' mess, HMS Victorious An official Admiralty photograph showing Lord Mountbatten, First Sea Lord, visiting the Chief Petty Officers' mess on board HMS Victorious in 1958. Promoted through the ranks, petty officers occupied a middle position in the naval hierarchy between seamen and commissioned officers. In socio-cultural as much as professional terms, this was expressed through the size and design of their quarters.UK195820thInstitutional , ResidentialDining Room, Leisure / Games Room, Multifunctional Living Space, Social and Sitting Spaces, Other / Unknown
6561First Sea Lord visits ratings' mess, HMS Victorious An official Admiralty photograph showing the First Sea Lord visiting a seamen’s mess on board HMS Victorious in 1958. Contact with the American Navy during and after the war had a number of consequences for the British naval interior. As this image shows, in many ships the hammock - with its powerful Nelsonian allusions - had been replaced with American-style metal bunks.UK195820thInstitutional , ResidentialBedroom, Multifunctional Living Space, Social and Sitting Spaces, Other / Unknown
6563East coast convoy: view of the wardroom of an escort vesselAn official Admiralty photograph showing the wardroom of an escort vessel in harbour during the Second World War. The design and furnishing of this all-male, upper-middle-class space had much in common with civilian environments such as the club and the university common room.UK1939-194520thInstitutional , ResidentialLeisure / Games Room, Multifunctional Living Space, Social and Sitting Spaces, Other / Unknown
6564View of the mess deck of a minesweeper This is an official Admiralty photograph showing a seamen’s mess deck on board a minesweeper in 1942. Alongside the hammocks, the plain wooden tables and benches also drew a visual and conceptual parallel with the material culture of the Nelsonian navy.UK194220thInstitutional , ResidentialBedroom, Dining Room, Leisure / Games Room, Multifunctional Living Space, Social and Sitting Spaces, Other / Unknown
6291Home Owners’ Catalogs
A Guide to the Selection of Building Materials Equipment and Furnishings


TheHome Owners’ Catalogs was a compendium of various trade catalogues of manufacturers producing materials for the home. The booklets were produced by individual manufacturers and made available separately as well as in this directory. The Dodge catalogue can be compared with another famous American publication Sweets Catalog. With it’s reference to ‘Home Sweet Home’ on the cover, Home Owners’ Catalogs reflects the increase in do-it-yourself in the USA, while also being directed at the trade and professional reader. USA193720thResidential
6292‘Armstrong’s Floors. Walls, Insulation’Linoleum was an artificial flooring, originally introduced in Britain in the 1860s. In the 1930s, it experienced a renewed interest, in keeping with enthusiasm for a variety of materials that provided surface pattern for interior design. The cover of the Armstrong’s catalogue encapsulated the message that tradition in style and modernity of materials could be combined within the same interior scheme, and not be considered contradictory.USA193720th
6293‘Armstrong’s Floors. Walls, Insulation’The text persuades the reader that linoleum, a material traditionally associated with service areas and functional parts of the home, could also be used in the main entertainment rooms, such as the drawing room. USA193720thSocial and Sitting Spaces
6294‘Armstrong’s Floors. Walls, Insulation’Armstrong’s stressed the modern design available in its floor coverings, which in this case was in keeping with the highly polished, reflective surfaces of the featured kitchen. The text elaborated, “Whether or not you do your own housework or employ servants, an Armstrong’s Linoleum Floor will mean more time for other activities.” This emphasis on the labour-saving aspects of floor coverings such as linoleum coincided with the widespread introduction of labour-saving devices in the American home. USA193720thResidentialBedroom, Kitchen
6295‘Armstrong’s Floors. Walls, Insulation’In this feature-illustration for a bathroom, linoleum is presented as an alternative to glass or ceramic tiling for surfaces. It introduced colour and pattern into a room previously associated with monochrome black and white. The scheme combined functional and decorative ideas, employing floor and bath panels of linoleum. The pictorial panel mural was also made up of a variety of plain linoleum inlays.USA193720thResidentialBathroom
6296‘What the Celotex Guarantee Means to You’

These pages illustrate the use of Celotex in building a house. Two pictorial modes are employed, left, the drawn cross-section of a house and right, photographs of a variety of interiors providing testimony of how the material ‘insulates, strengthens, beautifies and remodels’.
Celotex was an insulating material in board form, made from sugar cane fibre, which was felted and then cut into panels. Its material application was for insulating the home. In keeping with the technically oriented nature of the material, the catalogue gave detailed specifications before explaining its application.
USA193720thResidential
6297‘What the Celotex Guarantee Means to You’
The booklet was arranged for the reader around ten guaranteed key points. Point 7, ‘Celotex reduces noises’, depicted a cross-section of an imagined household, where a boy listens to the radio, adults dance, and a baby sleeps.
Celotex was an insulating material in board form, made from sugar-cane fibre, which was felted and then cut into panels. Its material application was for insulating the home. In keeping with the technically oriented nature of the material, the catalogue gave detailed specifications before explaining its application.
USA193720thResidential
6298‘What every home owner should know, The ABCs of Building or Remodelling a Home’This catalogue is for Chase Brass Co., manufacturer of rustproof pipes. The page depicts the homeowner in two contrasting ways. In the top image, prospective householders are shown the home and its specifications by a professional, possibly the architect. By contrast, photographic ‘evidence’ of the effectiveness of the product is given with a woman washing dishes. Both visual modes employed in this trade catalogue were common to American advertising practice of the period. USA193720thResidentialKitchen, Undifferentiated Spaces
6299‘The Home of Today’
This page from the Crane catalogue shows how scientific management in the home, as originally promoted by Christina Fredericks, was incorporated in trade literature aimed at the everyday consumer. The rational household movement suggested it was necessary to plan before purchasing and the catalogue combined pictures of equipment with diagrams of layout for the kitchen, bathroom and basement to assist with this. USA193720thResidentialBathroom, Kitchen, Utility
6300‘The Home of Today’
In this feature from a trade catalogue, the bathroom is presented as a fashionable rather than purely functional room. The text suggested, ‘Form, style, color have become plastic, taking on new shapes - not for the sake of novelty, but because these new forms show a functional relationship which is practical and pleasing.’USA193720thBathroom
6301‘The Home of Today’The American house often featured a basement that could be used for heating, laundry, storage and recreation. The plumbing and heating company Crane promoted this multi-purpose space through rational planning but also colourful and attractive illustrations of the possible activities to be undertaken in such a space. USA193720thResidentialLeisure / Games Room, Multifunctional Living Space, Utility
6302‘Delco-Frigidaire’


To illustrate how central heating works, the illustration depicts a cut-away representation of an interior living room and boiler room, as well as the wintry exterior of a house. Encouraging the reader to invest in its installation, the text reads, ‘the careful homebuilder of today asks himself, “What will my home be worth twenty years from now”’.USA193720thResidential
6551Boy evacuees on board HMS Empress For a great many young children, the Second World War meant the complete disruption of familiar interior domesticities through enemy action or evacuation. This official Admiralty photograph shows a group of boy evacuees en route from America back to Britain in 1944 on board HMS Empress.UK194420thInstitutional , ResidentialBedroom, Multifunctional Living Space, Other / Unknown
6552Seamen's mess of HMS Seraph This official Admiralty photograph shows a cramped seamen’s mess on board the submarine HMS Seraph in 1944. Individual privacy was out of the question, and eating spaces doubled up as sleeping quarters with hammocks slung from the deckhead.UK194420thInstitutional , ResidentialBedroom, Dining Room, Leisure / Games Room, Multifunctional Living Space, Social and Sitting Spaces, Other / Unknown
6553Officer reading in his cabin Unlike the lower ranks of the Navy with their communal quarters, the typically middle-class officer was alllocated a cabin. With its carpet, white-painted, panelled walls, door (as opposed to hatch), wooden furniture and spaces for personal display it echoed the middle-class accommodation of universities, common rooms and clubs. In so doing it implied that the occupant of the cabin would come from that same social fraction.UK1939-194920thInstitutional , ResidentialBedroom, Multifunctional Living Space, Social and Sitting Spaces, Work Space, Other / Unknown
6554 Submarine HMS Tribune: seamen's mess This official photograph shows the seamen’s mess of the submarine HMS Tribune in 1945. For the lower ranks of the Navy, the boundary between domestic and work spaces was frequently blurred. This was particularly true of submarines, where their accommodation was shoe-horned into the little space left by machinery and control positions.UK194520thInstitutional , ResidentialBedroom, Dining Room, Leisure / Games Room, Multifunctional Living Space, Social and Sitting Spaces, Work Space, Other / Unknown
6098The Captive
[Vol. 5 of Remembrance of Things Past]
At this stage in Remembrance of Things Past, Proust’s household consists of himself, his servant Francoise and his mistress Albertine, who has recently moved in. This passage describes Albertine’s behaviour within the house, highlighting her disregard for the established social rules that define personal boundaries and how these affect the way in which inhabitants are expected to circulate through the various rooms. Proust finds Albertine’s attitude refreshing, if unusual. Her social naivete and unselfconsciousness leads him to classify her as a domestic being that is not bound by the usual rules of propriety, and therefore closer to a pet than to a person. This behaviour places Albertine in a no-man’s land between Proust’s mother, the embodiment of middle-class propriety, and the servant Francoise, who sees herself as the protector of her master’s privacy.France192920thResidentialBedroom, Other / Unknown
6099Swann’s Way
[Vol. 1 of Remembrance of Things Past]
Here Proust dwells on memory, and the processes through which we recall familiar spaces and environments, in particular domestic environments which have provided us in the past with a sense of safety, comfort and familiarity. The main focus of this passage is on the interaction between the physical and the emotional, and the location of memory as much in the body as a material sensation, as in the mind. In the perception of the home, there is a total synergy between place, the conceptualisation of spaces, time and physical interaction. France192220thResidentialBedroom
6100Swann’s Way
[Vol. 1 of Remembrance of Things Past]
In this passage, Proust recalls how, as a sickly child, someone had placed a magic lantern in his bedroom in an attempt to bring him some comfort. His response to the lantern’s effect highlights how his deep sense of familiarity with the room was disrupted by the new patterns and colours projected onto the bedroom’s various surfaces, bringing a sense of alienation from his surroundings. The symbiosis he felt between himself and the immediate physical environment of the room breaks down, and the lantern ends up causing him a new kind of anxiety. Proust captures the way in which the physical and emotional aspects of the home are inseparable, familiarity and comfort being the result of one’s daily, repeated interaction with the domestic environment, through both sight and touch, and as he famously described in other passages of Remembrance of Things Past, through taste and smell as well. France192220thResidentialBedroom
6548On board a battleship: tea-time in one of the mess decks below During peacetime the sailors who occupied messdecks such as this one on board a battleship were invariably drawn from working-class backgrounds. The mass conscription that accompanied the Second World War began to dilute the class-related segregation of these spaces. Thousands of ‘Hostilities Only’ ratings, many from quite different social strata, took their place alongside career servicemen.UK1939-194520thInstitutional , ResidentialBedroom, Dining Room, Leisure / Games Room, Multifunctional Living Space, Social and Sitting Spaces, Other / Unknown
6549Scene in a mess deck of a battleship at sea This official Admiralty photograph, though perhaps appearing a little staged, demonstrates the informal entertainment and sociability that often characterised life on a lower ranks messdeck. In many ways, the space contained and reflected the modes of working-class masculine sociability present in the civilian workplace and pub.UK1939-194920thInstitutional , ResidentialBedroom, Dining Room, Leisure / Games Room, Multifunctional Living Space, Social and Sitting Spaces, Other / Unknown
6550Ward room ante room of a depot ship An official Admiralty photograph showing the wardroom ante room of a depot ship. Designed as social and relaxation spaces for naval officers, wardrooms such as these were notable for the extent to which they disguised the structure of the ship, creating instead a facsimile of the gentlemen’s clubUK194320thInstitutional , ResidentialLeisure / Games Room, Multifunctional Living Space, Social and Sitting Spaces, Other / Unknown
6545William Baker at his home with his family This is one of a series of photographs taken by the Ministry of Information of the skilled dockyard riveter William Baker, both at work and also at home with his family. The thrift and respectability of this working-class interior scene was perhaps recorded as part of a drive to present Britain’s skilled industrial workers as essential to the war effort, and shouldering their full share of the national effort.UK194320thResidentialDining Room, Social and Sitting Spaces
6546Commanding officer of a frigate in his cabin An official photograph issued in 1943 showing the commanding officer of a British frigate working in his cabin. As well as being a functional space, cabins such as these underwrote the social (as much as disciplinary) status of the typically middle-class officer with their allocations of mahogany furniture, space for the display of possessions, and potential for personal privacy.UK194320thInstitutional , ResidentialMultifunctional Living Space, Social and Sitting Spaces, Work Space, Other / Unknown
6547Stokers' mess of a frigate An official Admiralty photograph of a stokers’ mess on board a frigate in 1943. Codified and formalised in the 1890s, the uniform of the Navy’s lower ranks drew a visual parallel with the ‘Jack Tar’ of the Nelsonian era with its square collar, tapes and bell-bottomed trousers. This was reflected and reinforced by the materiality of messdecks such as these which played on the interior of the wooden ship-of-the-line.UK194320thInstitutional , ResidentialDining Room, Leisure / Games Room, Multifunctional Living Space, Social and Sitting Spaces, Bedroom, Other / Unknown
6544Leading seaman becomes captain - for Christmas day only This official Admiralty photograph shows one of the Royal Navy’s traditions being played out during the Second World War. On Christmas Day, a junior member of the crew was permitted to wear the captain’s uniform and perform an inspection of the various messes and quarters on board the ship. For a few hours this ritual turned structures of discipline, class and social status upside-down. The nature of the ship’s interiors as segregated and segregating environments was, however, rapidly re-established.UK194220thInstitutional , Multifunctional Living Space, Social and Sitting Spaces, Bedroom, Dining Room, Leisure / Games Room
6287Lost in TranslationEva Hoffman’s novel Lost in Translation tells the story of a young woman’s experience of her family’s emigration from Poland to North America in the period of the Cold War. These extracts use the characteristics of the domestic interior to define striking contrasts between material possessions, social and cultural attitudes and divergent ideas of what ‘home’ can be. Central to the contrast are conflicting notions of warmth, both physical and emotional, and differing ideas and ideals of the public and private spheres.Poland, USA199820thResidentialBathroom, Kitchen, Social and Sitting Spaces
6288‘A Berlin Chronicle’The seasonal move to a summer-house was usual for upper-middle class European families in the late nineteenth century. Walter Benjamin, the German critic and philosopher, wrote several essays in hindsight that combined autobiographical and fictionalised accounts of his Berlin childhood. In this extended passage, many levels of meaning of the domestic interior are explored, combining feelings of mystery and uncertainty, dreams and reality. The summer-house and garden in Babelsberg provide a location that is both outside the city, yet within nature - interior and exterior are therefore blurred. Becoming the scene of a crime, the house is described through the eyes of a child, who recognises but finds perplexing the thresholds between adult and childhood space and their close co-existence. This also allows Benjamin to reflect on a child’s growing awareness of social class in the domestic environment. The theft of the family’s belongings serves as a premonition of the devastation of German Jewry under National Socialism and the Holocaust.Germany193220thResidentialTransitional
6289Ten poems from A Reader for Those who Live in Cities, Four Invitations to a Man at Different Times from Different QuartersWritten at the same time as his successful Beggar’s Opera, Brecht’s Poems for Those who Live in Cities purposely adopt a matter-of-fact language to address the cold facts of alienated urban life. Generic rather than individual interiors are suggested through his words, which emphasise the class nature of their situation.
The choice of ordinary language was in distinct contrast to Brecht’s earlier Expressionist poems. Here, the everyday life of the poor is presented in an unromantic manner. While evoking the shift from community (Gemeinschaft) to Gesellschaft (society) of modern life that preoccupied many Weimar commentators, Brecht’s poems also made reference to earlier graphic and literary traditions from eighteenth-century London, most notably the work of John Gay.
Germany1913-192820thCommercial , Bedroom
6286Lost in TranslationEva Hoffman’s novel Lost in Translation tells the story of a young woman’s experience of her family’s emigration from Poland to North America in the period of the Cold War. These extracts use the characteristics of the domestic interior to define striking contrasts between material possessions, social and cultural attitudes and divergent ideas of what ‘home’ can be. Central to the contrast are conflicting notions of warmth, both physical and emotional, and differing ideas and ideals of the public and private spheres.Poland, USA199820thResidentialKitchen, Utility, Other / Unknown, Bathroom, Bedroom
6279I Married a Communist
One of a trilogy of books by Philip Roth, I Married a Communist is set in 1950s-70s America and traces a young man, Nathan Zuckerman's, education and coming to emotional and intellectual maturity. In this extract, the lead character, a student from Newark, New Jersey with a blue-collar background, encounters and finds inspirational the home environment of his mentor Iron Rinn (born Ira Ringold) whose is married to the radio actress Eve Frame. Philip Roth's narrative offers a perspective on and close description of the elements of this New York milieu, the belongings and demeanour - something that French sociologist Pierre Bourdieu identified in the concepts of 'habitus' and 'cultural capital' in his 1964 study, Distinction. USA1950s-1970s, 199820thResidentialMultifunctional Living Space
6280‘Louis-Philippe, or the Interior’Walter Benjamin, the German cultural philosopher and critic, suggests several important ideas about the character of the domestic interior in this short extract from the essay, 'Louis-Philippe, or the Interior'. His focus is the interior as a repository for things, where objects can be transformed from their everyday and functional nature to artistic or connoisseurial value.
In the second paragraph, Benjamin drew a parallel between the study of the interior and the detective novels of Edgar Allan Poe and other writers of the nineteenth century. The idea of the 'physiognomy of the interior' has had a lasting influence on subsequent interpretation of the domestic interior, if only on a metaphorical level.
Germany1955, 197920thResidentialMultifunctional Living Space
6281'Louis-Philippe, or the Interior'In this extract from an essay that investigated the character of the early-nineteenth-century French bourgeois interior, the German cultural philosopher and critic Walter Benjamin drew a distinction between domestic space and other forms of public space. The distinction was extremely influential and has been conceptualised under the term 'separate spheres', as investigated in the historical study by Leonora Davidoff and Catherine Hall, Family Fortunes: men and women of the English middle class, 1780-1850. Subsequent historical interpretation has questioned whether there ever was such a clearly defined distinction between public and private as suggested by Benjamin but the concept remains a useful conceptual framework for thinking about the domestic interior.Germany1955, 197920thResidential
6282The Diary of a NobodyThe Diary of a Nobody, as its title suggested, gave an account of the day-to-day life of an ordinary London household, their activities and preoccupations. This extract shows how seriously the particular circumstances of the interior could feature in the considerations of home life, and especially the ways in which the commercial language of advertising and magazine advice were used to describe domestic arrangements. As in all fictional representations, the narrative provides evocative suggestions of how the home might have been consumed rather than guaranteed evidence. UK189220thResidentialOther / Unknown
6283The Rings of SaturnW. G. Sebald's The Rings of Saturn is an account of a walking tour made along the coast of East Anglia in the last years of the twentieth century. This extract focuses on Somerleyton Hall, originally a Jacobean manor re-modelled in the 1840s near Reedham in Norfolk. Sebald uses the visit to muse on the passing of Empire and reflects on the layering of history that the collections of the house provide. The writing makes a strong late-twentieth-century counterpart to Walter Benjamin's reflections on the interiors of houses in the 1920s and 30s. UK200220thResidentialMultifunctional Living Space, Social and Sitting Spaces, Transitional
6284Camera LucidaRoland Barthes' essay on photography, ‘Camera Lucida’, offers interesting perceptions on the ontological status of the photograph. In relation to the domestic interior, his comments on the transition from the private to the public offer ways to understand the impact of photographs of the interior which started to proliferate in published contexts from the 1880s onwards. Prior to photography, prints also made images of the interior available to a wide, popular public readership. France1980Other / Unknown
6285The Man without Qualities, Volume 1, a sort of introduction The extract comments on the increasing identification between personality and the interior which was taking place within popular media such as interior design and consumer magazines in the early twentieth century. Musil explores the suggestion that the arrangement of an interior is clue to character. In the context of a novel about a 'man without qualities' he offers resistance to or a critique of the preoccupations of bourgeois individualism in capitalist modernity. Germany1930
1988
20thOther / Unknown
6177Watt
Watt is employed in the house of Mr. Knot as a domestic servant, but he never meets Mr. Knot, who occupies a different floor of the house. Buxtehude is an early Baroque German composer known for the extremities of his imagination. A ravenastrom is an ancient Indian lute. Beckett’s novel is a typically elusive and perplexing nihilistic narrative. The house is key to the narrative but this is as detailed as Beckett’s description gets.
Ireland, France195320thResidentialLeisure / Games Room
6178‘The Dead’James Joyce (born in Dublin in 1882) published Dubliners in 1914, although the stories were written a decade earlier whilst Joyce lived in Trieste. Throughout his writing career he reflected on his home city from a distance, producing some of the most experimental of Modernist writing. The passage indicated, from ‘The Dead’, the longest of the stories, gives us a detailed view of the dining table at the Misses Morkham’s annual dance.Ireland191420thResidentialTransitional, Dining Room
6175‘Scale’Will Self’s first-person narrator is a divorced addict who has found a way of manufacturing morphine in the kitchen of his suburban bungalow from kaolin and morphine. This extract plays on the irony of using a child’s plate covered in leaping bunnies to put his morphine in and is given an added sick irony by the fact that the house backs onto Beaconsfield’s model village. It’s a very domestic process, addiction fed by DIY as he puts it elsewhere: ‘the business of siphoning off the morphine from the bottles and then baking it in the oven until it forms a smokable paste. Well I mean, it’s pathetic this DIY addiction. No wonder that there are no pleasure domes for me, in my bricolage reverie’. UK199420thResidentialKitchen
6176‘Scale’Will Self’s first-person narrator is a divorced addict who has found a way of manufacturing morphine in the kitchen of his suburban bungalow from kaolin and morphine. His house backs onto Beaconsfield’s model village, and in the preceding paragraphs he is being burgled by a ‘model head’, one of a group who ‘congregate around the model village, venerating it as a symbol of their anomie.’ The burglar attempts to steal the narrator’s bathroom scales, which turn out to be of ‘sentimental value’ because of the important role they have played in his life as described in this extract.UK199420thResidentialBathroom
6174‘The Clothes they Stood up in’Alan Bennett’s short story, read for Christmas in 1997 on Radio 4, describes what happens to a couple who return from the opera (Mozart’s Cosi fan Tutte) to find absolutely everything removed from their mansion-block flat. ‘Croucher’ is the insurance broker who has come to assess their claim. With nothing remaining from their past life they have to buy new, provisional possessions. Mrs Ransome in particular finds the experience strangely liberating, ushering in a new way of living which includes watching daytime TV and buying exotic vegetables from the local Asian shop.UK199620thResidential
6173The Age of InnocenceThe Age of Innocence describes the New York of Edith Wharton’s youth (she was born in 1862) and focusses on the social lives of an elite group of families. A contemporary and friend of Henry James, he had suggested she write about New York. Wharton’s interest in interiors and interior designs is clear, she published The Decoration of Houses (1897), co-authored with architect Ogden Codman Jr., and her house The Mount is preserved and open to the public.

Whilst waiting to visit Countess Olenska, Newland Archer imagines what his fiancé’s future house, by implication his home, will look like. He clearly has no great relish for what he imagines his wife’s style of interior decorating will be like, hoping only to be able to choose what he likes in the library. Married life is shown as a submission to pre-set sets of expectations reflected in interior design.
USA192020thResidentialSocial and Sitting Spaces, Library / Study, Transitional
6166The Age of InnocenceThe Age of Innocence describes the New York of Edith Wharton’s youth (she was born in 1862) and focuses on the social lives of an elite group of families. A contemporary and friend of Henry James, he had suggested she write about New York. Wharton’s interest in interiors and interior designs is clear, she published The Decoration of Houses (1897), co-authored with architect Ogden Codman Jr., and her house The Mount is preserved and open to the public.

This passage describes the arrival of the central character, Newland Archer, at one of the grandest houses of the New York circle in which he moves. Beaufort has been accepted into this circle despite his somewhat obscure (English) origins.
USA192020thResidentialTransitional, Social and Sitting Spaces
6167The Age of InnocenceThe Age of Innocence describes the New York of Edith Wharton’s youth (she was born in 1862) and focuses on the social lives of an elite group of families. A contemporary and friend of Henry James, he had suggested she write about New York. Wharton’s interest in interiors and interior designs is clear, she published The Decoration of Houses (1897), co-authored with architect Ogden Codman Jr., and her house The Mount is preserved and open to the public.

This extract deals with the relationship between Mr and Mrs Julius Beaufort, suggesting that it is he who holds domestic power and that part of his role is to imply his wife’s domestic success. Beaufort has been accepted into the highest circle of New York society despite his somewhat obscure (English) origins. As Wharton puts it in the sentence immediately preceding this extract: ‘his habits were dissipated, his tongue bitter, his antecedents were mysterious; and when Medora Manson announced her cousin’s engagement to him, it was felt to be one more act of folly in poor Medora’s long record of imprudence’.
USA192020thResidentialSocial and Sitting Spaces, Dining Room
6168The Age of InnocenceThe Age of Innocence describes the New York of Edith Wharton’s youth (she was born in 1862) and focuses on the social lives of an elite group of families. A contemporary and friend of Henry James, he had suggested she write about New York. Wharton’s interest in interiors and interior designs is clear, she published The Decoration of Houses (1897), co-authored with architect Ogden Codman Jr., and her house The Mount is preserved and open to the public.

Beaufort has been accepted into the highest circle of New York society despite his somewhat obscure (English) origins. The extract charts a change in accepted norms of behaviour and its effect on the interior construction and design of the houses of the elite.
USA192020thResidentialSocial and Sitting Spaces, Dining Room
6169The Age of InnocenceThe Age of Innocence describes the New York of Edith Wharton’s youth (she was born in 1862) and focuses on the social lives of an elite group of families. A contemporary and friend of Henry James, he had suggested she write about New York. Wharton’s interest in interiors and interior designs is clear, she published The Decoration of Houses (1897), co-authored with architect Ogden Codman Jr., and her house The Mount is preserved and open to the public.

Here the central character, Newland Archer, visits one of the older generation, a pivotal character in the elite New York circles in which he moves. This extract suggests the differences between her taste in furnishing and that of her contemporaries.
USA192020thResidentialSocial and Sitting Spaces, Dining Room
6170The New Contented Little Baby BookGina Ford’s Contented Little Baby books are bestsellers in the baby-manual market. Advocating a strict timetable and structure, Ford, a nanny, offers a model of organisation which particularly appeals to parents needing to establish routines for babies which make it easier to hand over their care to a professional, allowing both parents to return to work. Her advice covers feeding and sleeping patterns, but, as here, strays into the organisation of the domestic interior. Some of her advice is resolutely practical, some sounds archaic in the extreme, as in the following statement regarding laundry: ‘Because young babies grow out of their clothes so quickly it should be possible to pass them on to any brother or sister that follows. Sadly this often cannot be achieved as poor laundering means that a whole new layette is needed for the next baby.’ (p.28).UK1999ResidentialBedroom, Nursery
6171The Age of InnocenceThe Age of Innocence describes the New York of Edith Wharton’s youth (she was born in 1862) and focuses on the social lives of an elite group of families. A contemporary and friend of Henry James, he had suggested she write about New York. Wharton’s interest in interiors and interior designs is clear, she published The Decoration of Houses (1897), co-authored with architect Ogden Codman Jr., and her house The Mount is preserved and open to the public.

Here the central character, Newland Archer, visits one of the older generation, a pivotal character in the elite New York circles in which he moves. This extract suggests the extent to which she is happy to remake convention, a key theme in the novel.
USA192020thResidentialSocial and Sitting Spaces, Bedroom
6172The Age of InnocenceThe Age of Innocence describes the New York of Edith Wharton’s youth (she was born in 1862) and focusses on the social lives of an elite group of families. A contemporary and friend of Henry James, he had suggested she write about New York. Wharton’s interest in interiors and interior designs is clear, she published The Decoration of Houses (1897), co-authored with architect Ogden Codman Jr., and her house The Mount is preserved and open to the public.

Here the central character, Newland Archer, visits Countess Olenska, who has returned to New York from Europe after a failed marriage. Archer is engaged to her cousin, May Welland, but is in the process of falling for the Countess. A good description of contemporary attitudes to art.
USA192020thResidentialSocial and Sitting Spaces
6164Crome Yellow Here Denis walks through the empty rooms of the Wimbushs’ house, speculating on the relationship between past and present. He imagines his gaze like the historical excavator of the ruined Pompeii, turning an archaeological eye on the immediate past, looking for ‘data’ and ‘traces’ and recognising that the current owners of this house have left relatively little impact. Here the enumeration of furniture and art objects suggests the heavy presence of the past.UK192120thResidentialSocial and Sitting Spaces, Library / Study, Dining Room
6165These Golden DaysHere the narrator describes his rented flat, enumerating the furniture, and taking pains to distance himself from the dominant consumer culture represented by the reference to Brent Cross, a large shopping Centre in North London opened in the 1970s. The accumulation of detail, and the concern about what bailiffs would find to take away, lends the account the feeling of an inventory, and in its focus on the material goods keeps the narrative within the idiom of the consumerism the narrator rejects.UK198520thResidentialMultifunctional Living Space, Bedroom
6159PersuasionThis description of the Great House belonging to the Musgrove family comes as the novel’s heroine Anne Elliot visits her sister who has married the Musgroves’ eldest son. The couple and their children live in the same village of Uppercross as the parents in ‘a farmhouse eleveated into a cottage’ complete with ‘viranda, French windows, and other prettiness’ (p.64). The description here is of a room in flux, Austen describes a ‘state of alteration, perhaps of improvement’, where the family portraits are described as watching in bewilderment as a room typical of the eighteenth century with the ‘shining floor’ visible surrounding a small carpet is gradually taken over by the furniture and decorations typical of the new leisure pursuits of the younger generation. Austen’s use of the term ‘improvement’ - a term often given to changes in landscape typical of the landscape garden movement of this period - is here, as elsewhere, ambivalent. She takes a fashionable term and draws attention to its original meaning, raising doubts as to whether such changes or alterations really do improve things. The link between furnishings and modes of behaviour is made explicit here with Austen transposing the descriptive terms ‘old English style’ and ‘new’ from the room’s furnishings to its inhabitants. UK19thResidentialSocial and Sitting Spaces
6160PersuasionIn this scene, Anne Elliot, her sister and cousins from Uppercross visit Navy friends of their acquaintance Captain Wentworth in Lyme Regis. Anne had reluctantly rejected a proposal of marriage from Captain Wentworth many years earlier, influenced by her mother’s friend, who felt he was not a good enough match. Here his ‘brother-officers’ demonstrate a ‘bewitching charm in a degree of hospitality so uncommon’ that Anne feels even more the society she has forfeited by refusing him. Captain Harville has treated his rented house like a boat, demonstrating a degree of flexibility and hands-on inventiveness in his arranging and decorating entirely lacking in the majority of Anne’s non-naval acquaintance. In this novel as elsewhere in Austen, the Navy are portrayed in a very favourable light as men who ‘know how to live’ both in serving their country and in their domestic lives. The eccentricity of mending a fishing-net in a domestic setting is clearly outweighed by the impression of contented, useful activity.UK19thResidentialSocial and Sitting Spaces
6161PersuasionHere Anne Elliot visits her sister and father who have moved to Bath. They have rented out their family house, Kellynch-Hall, as Sir Walter is unable to live within his income and savings must be made, so father and eldest daughter have set themselves up in a rented house in fashionable Bath. Here Anne expresses her disapproval of their lifestyle, which depends on the empty worth accorded to status as expressed in the ‘superiority’ of their rented house and ‘taste of the furniture’ as opposed to the ‘the duties and dignities of the resident land-holder’. The change is embodied in the reference to her sister ‘finding extent to be proud of between two walls, perhaps thirty feet assunder’. One of the main concerns of the novel is to distinguish between empty status and true worth, and the domestic interiors described contribute to that theme.UK19thResidentialSocial and Sitting Spaces
6162PersuasionWhilst staying with her father and sister in fashionable Camden-place in Bath, Anne Elliot renews her acquaintance with a former schoolfellow who has fallen on hard times. Mrs Smith is in lodgings in Westgate-buildings, and lives in a state of physical discomfort, suffering from ‘severe rheumatic fever’. Hers is the most impoverished domestic space described in this novel, or elsewhere in Austen’s fiction. UK19thCommercial , ResidentialSocial and Sitting Spaces, Bedroom
6163EmmaThis extract comes from the first visit of Mrs Elton who has just married Mr Elton, the vicar, to the heroine, Emma who lives at Hartfield. Mrs Elton, of lower rank than Emma, is a snob, and very anxious to establish her credentials and secure her place in the social environment into which she has married. UK181619thResidentialSocial and Sitting Spaces, Transitional
6157Brideshead Revisited
The narrator of the novel, Charles Ryder, is a student friend of Sebastian Flyte’s from Oxford. Sebastian has taken Charles to visit his family home, Brideshead, and this scene is set in the old nursery where Sebastian talks to his former nanny whom he is very fond of. The family are Catholics and the room suggests both the importance of their religion, and the nanny’s own rituals of care for the relics sent by the children she has looked after. Charles comes from a less affluent, non-Catholic family, and is, in this scene as in many others, an outsider observing a life remote from his experience. The novel charts Charles’ involvement with the family, and was adapted for a hugely successful TV series in the 1980s where the pace of the drama allowed for lengthy nostalgic passages dwelling on the interiors of the house.UK194520thResidential
6158Brideshead RevisitedThe narrator of the novel, Charles Ryder, is a student friend of Sebastian Flyte’s from Oxford. Sebastian has taken Charles to visit his family home, Brideshead. Here Sebastian briefly lets the light into the empty hall of the house, where the covered furniture suggests a room long out of use. Charles comes from a less affluent background. Here Charles makes the analogy between his experience of seeing this room and the view of a lit ballroom one might get from a bus. The analogy preserves the class distinction between the two, and suggests the crossing of boundaries that his visit represents. The novel charts Charles’ involvement with the family, and was adapted for a hugely successful TV series in the 1980s filmed at Castle Howard, where the pace of the drama allowed for lengthy nostalgic passages dwelling on the interiors of the house. UK20thResidentialSocial and Sitting Spaces
5875The Labours of the Months - December Although apparently sited outdoors amidst a flower-strewn field, this tapestry of the Labours of the Months represents the defining activity of the winter turning point of the year as feasting. This is reduced to its essentials of two men seated on jointed stools at a cloth-covered table on which are placed dishes of food. A ewer for wine or beer, which indoors would stand on the floor, is here standing on the flower-strewn ground. Like LM1012 this fifteenth-century image represents the whole of a specific domestic interior by its most characteristic part. France1440-6015thDining Room
5877The Five Senses This woodcut of The Five Senses sets three of the scenes indoors. Like actors on a stage, a man, a woman and a putto act out the senses with not much more than a floor covering and a few pieces of furniture for props. For sight these are a chequered floor and a mirror ambiguously placed under a blazing sun, for touch a bench and some floorboards, and for hearing a chair, a lute and a keyboard instrument.UKc.168817thLeisure / Games Room, Social and Sitting Spaces
5878Neptune Pleading for the Lovers from The Story of Vulcan and Venus This is an example of royal furnishings, made for the future King Charles I when he was Prince of Wales, that itself depicts a palatial interior. It is one tapestry in a set of nine of The Story of Vulcan and Venus.

The columns, multi-coloured stone floor and round-headed arch convey an interior heavily influenced by classical architecture filtered through the Italian Renaissance and set out like a stage set.

This is a fantasy interior suitable for a depiction of the god Neptune accompanied by Cupid pleading before the god Vulcan seated on a throne while the Three Graces weep downstage left.
UK1620-2517thResidential
5880Madame Bovary Throughout the novel the author makes reference to prints and paper objects including illustrated books with engravings covered in tissue, adverts torn from commercial catalogues (see LM1029), the colouring-in of prints by the heroine’s child, a fashion plate stuck up in a wigmaker’s shop window, looking at fashion plates in a magazine and yellow wallpaper (twice).

The description here of an apparently impeccably respectable bourgeois interior immediately precedes a scene in which its resident, a notary, attempts to obtain sexual favours from his cash-strapped female visitor in exchange for financial help.
France185719thResidentialDining Room
5831‘Capitolo di Cuccagna. Dove s'intendono le maravigliose cose che si fanno in quel paese, dove che chi piu dorme piu guadagna. Et à chi parla di lavorare, li son rotte le braccia.’The land of Cockaigne, an ideal, topsy-turvy world of indolence and plenty, was the subject of both poetry and prints in the late mediaeval and early modern periods. Here, it is noted that anyone speaking of work is put in prison immediately for a year. In this poem there is a close association between the houses in this land and food. Partridge and quail are described as so plentiful that they have to be chased from the houses, while the walls of these dwellings are made of pecorino cheese whitewashed with ricotta, and other elements of sausages, hams and tripe. This emphasis on abundance plays on the close association between the domestic sphere and eating, transforming the materiality of interiors into edible foods. Italy1500-159916thResidential
5832‘Il piacevole viaggio di Cuccagna. Di novo ritrouato, & stampato à commodità di tutti i bon compagni, che desiderano andare in quel paese’The land of Cockaigne, an ideal, topsy-turvy world of indolence and plenty, was the subject of both poetry and prints in the late mediaeval and early modern periods. In this poem, the luxurious textile furnishings of palace interiors in Cockaigne are stressed, in particular those of the bed. The palaces are continuously filled with the sound of music and song, and nobody within them is older than twenty. This representation clearly corresponds to ideal interiors of the time, in which textiles were often the most costly and luxurious elements. Italy1588Residential
5776Le ricordanze di Giovanni Chellini da San Miniato
In this passage, Chellini describes hiring a male servant who was to be employed at his house in San Miniato outside Florence. However, because this servant’s daughter had recently died of the plague, he was not permitted to stay in Chellini’s house, for fear of bringing the disease to Chellini’s family. This raises awareness about the protection of the house from illness (see also FD309, FD310 and FD311). Italy143015thResidential
5777Le ricordanze di Giovanni Chellini da San Miniato
This entry in Chellini’s ricordanze records him buying property from the arte della lana or wool-workers’ guild in Florence. He purchases three houses of different sizes, all with workshops of different sizes. They are situated in the same part of the city and have tenants, thus representing a strategic investment on Chellini’s part. Italy143315thResidentialWork Space, Social and Sitting Spaces, Bedroom, Other / Unknown
5778Le ricordanze di Giovanni Chellini da San Miniato
Chellini here records wanting to find a boy to help serve at the table, look after the mule, help to make the beds and other things around the house. Having found someone, the son of a poor man from San Miniato where Chellini was from, he agrees to teach the boy the basics of reading, writing, grammar and arithmetic, and dress him in return for his service. The boy is described as arriving in rags; he is given old clothes belonging to Chellini’s son, indicating how goods could be transmitted within households. Italy144515thResidential
5779Le ricordanze di Giovanni Chellini da San Miniato
This entry notes the making of furniture for Chellini’s house (beds, including a bed with chests, a pair of benched chests) and alterations, such as the creation of a new door in his kitchen and a window in the bedroom of his son Tommaso. This reinforces the notion of the interior as a space that could constantly change, both in terms of its furnishings but also in terms of more substantial architectural features. Italy1451-315thResidentialBedroom
5780Le ricordanze di Giovanni Chellini da San Miniato
In this passage, Chellini describes the agreement made with a carpenter who rents a house and workshop from him. In addition to the rent, the carpenter has to supply him every year with a piece of furniture. Notable is the fact that the workshop is described as being underneath the house, but also the entrance to the house. Italy144615thResidential
5781‘El costume delle Donne incomenzando da le pueritia per cin al maritar: La via el modo che se debbe tenere a costumarle e amaistrarle seconddo la condition el grado suo. Et similmente de i fanciulli: Et e uno spechio che ogni persona doverebbe faverlo: et maxime quelli che hanno figlie et figlioli over aspettano di haverne. Con un capitolo de le trentetre cose che convien alla donna a esser bella.’ In this excerpt from a much longer poem, the ideal occupations of young women are listed alongside the activities they should avoid. Textile work, such as spinning, sewing and cutting cloth, is recommended as an almost constant activity, whilst chattering with neighbours and loitering unaccompanied by doors and windows are described as potentially leading to shame and a loss of honour. Italy1536/1016thResidential
5782‘El Sonaglio delle Donne’
This poem, illuminating in its setting out of a particular set of gender stereotypes, advises the reader who knows nothing about keeping house or who thinks it unfitting to live alone to take servants, but male rather than female ones. Even if they know how to sew, the poem suggests that they are untrustworthy, taking money and goods from their masters. Italyc.1520-5016thResidential
5783‘Contrasto piacevole fra l'estate et il verno nel quale si sentono tutti gli commodei et incommodi tanto dell'uno quanto dell'altro’These two verses, part of a longer poem, contrast the ways in which the house is occupied in winter and in summer. The winter verse stresses how people are best off shut up in their houses, thankful for bedwarmers, whilst the summer verse provides a more open and sociable sense of moving through different rooms in the house, drinking for refreshment and pleasure. Italy160417thResidentialBedroom, Social and Sitting Spaces
5784Il teatro delle favole rappresentativeThis text would form the basis of a commedia dell’arte performance. Like many of their plots, it depends on sexual innuendo, various simultaneous deceptions, and many comings and goings in and out of houses. This scenario is unusual amongst representations of the interior in referring to lavatories and the need for privacy when going to the lavatory. Italy161117thResidentialBedroom, Other / Unknown
5785‘Storia del Geloso nella quale si narra i grandi affanni, & eccessivi dolori che di, e notte patiscono quelli infelici, che in tal caso si abbattono con i grandissimi lamenti delle lor Moglie.’In this poem, a famously jealous Florentine husband has a trick played on him. The poem describes how a lifesize figure closely resembling his wife is made, which, through a system of pulleys, is made to stand when the door is opened, and sits when the door is closed. This linking of the interior and the figure for realistic effect is exploited later in the poem, when the husband is tricked into believing that his wife is in the house of another man. Italy1500-159916thResidential
5786‘Gioco della sposa, opera nova, et piacevole’These verses, from a much longer poem describing in detail an evening’s entertainments, indicate the importance of age for participating in domestic games. The children and the elderly are instructed to sit next to the fire, because they are not involved in playing the games that will ensue. This also highlights the central role played by the hearth in domestic sociability in this period (see FD138, FD117 and FD338).Italy160117thResidentialSocial and Sitting Spaces
5787Regola del governo di cura familiareThis passage represents a condemnation of vanity. Dominici not only comments on the objects that signify this - both in terms of objects adorning the body and the interior - but also on the amount of time wasted in its pursuit, and forms of behaviour that are indulgent and sensuous. Compare with FD259.Italyc.1400-5 15thResidential
5788Regola del governo di cura familiareIn this passage, Dominici describes how best to ensure children’s good and holy behaviour. He advocates rewarding good behaviour with presents such as new shoes or an inkstand, suggesting the sorts of objects that might have been possessed by children within interiors in this period. Italyc.1400-5 15thResidential
5789Regola del governo di cura familiareDominici condemns the behaviour of widows who immerse themselves in pleasure, quoting St Paul as support. He lists the things she should not come into contact with (including overly fine clothing, luxurious foods, worldly songs) and describes the social contexts from she should distance herself (parties, weddings). His comments indicate prescriptive thinking regarding the way in which widows should conduct themselves, and the sorts of objects with which they should surround themselves within the interior. Italyc.1400-5 15thResidential
5790‘Governo de fameglia. Istoria nova a preposito de cescaduno padre over governadore de fameglia molto utile & bona a colui che servara questi precepti & comandamenti’This poem echoes many of the themes reiterated in prescriptive literature on how to manage the household and family, for example, the idea of maintaining capital, ensuring there is an adequate quantity of goods for the house and not spending too much money, or that the head of household should remain vigilant and not allow anything to escape his attention. However, the poem’s last verse is unusual in drawing attention to the perils of building property, noting that often those who build houses and palaces are eventually forced to sell them in great sorrow. Italy1500-159916thResidential
5791‘Historia de Guiscardo et Gismonda’In this unhappy story, Gismonda, a young widow, goes back to live with her father, who forbids her to re-marry. She falls in love with Guiscardo and conducts a clandestine affair with him, using a secret doorway into her bedroom. One day, her father comes to her room and, finding it empty, waits for her, falling asleep on the bed and hidden by the bed-curtains. He is woken by the lovers and after witnessing their amorous engagement, he swears revenge and cuts out Guiscardo's heart.

This passage describes the secret doorway Guiscardo uses to enter Guismonda’s bedroom, highlighting issues of access to and privacy of domestic space. The bed curtains depicted in the illustrative woodcut of FD124 are described here.
Italy1543/3/2616thResidentialBedroom
5792De maiestateOne chapter of Maio’s work focuses on magnificence and this passage reflects on magnificence within the interior. It notes the categories of objects that bring magnificence to the interior, such as cloth, painting and sculpture, clothing and precious metalwork, which exemplify the concept of added value in their workmanship. He also comments on the importance within princely interiors of the abundance of these objects. Italyc.1492 15thResidential
5793‘La vedova. Opera piacevole da recitare, per trattenimento di conviti, veglie, & feste’

This extract is from a poem on the figure of the widow. Its prefatory material suggests that it can be recited at parties, where it was customary for domestic performances to include the imitation of stock characters, such as widows, wet-nurses or commedia dell’arte characters. This passage provides a sense of the widow’s daily routine, which is focused around her child. Having got up, she makes a fire, wakes, washes and plays with the child. Furnishings such as the cradle and the lettuccio on which he has a nap are mentioned only in relation to these actions. Italy1500-159916thResidential
5794‘Della economica’This passage discusses the widely held notion that people from different social levels should have differently built houses as a matter of decorum. The interlocutors discuss whether it is appropriate for wealthy gentlemen or merchants to built magnificent houses. It is pointed out that a merchant building a big and splendid palace, with sumptuous living quarters and a large garden, will end up with restricted space in which to put his warehouses, allowing heat, cold and damp to ruin his goods. Equally, it would be wrong for a count or baron, regularly needing to accommodate many guests, to live in a house surrounded by large workshops and plentiful storage space. Italy156016thResidentialOther / Unknown, Social and Sitting Spaces
5795‘Della economica’ This extract discusses the different rooms of the house and their disposition. The interlocutor proposes separating the women’s rooms from the rest of the house, placing them far from the entrance so they cannot be seen. Servants’ rooms should also not be seen by those entering the house. It is suggested that rooms for guests are amongst the most ornate and spacious in the house, furnished with tapestries, carpets, bed hangings, and with anticamere and large sale as well as camere.

The passage demonstrates an interesting concern with sound inside the house. The text suggests that rooms for guests should be situated far from the noise of the daily tasks of the household, especially the kitchen and other rooms associated with the preparation of meals. The head of the household is seen as at fault or negligent if his house is noisy, implying that if the house sounds chaotic, he is not in absolute command.
Italy156016thResidentialBedroom, Kitchen, Social and Sitting Spaces, Library / Study, Other / Unknown
5796‘Della economica’ The disposition of the house, and the reasons for putting certain areas in particular places, is discussed in this extract. Certain spaces, such as the stables and places where wood is stored, should be at a distance from the house, because of both the smell and the danger of fire. The granary should be at the top of the house, with a window facing west to enable the circulation of air to best preserve the grain. The importance of carefully choosing a site and arranging the house upon that site appropriately is stressed. Italy156016thResidentialOther / Unknown
5797‘Della economica’ This extract discusses the notions of proportion and order, and debates the difference between issues that are relevant to architectural planning, and those related to the 'economics', or the management of the house. It considers the convenient placement of rooms within the house, stating that those designing houses should consider the division and arrangement of spaces according to their function. For example, it suggests that given that the most 'secret' spaces of the house are assigned to female inhabitants, the most costly domestic items, such as silver, tapestries and linen, should be kept in their rooms. The passage ends with a discussion of the different storage requirements of foodstuffs, tableware, clothing, arms and equipment for the stables. Italy156016thResidentialBedroom, Kitchen, Other / Unknown
5798‘Della economica’ The interlocutor in this passage describes making a daily round of the house to check that nothing is missing in terms of its ornamentation, such as hangings or linen. The role and activities of the maestro di casa, a male servant in charge of domestic affairs, is discussed. The importance of having everything in order so that many guests can be easily accommodated is stressed. Italy156016thResidential
5799‘Della economica’In this extract, a comparison is made between the power structures within a household and those of a city or state (see also FD320 and FD332). However, here the emphasis is on the relationship between the male head of household and his wife. She is accorded with an equivalent role to that of a lieutenant to her husband’s prince, acting to carry out whatever he commands for the health and benefit of the house. The passage concludes with a consideration of the important of domestic order.Italy156016thResidential
5800‘Della economica’ The different types of female servants within the house are described in this passage. The female interlocutor divides them into two groups: women who serve a particular person within the house, and those who provide more general help. She specifies these as damigelle, who serve the mistress of the house, sew and keep the linen in order, and fantesche, who wash hangings and keep the goods of the house. Describing arrangements within her own home, she reveals the hierarchies within the female servants, indicating that the older women oversee the tasks of the younger. She also draws attention to the care of special furnishings and clothing used only when there are visitors or parties in the house. Italy156016thResidentialBedroom, Other / Unknown
5801‘Madre mia marideme: che non posso piu durar. Con el lamento che ella fa dapoi che le maridata’
The verses extracted here from a longer poem consist of a mother’s warning to her daughter of the difficulties of married life, and the daughter’s lament after her marriage. Both stress the burdens and strains of domestic life in poverty and present a chaotic image of continual hardship. Italy1500-159916thResidential
5802‘La sala di Malagigi. Nella quale si legge l'astuzie, ch'egli vsò per goder Lucrezia Figliuola del Rè Baldachino’This poem describes how Malagigi summons up demons to take him to the beautiful princess Lucrezia and how he wins her by using supernatural powers to decorate a room in her palace, the sala of the title (see entries FD132 and 122). This passage concentrates on the decoration of the sala, specifying how Malagigi tells Lucrezia of his skill as a painter and carver of marble and alabaster, then conjures up demons to help him, using a book of necromancy, who bring the rich materials to the room and work them for him. Following this passage are many verses listing the various classical, historical, biblical and allegorical figures depicted in the sala’s decoration. Italy1500 - 159916thResidentialSocial and Sitting Spaces, Bedroom
5803‘La sala di Malagigi. Nella quale si legge l'astuzie, ch'egli vsò per goder Lucrezia Figliuola del Rè Baldachino’This poem describes how Malagigi summons up demons to take him to the beautiful princess Lucrezia and how he wins her by using supernatural powers to decorate a room in her palace, the sala of the title (see entries FD132 and 122). In this passage, Malagigi is accommodated in a luxurious bedroom, the ornate furnishings of which are described in detail, particularly the bed. At the end of the passage, Lucrezia, who has fallen in love with him, joins him there. The emphasis on precious materials and ornamentation in the description of the interior resonates with the sensuality of her visit. Italy1500-159916thResidentialBedroom
5804‘Opera nova, Dove si contegono alcune Bustachine alla Bolognese, Con la Massarina, & doi Sonetti Amorosi’ In this poem, the speaker’s voice is that of a housewife, who describes her daily activities, responsibilities and skills. When you have a husband, she says, you must keep account of and oversee the goods of the house, and if you have children, never rest. She describes rising early to weave, sew, sweep and make the beds, and also notes her cooking abilities. The poem concentrates on the processes of daily housework and women’s responsibilities within the home. Italy158816thResidential
5805‘La corona della vergine, fatta di sessantatre miracoli piu celebri della Santissima Nunziata di Firenze. A gloria di Dio, e per memoria, e riverenza di sessantatre Anni, che visse la Madonna in questa vita’This book contains sixty-three miracles described in poetic form so that they can be more easily ‘read, learnt and sung’. This miracle concerns a Florentine baker. One night, three platforms which were laden with flour, goods and grain collapsed, trapping his wife and four apprentices. His prayers were answered and they were pulled out of the rubble unharmed. The passage indicates the proximity of living and working spaces for certain trades during this period, and highlights how young apprentices could form part of a household. Italy161317thResidentialOther / Unknown
5806‘Historia di Campriano contadino il quale era molto povero, et haveva sei figliuole da maritare, & con astutia faceva cacar danari à un suo Asino, che gl'haveva, & lo vendè loro una pentola, che bolliva senza fuoco, & un coniglio che portava l'imbasciate, & una tromba che risuscitava i morti. Et finalmente gettò quei Mercanti in un fiume.’This passage comes from a longer poem in which the exploits of a peasant who, amongst other magical objects and animals, encounters a cooking pot which boils without fire. This passage describes a rough and ready meal, at which people sit on the ground, eating off a chest which has no tablecloth, drinking from earthenware bowls rather than glasses. The manner in which they eat is also described as uncouth, this representation highlighting the connection between objects and furnishings and behaviour. Italy157917thResidential
5807‘Nuova maniera d'imparare molte sorti di giochi di carte, e destrezza di mano, d'ova, di bussoli, di moneta, d'anelli, & altri di regola, e memoria’These two recipes contain instructions for transforming the interior in an apparently magical fashion. They come from a book containing a variety of instructions, from practical advice on how to remove stains, to concoctions for health and beauty, and recipes such as these for entertainment. The first tells you what to put on a candle in order to make all the people in the room appear not to have heads. The second contains a recipe to be also put on a candle. When the doors and windows of the room are closed, it will appear as if there is a beautiful pergola of black grapes. Italyc.1600-165017thResidentialOther / Unknown
5808‘Gloria d’amore’


This is one of a series of poems written by Olimpo degli Alessandri about unrequited love for a woman named Camilla. His obsessional love for her leads him to write about anything with which she has contact, from her house and furnishings to her clothing. In this poem, he imbues the interior with an emotional response to her as an inhabitant, saying how happy her bed, walls, roof, doors and balconies must be to have her living in proximity to them. Italyc.1550-1600 16thResidential
5809‘Gloria d’amore’


This is one of a series of poems written by Olimpo degli Alessandri about unrequited love for a woman named Camilla. His obsessional love for her leads him to write about anything with which she has contact, from her house and furnishings to her clothing. This poem considers her bedroom, with the author imagining her sleeping, lying down and dressing. It highlights the idea of occupying in the imagination spaces which are otherwise inaccessible. Italyc.1550-1600 16thResidentialBedroom
5810‘Gloria d’amore’

This is one of a series of poems written by Olimpo degli Alessandri about unrequited love for a woman named Camilla. His obsessional love for her leads him to write about anything with which she has contact, from her house and furnishings to her clothing. Her bed and bedding are the focus of this poem, which emphasises particularly their proximity to her body. Italyc.1550-1600 16thResidential
5811‘Camilla’
This is one of a series of poems written by Olimpo degli Alessandri about unrequited love for a woman named Camilla. His obsessional love for her leads him to write about anything with which she has contact, from her house and furnishings to her clothing. In this poem, the materials of the house become transformed in his mind through their proximity to her, with walls of alabaster, a roof of gold, a door of worked ivory. The transformative power of this interior is also noted: that whoever is within it is rendered more gallant. Italy158216thResidential
5812‘Camilla’
This is one of a series of poems written by Olimpo degli Alessandri about unrequited love for a woman named Camilla. His obsessional love for her leads him to write about anything with which she has contact, from her house and furnishings to her clothing. Her association with the windows, walls, door and roof lead him to contemplate them in her place, since he is unable to look at her. Italy158216thResidential
5813‘Camilla’
This is one of a series of poems written by Olimpo degli Alessandri about unrequited love for a woman named Camilla. His obsessional love for her leads him to write about anything with which she has contact, from her house and furnishings to her clothing. In this poem, he personifies architectural elements of the interior, saying that if she won’t listen to him, since she is asleep, the windows must listen to his pain and misery. Not only the house itself, but also the neighbourhood surrounding the house, are associated with her and therefore to be sought out by him. Italy158216thResidential
5814‘Camilla’This is one of a series of poems written by Olimpo degli Alessandri about unrequited love for a woman named Camilla. His obsessional love for her leads him to write about anything with which she has contact, from her house and furnishings to her clothing. This poem considers the furnishings that are in daily physical proximity to her, from the bed, sheets and pillow, to chairs and chests, and her distaff, saying how lucky they are to be so close to her and her body. Italy158216thResidential
5815‘Palazzo fantastico, et bizarro...Con l'arguta risposta fattagli dal Architetto sopra tal dissegno’

This poem mocks those with ambitious plans for building palaces on a grand scale involving architects. Croce starts by outlining the excessive scale of his building, and then goes on to discuss how each element, from the stairs, to the walls, beams and doorways, will consist of acts and emotions, utterly undermining the materiality of the building for comic effect. Italy160717thResidentialOther / Unknown, Kitchen, Social and Sitting Spaces, Transitional
5816‘Palazzo fantastico, et bizarro...Con l'arguta risposta fattagli dal Architetto sopra tal dissegno’

The architect’s reply to Croce’s fantasy building is equally ludicrous. He says he is ready to carry out Croce’s wishes and will illustrate his skill as an architect. He describes a palace in which the architectural elements that were described by Croce as actions and emotions consist of bizarre materials, such as soap, ricotta, cloves and ‘dirty wool, combed little by little by a wax baboon next to the fire.’ This description recalls those found in poems about the land of Cockaigne, in which the palaces are also described as being made of cheese (see FD418). Italy160717thResidential
5817‘Canzone a ballo (& altre canzone) composte dal Magnifico L. de M.: & da... A. Politiano (& per altri authori)’These verses concentrate on a topic popular in certain types of poetry of this period: the young girl who is desperate to be married, often presented as in dialogue with her mother who attempts to dissuade her. This poem is unusual in the explicit references made to the daughter having witnessed her parents’ sexual relations, and how they awoke in her a desire to have the same experiences. It may indicate different attitudes towards privacy and sexuality during this period. Italy153316thResidential
5819‘Storia della preziosa cintola della Gloriosissima Vergine Maria la quale e hoggi in Prato’This passage comes from a poem describing the story of the belt of the Virgin Mary, which was brought back from the Holy Land to Prato. It caused problems wherever it was kept until it was placed on the altar of Prato cathedral. Considered precious, the belt was initially kept in someone’s house in a chest, which was slept on at night for security. However, the noises and movements of the chest forced it to be moved to another house, which then caught fire. This passage describes how everything in the house burnt except for the belt, which miraculously survived. It highlights the relationship between religious belief and perception of the powers of domestic objects.Italy161817thResidentialBedroom
5820‘Opera venuta in luce nuovamente nella quale troverai molti bellissimi secreti non piu visti, li quali ti daranno bona utilita & gran beneficio’This text describes how to prevent as many as one hundred people at one table from eating until you permit them. It tells you to take a knife belonging to a dead man, and to write on its handle ‘Abel, Soth, Bibel’ - no-one will be able to eat until you raise it. It suggests a belief in and engagement with ideas related to magic within the home, that are more familiarly expressed in the realms of beliefs related to health, rather than in the context of domestic sociability. Italy1500-159916thResidential
5821‘Opera venuta in luce nuovamente nella quale troverai molti bellissimi secreti non piu visti, li quali ti daranno bona utilita & gran beneficio’These two recipes are for elimating fleas from the bedroom and for preventing flies from entering the house through the doors and windows. Both involve mixing a variety of ingredients, sprinkling them throughout the room in the case of the fleas, and painting them with a brush on the doors and windows. Both suggest a concern with the hygiene of the house. Italy1500-159916thResidentialBedroom
5822‘Tesoro de secreti racolti da diversi valent'huomini ‘

This recipe tells us how to make all the fleas in the house jump onto one selected person. Donkey’s milk wiped on the shoes of the chosen victim, who should be then led throughout the house, will apparently be sufficient to attract the fleas onto his legs and hose.Italy1500-159916thResidentialBedroom
5823‘Tesoro de secreti racolti da diversi valent'huomini’
This is a recipe to make somebody fall asleep instantly at the table. Given the potent mix of poppy seeds and wine the recipe contains, one can imagine it being highly effective. The text draws attention to the wide spectrum of activities that could form part of domestic sociability during meals. Italy1500-159916thResidential
5824La civil conversazioneThis passage draws attention to the relationship between the acquisition of goods for the house and the conservation and maintenance of those goods already acquired, noting that the latter can be as important as the former. In noting the importance of limiting spending, the interlocutor recounts an anecdote in which the King of France, visiting a splendid palace, commented that the kitchen seems too small in relation to the size of the palace. This met with the response that ‘it was the small kitchen that made the house large’. Italy157416thResidentialKitchen
5825La civil conversazioneThis passage focuses on human relationships and communication within the house. The interlocutor states that he is not going to give an account of how the house should be run, as is found in much contemporary prescriptive literature. Instead, he intends to focus on how the house is kept in conversation between its inhabitants, identifying discussions between husband and wife, father and son, head of house and servants, and between brothers as topics to be examined. Italy157416thResidential
5826La civil conversazioneThis passage focuses on gender roles in the running of the house. The interlocutor Cavaliere wants to establish that a husband shouldn’t do his wife’s tasks nor a wife her husband’s. Annibale replies that he shouldn’t, unless he is unfortunate in having a useless, foolish wife, in which case he may have to make up for her defects. However, he criticises men who are not in this position but who nevertheless try to take over their wife’s tasks in overseeing the activities of the women of the house. Italy157416thResidential
5827La civil conversazioneThis passage focuses on relations between generations, particularly between fathers and sons. It describes situations in which a father is jealous of the goods and status of his son, noting how important it is not to allow oneself to feel jealous or covetous. The importance of responding to possessions in the correct way is noted, and the importance of imparting this in offspring. An anecdote is recounted in which a king enters his son’s room, which is full of many gold and silver vases given to him by his father, and says: ‘I see that you don’t have a royal soul, since from all the things I have given you, you still haven’t learnt how to make a single friend.’Italy157416th
5828‘Canzone delle lodi di Madonna Tenerina’ This poem is all about Madonna Tenerina, who is described as being so tender that just ‘by getting into bed, she bruised her shoulders and breast, and it took her all morning to fold a handkerchief’. After eight pages of describing how delicate she was, with the refrain ‘O quant’era tenerina’ at the end of each verse (Oh how tender she was), she dies. The interior represented emphasises the processes that create comfort. Three female servants tend to Madonna Tenerina, one stoking the fire, another making the bed and a third possibly helping her dress or undress.

[poem]
Italy1590 ?16thResidentialKitchen, Other / Unknown
5829‘Testamento novamente fatto per Messer Faustin Terdotio’This extract from a much longer poem describes the goods left in the will of ‘Faustin Terdotio’. Here a ramshackle assortment of goods are described: ‘all the spiders' webs / that you find in the house / with household goods and vessels / of various types / three spindles and two baskets / a winding distaff / a jug without spout… / a handful of sticks / and three matches / with two pestles / and half a bowl / item one slipper / with three broken shoes'. The poem imitates the Latin (such as ‘item’ and ‘cum’) used in wills and domestic inventories of the period. Italy1500-159916thResidential
5830‘Veglia carnevalesca’This poem describes an evening’s entertainments. It focuses on the processes and actions required at the beginning of the party: bringing chairs, moving them close to and then away from the fire, bringing lights, bringing food, putting more wood on the fire, greeting guests. A dynamic picture of the house in motion, from the point of the view of an anxious host, is presented. Italy162017thResidentialKitchen, Other / Unknown
5769‘I parenti godevoli, opera piacevolissima, nella quale s'introduce un ridutto di Gentilhuomini, & Gentil donne a metter ceppo insideme & à cavar la Ventura, secondo che s'usa in Bologna le feste di natale.’This text describes an evening’s entertainment for Epiphany, representing the interior as a place for sociability. This passage focuses on the preprations for the party, bringing candles and wood into the room where the games are to take place. Chairs are gathered in a semicircle around the fire, which is often represented as the focus of sociable activity. The head of the house is shown giving most of the instructions to servants and his son. His wife checks with a servant who has fetched something from the husband’s room, that she has secured the door shut to prevent the small child asleep there from going through it. Italy160917thSocial and Sitting Spaces, Bedroom
5770‘I parenti godevoli, opera piacevolissima, nella quale s'introduce un ridutto di Gentilhuomini, & Gentil donne a metter ceppo insideme & à cavar la Ventura, secondo che s'usa in Bologna le feste di natale’. This text represents a whole evening of games played at an evening’s entertainment for Epiphany, in which all the members of the household take it in turns to be discussed in relation to an emblem and then receive a present. In the passage quoted here, it is the turn of the servant Santina, and the emblem is a goose, renowned for being stupid. The mistress of the household agrees that this is appropriate for her servant, stating that when asked to get one thing, she brings another that sounds like it - for example, when asked for a shoe, pianella, she brings a bowl, scodella. The master of the house childes his wife for saying all this in public, suggesting that although all the household is participating in this game, there is still a need to maintain a certain level of social decorum. Italy160917thResidential
5771Dialoghi This prescriptive text notes that the various parts of the house need to be looked after in different ways. It draws an analogy between the husband’s role within the house and the heart’s within the body, suggesting that they both rule, but are dependent on other elements - the wife, or the stomach and mouth - for sustenance. The wife is therefore accorded the most active role in the upkeep of the house, but very much under her husband’s supervision. Italy159616thResidential
5772Dialoghi This passage discusses the placement of objects within the house, noting that different types of object belong in particular places within the interior. The importance of how these objects are arranged is stressed, and it is suggested that even within a badly built or arranged palace, it is possible to create a well-ordered house. Speroni gives as a model example a small room belonging to a German merchant that he had seen years before in Venice, in which everything was arranged perfectly, from cloth to musical instruments to lemon and orange trees. Italy159616thResidentialBedroom
5773‘Malitia de' tutte le arti’This poem describes the activities belonging to a wide range of professions. This passage focuses on objects created for the interior, with the craftsmen who fashion beds, furniture, glass flasks and beakers, and ceramic ware placed under scrutiny. The poem is mostly critical of the goods produced, but also critical of inadequately wary customers - the first verse suggests that those who don’t have their eyes open during purchasing will be sold pears when they want fennel. Italy152016th
5774‘Opera nova sopra la strazzosa canzone bellissima in lingua venetiana’In this poem, a romantic sensibility of happiness in noble poverty is explored. It evokes the harmony of the disparate household (consisting of different generations and a variety of domestic animals) caused by their communal want, and seeing 'infinite beauty in a thousand rags': 'gentle company… under a single roof / that is broken in a hundred places / through which the moon and the sun / make the house so much happier and lighter…'. Italy160717thResidentialBedroom, Social and Sitting Spaces, Other / Unknown
5775Le ricordanze di Giovanni Chellini da San Miniato
This entry in the doctor Giovanni Chellini’s account book records the visit of Lorenzo di Francesco di messer Michele da Saminiato who came to study as a notary in Florence. It indicates the time Lorenzo spent on holiday back at San Miniato, the fact that he brought bedding with him to Chellini’s house on his return, and that he finally moved out of Chellini’s home into a rented property (taking his bed and other possessions with him). By tracing the temporary presence of a non-family member within Chellini’s house, this passage acts as a reminder of how fluid the composition of a household could be during this period. Italy143415thResidential
5861Pride and Prejudice This paragraph foreshadows the most celebrated country-house visit in English literature: Elizabeth Bennet's visit to Pemberley. The author singles out one of the aspects of interiors most prone to changes in fashion, namely furnishing textiles in the form of fine carpets and satin curtains, as the focus for the heroine’s expression of her satiation with great English houses. This is an interesting choice over some of the more obvious qualities of English country houses such as their scale, age, architectural style or historical association. This apparent boredom with soft furnishings masks Elizabeth Bennet's emotional discomfort at the prospect of viewing the grand country house belonging to the wealthy suitor she has spurned.181319thResidential
5862Pride and Prejudice This passage on the interior of Pemberley deals with generalities and Elizabeth Bennet’s overall impression. What interests Elizabeth is the house's relationship to the surrounding landscape garden and how from every room the view changes but remains beautiful. Here the domestic interior is a location from which to view a shifting picture of a carefully presented version of nature.

This passage also reveals the language in which consumer choices about furniture could be praised or criticised at this date as "suitable for the fortune of the proprietor", and of "real elegance" or as "gaudy", "uselessly fine" and with "too much splendour".

Mr Darcy's furniture is here being used to provide the heroine with new insights into his taste and by extension create a dawning understanding in her of the man she has hitherto misjudged.
UK181319thResidentialDining Room
5863Eugene Onegin These two stanzas from an English translation of Pushkin’s great novel in verse describe one of the domestic spaces occupied by an eighteen-year-old St Petersburg dandy in the 1830s. The dressing room is characterised by its contents consisting of goods in unusual or precious materials imported from the European fashion capitals of London and Paris. These materials include porcelain, bronze and crystal, as well as Russian amber, and there is also an excessive amount of paraphernalia for male grooming.

The tone suggests luxurious sloth whereby the occupant is dressed and undressed like a doll (presumably by a valet) while entertaining languorous companions, combined with a rabid fascination with all the latest novelties.
Russia183719thOther / Unknown
5864Eugene Onegin These two stanzas from an English translation of Pushkin’s great novel in verse describe a Russian country house lived in successively by an uncle and a nephew. In contrast with LM1034 which is all about fashion in the city, this extract emphasises tradition and continuity in the countryside. This extends from the old-fashioned style of the architecture through the ancestral portraits which hang in the house, to the forty-year occupancy by the uncle spent always engaged in the same activity. The interior has a timeless quality or at least is far from up to date, with its almanac more than a decade old. The interior here contrasts with the nephew's city dressing room which was filled with various costly and precious materials. The floor of this county house is plain oak and there is a dearth of contents.Russia183719thResidentialSocial and Sitting Spaces
5865Eugene Onegin These verses from an English translation of Pushkin’s great novel in verse refer to the same country house as LM1035 and again explore the idea of a single interior occupied by two members of the same family.

Like LM1033 it deals with a woman being shown the domestic interior belonging to a potential husband, in the man's absence. Possessions such as the billiard cue and the riding whip suggest the young Onegin's leisure activities are somewhat different from his uncle's sedate weekly game of cards with his housekeeper.

Onegin's inner life is suggested by the images of heroes he chooses to surround himself with - a portrait of Byron and a bust of Napoleon. The representation of the interior informs the reader of where Onegin slept, who he dined with, his work and leisure activities and together add up to a surrogate portrait of the man.
Russia183719thResidentialSocial and Sitting Spaces, Library / Study
5866Middlemarch This passage from the novel deals with the heroine Dorothea Brookes' first visit to the home of her future husband, the middle-aged bachelor scholar Mr Casaubon. Seen through Dorothea's eyes she compares the décor of her soon-to-be-home with the one she is leaving belonging to her uncle.

The expressions "classical nudities" and "smirking Renaissance-Corregiosities" relating to contents of the uncle's house, besides being a play on the word ‘monstrosities’, have an undertone of sexuality absent from the "curious old maps" and "bird's eye views" which decorate her fiancée's house. Her failure to comprehend the former and their relevance to her own life could be seen as a metaphor for her lack of awareness of her sexual needs which will result in a miserable marriage to a sexless older man.
UK1871-219thResidentialTransitional, Library / Study
5867MiddlemarchThis passage describes the first visit of the novel’s heroine, Dorothea Brooke, to what will be her bedroom following her marriage to Mr Casaubon. The language suggests dessiccation and decay in its use of "faded", "powdered", "pale" and "ghost". The association of the room with a "tight-laced lady" is the opposite of what one might expect of the bedroom of a new bride. The author is using the description of the interior to prefigure the unsatisfactory nature of the forthcoming marriage. UK1871-219thResidentialBedroom
4335The West Indian Front RoomThe West Indian Front Room exhibition, held between 18 October 2005 and 19 February 2006, was a collaboration between the Geffrye Museum and Michael McMillan.
McMillan is a British-born writer and artist of Vincentian parentage. Core themes in his work explore post-World War Two immigration and settlement, identities and gender, hidden histories and the family. The project at the Geffrye draws on his long engagement with the meanings about the West Indian front room and on his previous projects, including The Black Chair: An Installation and Exhibition Rediscovering the West Indian Front Room, shown at High Wycombe Museum (1998-9) and Slough Museum (2000), and The West Indian Front Room: A Performance Installation at The Albany, Deptford (2004).

The exhibition was described as follows on the Geffrye Museum website: 'An evocation of his (Michael McMillan's) childhood memory will be created for the exhibition, a front room of the 1960s and 1970s in which visitors will be encouraged to linger. This will be put into context by listening posts with brief excerpts from interviews carried out with first- and second-generation people of African-Caribbean descent and West Indian elders who shared their experiences of setting up home in Britain. Filmed interviews by Joel Karamath will run on two screens, and photographs of interiors from London's African-Caribbean and Black British communities will line the walls. In a separate seating area, visitors will be able to leave their own memories of their own homes.' (Geffrye Museum website, February 2006)
UK200621stResidentialSocial and Sitting Spaces
4336The West Indian Front RoomThe West Indian Front Room exhibition, held between 18 October 2005 and 19 February 2006, was a collaboration between the Geffrye Museum and Michael McMillan.
McMillan is a British-born writer and artist of Vincentian parentage. Core themes in his work explore post-World War Two immigration and settlement, identities and gender, hidden histories and the family. The project at the Geffrye draws on his long engagement with the meanings about the West Indian front room and on his previous projects, including The Black Chair: An Installation and Exhibition Rediscovering the West Indian Front Room, shown at High Wycombe Museum (1998-9) and Slough Museum (2000), and The West Indian Front Room: A Performance Installation at The Albany, Deptford (2004).

The exhibition was described as follows on the Geffrye Museum website: 'An evocation of his (Michael McMillan's) childhood memory will be created for the exhibition, a front room of the 1960s and 1970s in which visitors will be encouraged to linger. This will be put into context by listening posts with brief excerpts from interviews carried out with first- and second-generation people of African-Caribbean descent and West Indian elders who shared their experiences of setting up home in Britain. Filmed interviews by Joel Karamath will run on two screens, and photographs of interiors from London's African-Caribbean and Black British communities will line the walls. In a separate seating area, visitors will be able to leave their own memories of their own homes.' (Geffrye Museum website, February 2006)
UK200621stResidentialSocial and Sitting Spaces
4337The West Indian Front Room The West Indian Front Room exhibition, held between 18 October 2005 and 19 February 2006, was a collaboration between the Geffrye Museum and Michael McMillan.
McMillan is a British-born writer and artist of Vincentian parentage. Core themes in his work explore post-World War Two immigration and settlement, identities and gender, hidden histories and the family. The project at the Geffrye draws on his long engagement with the meanings about the West Indian front room and on his previous projects, including The Black Chair: An Installation and Exhibition Rediscovering the West Indian Front Room, shown at High Wycombe Museum (1998-9) and Slough Museum (2000), and The West Indian Front Room: A PerformanceIinstallation at The Albany, Deptford (2004).

The exhibition was described as follows on the Geffrye Museum website: 'An evocation of his (Michael McMillan's) childhood memory will be created for the exhibition, a front room of the 1960s and 1970s in which visitors will be encouraged to linger. This will be put into context by listening posts with brief excerpts from interviews carried out with first- and second-generation people of African-Caribbean descent and West Indian elders who shared their experiences of setting up home in Britain. Filmed interviews by Joel Karamath will run on two screens, and photographs of interiors from London's African-Caribbean and Black British communities will line the walls. In a separate seating area, visitors will be able to leave their own memories of their own homes.' (Geffrye Museum website, February 2006)
UK200621stResidentialSocial and Sitting Spaces
4338The West Indian Front Room The West Indian Front Room exhibition, held between 18 October 2005 and 19 February 2006, was a collaboration between the Geffrye Museum and Michael McMillan.
McMillan is a British-born writer and artist of Vincentian parentage. Core themes in his work explore post-World War Two immigration and settlement, identities and gender, hidden histories and the family. The project at the Geffrye draws on his long engagement with the meanings about the West Indian front room and on his previous projects, including The Black Chair: An Installation and Exhibition Rediscovering the West Indian Front Room, shown at High Wycombe Museum (1998-9) and Slough Museum (2000), and The West Indian Front Room: A Performance Installation at The Albany, Deptford (2004).

The exhibition was described as follows on the Geffrye Museum website: 'An evocation of his (Michael McMillan's) childhood memory will be created for the exhibition, a front room of the 1960s and 1970s in which visitors will be encouraged to linger. This will be put into context by listening posts with brief excerpts from interviews carried out with first- and second-generation people of African-Caribbean descent and West Indian elders who shared their experiences of setting up home in Britain. Filmed interviews by Joel Karamath will run on two screens, and photographs of interiors from London's African-Caribbean and Black British communities will line the walls. In a separate seating area, visitors will be able to leave their own memories of their own homes.' (Geffrye Museum website, February 2006)
UK200621stResidentialSocial and Sitting Spaces
4339The West Indian Front RoomThe West Indian Front Room exhibition, held between 18 October 2005 and 19 February 2006, was a collaboration between the Geffrye Museum and Michael McMillan.
McMillan is a British-born writer and artist of Vincentian parentage. Core themes in his work explore post-World War Two immigration and settlement, identities and gender, hidden histories and the family. The project at the Geffrye draws on his long engagement with the meanings about the West Indian front room and on his previous projects, including The Black Chair: An Installation and Exhibition Rediscovering the West Indian Front Room, shown at High Wycombe Museum (1998-9) and Slough Museum (2000), and The West Indian Front Room: A Performance Installation at The Albany, Deptford (2004).

The exhibition was described as follows on the Geffrye Museum website: 'An evocation of his (Michael McMillan's) childhood memory will be created for the exhibition, a front room of the 1960s and 1970s in which visitors will be encouraged to linger. This will be put into context by listening posts with brief excerpts from interviews carried out with first- and second-generation people of African-Caribbean descent and West Indian elders who shared their experiences of setting up home in Britain. Filmed interviews by Joel Karamath will run on two screens, and photographs of interiors from London's African-Caribbean and Black British communities will line the walls. In a separate seating area, visitors will be able to leave their own memories of their own homes.' (Geffrye Museum website, February 2006)
UK200621stResidentialSocial and Sitting Spaces
4340The West Indian Front RoomThe West Indian Front Room exhibition, held between 18 October 2005 and 19 February 2006, was a collaboration between the Geffrye Museum and Michael McMillan.
McMillan is a British-born writer and artist of Vincentian parentage. Core themes in his work explore post-World War Two immigration and settlement, identities and gender, hidden histories and the family. The project at the Geffrye draws on his long engagement with the meanings about the West Indian front room and on his previous projects, including The Black Chair: An Installation and Exhibition Rediscovering the West Indian Front Room, shown at High Wycombe Museum (1998-9) and Slough Museum (2000), and The West Indian Front Room: A Performance Installation at The Albany, Deptford (2004).

The exhibition was described as follows on the Geffrye Museum website: 'An evocation of his (Michael McMillan's) childhood memory will be created for the exhibition, a front room of the 1960s and 1970s in which visitors will be encouraged to linger. This will be put into context by listening posts with brief excerpts from interviews carried out with first- and second-generation people of African-Caribbean descent and West Indian elders who shared their experiences of setting up home in Britain. Filmed interviews by Joel Karamath will run on two screens, and photographs of interiors from London's African-Caribbean and Black British communities will line the walls. In a separate seating area, visitors will be able to leave their own memories of their own homes.' (Geffrye Museum website, February 2006).
UK200621stResidentialSocial and Sitting Spaces
4341The West Indian Front RoomThe West Indian Front Room exhibition, held between 18 October 2005 and 19 February 2006, was a collaboration between the Geffrye Museum and Michael McMillan.
McMillan is a British-born writer and artist of Vincentian parentage. Core themes in his work explore post-World War Two immigration and settlement, identities and gender, hidden histories and the family. The project at the Geffrye draws on his long engagement with the meanings about the West Indian front room and on his previous projects, including The Black Chair: An Installation and Exhibition Rediscovering the West Indian Front Room, shown at High Wycombe Museum (1998-9) and Slough Museum (2000), and The West Indian Front Room: A Performance Installation at The Albany, Deptford (2004).

The exhibition was described as follows on the Geffrye Museum website: 'An evocation of his (Michael McMillan's) childhood memory will be created for the exhibition, a front room of the 1960s and 1970s in which visitors will be encouraged to linger. This will be put into context by listening posts with brief excerpts from interviews carried out with first- and second-generation people of African-Caribbean descent and West Indian elders who shared their experiences of setting up home in Britain. Filmed interviews by Joel Karamath will run on two screens, and photographs of interiors from London's African-Caribbean and Black British communities will line the walls. In a separate seating area, visitors will be able to leave their own memories of their own homes.' (Geffrye Museum website, February 2006)
UK200621stResidentialSocial and Sitting Spaces
4342The West Indian Front RoomThe West Indian Front Room exhibition, held between 18 October 2005 and 19 February 2006, was a collaboration between the Geffrye Museum and Michael McMillan.
McMillan is a British-born writer and artist of Vincentian parentage. Core themes in his work explore post-World War Two immigration and settlement, identities and gender, hidden histories and the family. The project at the Geffrye draws on his long engagement with the meanings about the West Indian front room and on his previous projects, including The Black Chair: An Installation and Exhibition Rediscovering the West Indian Front Room, shown at High Wycombe Museum (1998-9) and Slough Museum (2000), and The West Indian Front Room: A Performance Installation at The Albany, Deptford (2004).

The exhibition was described as follows on the Geffrye Museum website: 'An evocation of his (Michael McMillan's) childhood memory will be created for the exhibition, a front room of the 1960s and 1970s in which visitors will be encouraged to linger. This will be put into context by listening posts with brief excerpts from interviews carried out with first- and second-generation people of African-Caribbean descent and West Indian elders who shared their experiences of setting up home in Britain. Filmed interviews by Joel Karamath will run on two screens, and photographs of interiors from London's African-Caribbean and Black British communities will line the walls. In a separate seating area, visitors will be able to leave their own memories of their own homes.' (Geffrye Museum website, February 2006)
UK200621stResidentialSocial and Sitting Spaces
4343The West Indian Front RoomThe West Indian Front Room exhibition, held between 18 October 2005 and 19 February 2006, was a collaboration between the Geffrye Museum and Michael McMillan.
McMillan is a British-born writer and artist of Vincentian parentage. Core themes in his work explore post-World War Two immigration and settlement, identities and gender, hidden histories and the family. The project at the Geffrye draws on his long engagement with the meanings about the West Indian front room and on his previous projects, including The Black Chair: An Installation and Exhibition Rediscovering the West Indian Front Room, shown at High Wycombe Museum (1998-9) and Slough Museum (2000), and The West Indian Front Room: A Performance Iinstallation at The Albany, Deptford (2004).

The exhibition was described as follows on the Geffrye Museum website: 'An evocation of his (Michael McMillan's) childhood memory will be created for the exhibition, a front room of the 1960s and 1970s in which visitors will be encouraged to linger. This will be put into context by listening posts with brief excerpts from interviews carried out with first- and second-generation people of African-Caribbean descent and West Indian elders who shared their experiences of setting up home in Britain. Filmed interviews by Joel Karamath will run on two screens, and photographs of interiors from London's African-Caribbean and Black British communities will line the walls. In a separate seating area, visitors will be able to leave their own memories of their own homes.' (Geffrye Museum website, February 2006)
UK200621stResidentialSocial and Sitting Spaces
4344The West Indian Front RoomThe West Indian Front Room exhibition, held between 18 October 2005 and 19 February 2006, was a collaboration between the Geffrye Museum and Michael McMillan.
McMillan is a British-born writer and artist of Vincentian parentage. Core themes in his work explore post-World War Two immigration and settlement, identities and gender, hidden histories and the family. The project at the Geffrye draws on his long engagement with the meanings about the West Indian front room and on his previous projects, including The Black Chair: An Installation and Exhibition Rediscovering the West Indian Front Room, shown at High Wycombe Museum (1998-9) and Slough Museum (2000), and The West Indian Front Room: A Performance Installation at The Albany, Deptford (2004).

The exhibition was described as follows on the Geffrye Museum website: 'An evocation of his (Michael McMillan's) childhood memory will be created for the exhibition, a front room of the 1960s and 1970s in which visitors will be encouraged to linger. This will be put into context by listening posts with brief excerpts from interviews carried out with first- and second-generation people of African-Caribbean descent and West Indian elders who shared their experiences of setting up home in Britain. Filmed interviews by Joel Karamath will run on two screens, and photographs of interiors from London's African-Caribbean and Black British communities will line the walls. In a separate seating area, visitors will be able to leave their own memories of their own homes.' (Geffrye Museum website, February 2006)
UK200621stResidentialSocial and Sitting Spaces
5329Cammino alla franzese fatto nella Fonderia di S.A.R. da Diacinto Maria Marmi l’anno 1697 This drawing was produced by the architect and designer of decorations at the Medici court.
The design of the fireplace is like those from French engravings, though less emphasis is placed on the decorative qualities of a fireplace itself and more on it as a site for display of objects. It represents aspects of the interior suited to a collector, conceiving how the stepped pyramidal form of the fireplace will work together with the display of objects above on the shelf.
Italy, France169717thResidentialOther / Unknown
5330Progetto di una sala con disposizione di mobili e quadriThis coloured drawing was produced by the architect and designer of decorations at the Medici court in Florence. By representing the interior as three walls ‘unfolded’, a device that seems to have been more common in the eighteenth century, the designer was able to show the disposition of pictures and furnishings in relation to each other and the windows that break up the space. The image is also notable for its detailed rendering of the pavement and is clearly meant to represent the room as a designed whole that incorporated the needs of a collector. The marginal drawing of a cabinet further alludes to the emphasis placed on display.Italy17thResidentialOther / Unknown
5331On Domestic Architecture, Book, VI, fol. iThese designs for peasant houses come from Book VI on domestic architecture, part of a larger architectural treatise by Serlio. Unlike the other books of the treatise, Book VI was never published but remained in two manuscript versions. More attention is given to illustration over text. The book is notable for its typology of accommodation according to social level and reflects a growing awareness in the sixteenth century of social distinctions and attempts to categorise them. Here even grades within social level are identified, offering options for ‘rich’ and ‘poor’ peasants. Interiors are related to exteriors, and domestic spaces are in proximity to stables for livestock. Italy, France1540s16thResidential
5332On Domestic Architecture, Book, VI, fol. irThis is the accompanying text to the peasant, artisan, citizen, and merchant houses. It is much less detailed than the illustrations, reflecting the emphasis placed on the elevations and plans. However, attention is given to the allocation of rooms, spaces for storage, and proportion, with some measurements. Serlio also draws distinctions between French and Italian houses in terms of form.Italy, France1540s16thResidential
5333On Domestic Architecture, Book, VI, fol. iiSerlio’s Book VI is particularly interesting because he addresses contemporary architecture according to social status and regional difference. It provides an early typology of housing for each social level and compares housing in both Italy and France. These are four designs for houses appropriate for a poor artisan in the countryside and a citizen or merchant, with examples for both Italy and France. Although the elevation and plan are provided, the plans are only for one floor of the structure. Nevertheless, rooms are labelled for easy comparison. Italy, France1540s16thResidentialOther / Unknown
5334On Domestic Architecture Book VI, fol. xvAlthough this grander house of Book VI seems only to represent facades, the accompanying text highlights the important relation between the interior and exterior. In a discussion on windows and issues of light and security, it explains the location and size of windows for particular rooms and offers strategic advice on placement for areas that require illumination. The window above the door lights the vestibule, for example, because the door is always kept closed. The elevation below, which shows ‘interior parts’ (le parte interiore) of the house, that is the view from the inner courtyard, is far more ornate than the exterior facade, illustrating the enclosed nature of this house. The sections showing interior rooms are much less articulated, though the patron’s room is labelled with a ‘K’. Italy, France1540s16thResidential
4333The Flop SofaThe Flop sofa advertised in exactly the same interior in the 1973 UK (ID1238) and French (ID1280) catalogue. Only the children are shown in a different position.France197320thCommercial , Institutional , ResidentialMultifunctional Living Space, Social and Sitting Spaces
4334Storage ContainersIn the 1978/9 UK catalogue (ID1247) a set of storage containers is depicted in different colours while they are used in a range of different domestic settings such as the kitchen, the bathroom and a romantic setting. In the French catalogue the same set (ID1281) is only shown in red and white while being used in a romantic setting. One container holds a bottle of wine while another is used as a vase. France1978/7920thCommercial , Institutional , ResidentialOther / Unknown
5327Pianta del conclave fatta in sede vacante de Leone XI per l’elettione del nuovo Pontefice cominciando il di’ 8 di maggio l’anno 1605This print published details on the accommodation of cardinals at the Vatican in Rome during the Conclave of 1605. A composite of plans, lists, and figural illustrations, it attempts to construct an image of standardisation and fairness, as cardinals were expected to move into temporary ‘cubicles’ during the conclave, and in the interest of keeping the proceedings secret, connection with the outside world was to be suspended. The size and disposition of cubicles was meant to be equal, noted here with the number relating to their occupant and the measurements given below, and the furnishing of these rooms was restricted, though it needed to accommodate not only the cardinal but also household staff. Despite rules allowing only certain authorised domestic goods to be brought in, documentary evidence suggests these rules were regularly flouted. (See AM1043 and 1045).Italy8/5/160517thResidentialOther / Unknown
5328Conclave factum in Vaticano post mortem Papae Pauli IIII. Pro electione novi Pontificis This print published details on the rules and accommodation of the Conclave in Rome of 1559, following the death of Pope Paul IV. Like other publications related to conclaves, this attempted to reassure the populace that the proceedings were fair, and emphasis is placed on order and standardisation. However, this representation is primarily concerned with disposition and allocation of uniform cubicles that provided accommodation for the cardinals, which during this conclave were constructed within and around the Sistine Chapel. Assignment of cubicles was done by lot, and the resident of each cubicle is labelled. (See AM1043 and 1044, which offer insight into the furnishings). Italy155916thResidentialOther / Unknown
4332Our Homes and how to Make them HealthyThe nineteenth-century sanitary reform movement sought to transform urban life by finding solutions for a range of environmental and social problems such as refuse removal. It was presumed that civic and domestic hygiene would also lead to moral health. Our Homes and How to Make them Healthy, an edited volume from 1885, focuses on domestic sanitation and discusses issues such as air circulation, water supplies and waste systems in the home.

This floorplan of a three-storey detached house illustrates that the kitchen, the scullery and the larder as well as the servants' lodgings were located in the basement, separated from the living spaces of the inhabitants in the houses of the elite.
UK188519thCommercial , Institutional , ResidentialOther / Unknown
5433Glass cabinet in the living room. Interior of the house of a Muslim Hindustani Surinamese migrant, first generation This glass cabinet has a decorative function as it can be used for display purposes, for example to exhibit a collection of crystal glasses. The picture of Mecca on the wall testifies to the religious and cultural identity of the householder. The furniture made with glass and veneer expresses the need for simplicity, sobriety, lightness and tidiness, common among this ethnic and religious group.Netherlands 200521stResidentialMultifunctional Living Space
5434Dining table. Interior of the house of a Muslim Hindustani Surinamese migrant, first generationIn this image we see the dining table and part of the kitchen in the house of a Muslim Hindustani Surinamese migrant in the Netherlands. The use of bright colours (for example in the plastic tablecloth) and in crystal objects is common in the interiors of this ethnic religious group. This space also has a special significance as it is here that the family gathers to eat together at special religious occasions such as the end of Ramadan. Netherlands 200521stResidentialDining Room, Kitchen
5435Dining room. Interior of the house of a Muslim Hindustani Surinamese migrant, first generationThis photograph shows the dining room of a Muslim Hindustani Surinamese family of the first generation, who migrated to the Netherlands in 1974. This family follows the principles of the Ahmadiyya movement of the Muslim religion. Due to the tolerant nature of this religious group, we find a considerable number of images compared to other Muslim households. The predominant colour is, as in the other Muslim Hindustani interiors, white, in contrast with the Dutch traditional interiors which are usually smaller and darker. The cabinet with the mirror was bought in a Turkish shop but is of Italian design and functions to display decorative objects. The image hanging above the mirror, a gift from relatives, depicts a waterfall that can be activated electrically. Netherlands 200521stResidentialDining Room
5436Glass cabinet in the living room. Interior of a house of a Muslim Hindostani Surinamese migrant, first generationThis image shows a glass cabinet in the living room of a Muslim Hindustani Surinamese family home. This piece of furniture has the function of showing and displaying objects the family has collected such as souvenirs. A part of it is also used to store books. It is made of veneer and glass and is characterised, as are so many items in this interior, by light, bright colour.Netherlands 200521stResidentialMultifunctional Living Space, Social and Sitting Spaces
5437Living room and kitchen. Interior of the house of a Muslim Hindustani Surinamese family This image shows the living room of a Muslim Hindustani Surinamese family in the Netherlands. The large sofa placed in the middle plays an important role in the social life of the family. On the left we can see the kitchen where members of the family are cooking and preparing the meal. This interior has many typical characteristics of a typical Muslim Hindustani family home. The floor with its shiny white tiles gives a sense of tidiness and brightness. The curtains, slightly transparent, let in the day light but are always closed to protect privacy. Netherlands 200521stResidentialMultifunctional Living Space, Social and Sitting Spaces, Kitchen
5438Living room. Interior of a Muslim Hindustani Surinamese migrant, second generationThis is the living room of a Muslim Hindustani Surinamese immigrant of the second generation. He was born in the Netherlands to Surinamese parents. His partner is Moroccan A closet with a TV occupies the central part of the room, surrounded by sofas on both sides. The sofas were bought in the Netherlands, but are of Moroccan fabric. The floor is made out of bamboo wood and the curtains were designed by the couple. Altogether the various pieces of furniture in this room give a cosy and ‘fairy-tale’ atmosphere. The big cushion in the middle is used as a coffee table.Netherlands 200521stResidentialMultifunctional Living Space, Social and Sitting Spaces
5439Kitchen, Interior of a Muslim Hindustani Surinamese migrant, second generationIn this modern kitchen mother and daughter are preparing a meal for some guests. The kitchen is an open space that relates to the living and dining room. This is typical of many houses built in recent decades in the Netherlands, where the different rooms like the dining room, living room and kitchen are integrated. The kitchen surfaces are covered by marble that gives extra light and brightness to the space. As a consequence, the room appears tidy, clean and bright. The interior is simple with few elements of decoration, according to Muslim tradition.Netherlands 200521stResidentialKitchen, Multifunctional Living Space
6074Minimal ModularThe use of modular furniture was very popular in the 1970s. It was meant to provide flexibility, and the option to move furniture around to create changing configurations of space. The idea of modular furniture was to support an informal use of space and as such it presupposed that the interior was not a fixed environment, but rather one that would adapt to needs and uses as these developed or changed. In this particular example, modular furniture has been used to construct a rather formal sitting area. It is not, however, traditional or conservative, in contrast to other examples presented in the same publication (see VN1191 for instance).USA197920thResidentialSocial and Sitting Spaces
6075Home is Where the Hearth IsAn eclectic, if conservative, interior. The furniture has been arranged symmetrically around a central low table, and although there is variation in materials and patterns, the typologies of the furniture and its disposition create a very traditional sitting space. This image, and its title, suggest that there are shared archetypes about the home, and that the choice of furniture and its organisation are ways of tapping into them. USA197920thResidentialSocial and Sitting Spaces
6076Graphic DesignThis example of room decoration takes up Superstudio’s Istogrammi furniture (see VN1029) to create a graphic theme for the interior. While the original idea behind Superstudio’s design was extreme informality of use, here the same objects have been used to create a traditional sitting area, organised around the low tables which are hemmed in by seating on all sides.USA197920thResidentialSocial and Sitting Spaces
6077The Great IndoorsThis is a decorative scheme for an industrial loft conversion (see VN1201). The tension between the gentrifiers’ extreme inner-city urban living and the middle-class yearning for suburban greenery is expressed here in a decorative scheme that overflows with plants. At the same time, it emphasises the openness of these new spaces, characterised by the lack of partition walls, large windows and high ceilings. USA197920thResidentialSocial and Sitting Spaces
6078Out and Out StorageWith its emphasis on storage solutions, this proposal for a small kitchen highlights the problems involved in accommodating an increasingly consumerist lifestyle in increasingly reduced urban apartments. Here, every available surface, from walls to ceiling, is used to store kitchen utensils. It is a vision of cramped abundance, which easily defines urban middle-class living in the second half of the twentieth century. See VN1197 for a similar image. USA197920thResidentialKitchen
6079The New-View KitchenWith its emphasis on storage solutions, this proposal for a small kitchen highlights the problems involved in accommodating an increasingly consumerist lifestyle in increasingly reduced urban apartments. Here, every available surface, from walls to ceiling, is used to store kitchen utensils. It is a vision of cramped abundance, which easily defines urban middle-class living in the second half of the twentieth century. See VN1197 for a similar image.USA197920thResidentialKitchen
6080The Second Living RoomThe bedroom is presented here as a multifunctional space, suitable not just for sleeping but for working as well. The scene is informal and lighthearted, suggesting the enjoyment afforded by a domestic environment where activities are not restricted to very definite areas of the house. Notice the Valentine typewriter (se VN1025), an object that has epitomised precisely this kind of flexibility since it was designed in 1969. USA197920thResidentialBedroom
6081The Engineered ApartmentThis image suggests that a complete home that can support distinct areas of activity can still be achieved in a very reduced space. The disposition of the furniture creates clearly delimited zones for sitting, eating, working and cooking. Contrast with a very different approach to designing an apartment with very little space in VN1024. In that case, the solution was to merge all possible activities within one room, rather than compartmentalising space. USA197920thResidentialMultifunctional Living Space
6082‘Alternative Spaces’This late-1970s piece is testimony to the emerging practice of urban gentrification. The conversion of old inner-city industrial spaces into apartments defined the 1980s in many of the larger North American cities, changing the social character of whole neighbourhoods. The piece defines middle-class gentrifiers as urban pioneers, willing to invest personal labour to achieve a domestic space where no walls can ‘fence [them] in’. USA197920thCommercial , ResidentialMultifunctional Living Space, Undifferentiated Spaces
6083T-Shaped HouseThe accessories are carefully arranged in this image to suggest a combination of work and play in this boy’s room: the desk with a baseball bat, a microscope and an open book, the boxing gloves hanging on the wall and a toy drum on the bed. USA195120thResidentialBedroom
6084Small but SpaciousThis unusual representation combines the effect of an axonometric view, an architectural model and user-friendly handwritten captions. The result is extremely didactic, and merges professional precision with an engaging and easily understandable approach. USA195120thResidentialBathroom, Bedroom, Dining Room, Kitchen, Leisure / Games Room, Social and Sitting Spaces, Utility
6085Small but SpaciousAs in VN1203, the combination of representational modes produces an image that is technically precise but easy to understand for a non-professional audience. The aim here appears to be to suggest the many activities that take place in the home, within the context of an architectural treatise for a mainstream audience. Notice that all activities are clearly gendered and follow established stereotypes (the mother looks after the baby and hangs the washing, the father mows the lawn or relaxes and reads the newspaper). USA195120thResidential
6086Easy to Live InAs in VN1203 and VN1204, the combination of representational modes produces an image that is technically precise but easy to understand for a non-professional audience. The technical drawing is expanded upwards to become a colourful three-dimensional representation of the kitchen and bathroom. The emphasis however is not on finishes or decorative schemes, but rather on the functionality and efficiency of the design solution.USA195120thResidentialBathroom, Kitchen
6087Compact Three-Bedroom HouseThis picture of the outside yard of a three-bedroom house presents an image of idyllic suburban life. The whole family participates in the preparation of a meal outdoors, with the children helping the parents with the food. USA195120thResidentialDining Room
6088Compact Three-Bedroom HouseAn example of multifunctional yet clearly zoned space. The combination of dining and sitting room became increasingly popular from the 1950s, as a way to increase sociability in domestic life while making the best use of limited available space (See VN1214).USA195120thResidentialSocial and Sitting Spaces, Dining Room
6089Planned by a MuseumAn interior view of Idea House. The Idea House project, which took place in 1941 and 1947 under the auspices of the Walker Art Center of Minneapolis, Minnesota, was a striking example of the merging of art and commerce in the construction of the domestic sphere. Idea House was a Modernist exercise in design promotion, developed in the context of economic recession and American postwar reconstruction. It offered fully fitted, architect-designed display houses as a source of ideas for the visiting public to choose from. The two houses were constructed with the support of manufacturers who contributed materials, furnishings and fittings. While none of these were listed in the show houses themselves, information leaflets were made available to the public with full details of items, prices and suppliers. USA195120thResidentialDining Room, Social and Sitting Spaces
6090With an Eye to ChildrenThis family scene highlights the practical details that generate a feeling of emotional well-being and warmth. Materials and layout are singled out as the means to achieve a welcoming and protective environment: a self-contained room, wood panelling and a blazing fire. The photograph’s point of view heightens the feeling of warmth. Seen through large windows from the outside, this idyllic scene appears as a paradigm of contented domesticity.USA195120thResidentialSocial and Sitting Spaces
6091Designed for a LifetimeThe practicalities of domestic work are the focus of this representation. The middle-class suburban house is presented as a well-oiled machine, organised around a ‘utility core’, minimising labour and maximising production.USA195120thResidentialKitchen
6092‘Primer for Modern Houses’The home is often represented as being the extension of its inhabitants’ identity. This piece advises those who are about to commission a new home from a professional architect to ask some decidedly metaphysical questions before making final decisions. Sounding almost like a spiritual exercise, this text cautions against putting status before happiness, and suggests that the seed of a happy family home is in self-knowledge. USA195120thResidential
6093‘Primer for Modern Houses’During the course of the 1950s Do It Yourself (DIY) became a mainstream domestic practice and a multi-billion dollar industry in the United States. An integral part of middle-class suburban life, it combined notions of leisure and labour in the upkeep of the home. While the image of this small domestic workshop is more suggestive of manual labour, the caption emphasises games and music, perhaps in an attempt to further ‘domesticate’ the space.USA195120thResidentialWork Space
6094‘Primer for Modern Houses’Published in 1951, this passage reflects the shift towards open-plan living and a greater flexibility in the layout and disposition of rooms. Boundaries between kitchen and dining room, and between dining room and living room, become less clearly defined.
The text offers a series of reasons for this change, from the disappearance of servants in middle-class homes to the technological advances in heating and cooking that are having an impact on domestic practices and needs. While some of the changes it describes, such as the disappearance of domestic service or reduced space, could be seen as negative developments, the text focuses on the advantages these bring and presents the new technologies available as a great step forward.
USA195120thResidentialKitchen, Dining Room, Multifunctional Living Space, Social and Sitting Spaces
3774Dynes Hall: Pity, a practical charadeA little-known watercolour by an amateur artist, Diana Sperling, who recorded the social and domestic life of her Essex land-owning family and friends 1812-1823. Here Sperling represents light-hearted family entertainment.UK1818 19thResidential
3775Henry Van, Charles, Harry, Isabella, Di. Mrs Van. Pappy, Harriet V MumA little-known watercolour by an amateur artist, Diana Sperling, who recorded the social and domestic life of her Essex land-owning family and friends 1812-1823. Here Sperling represents the family at dinner. A servant takes the coat of a recent guest, while a sister Harriet Van Hagen appears to be feeding her dog fairy.UK1812-1813 19thResidentialSocial and Sitting Spaces
3776Dynes HallA little-known watercolour by an amateur artist, Diana Sperling, who recorded the social and domestic life of her Essex land-owning family and friends 1812-1823. Here she represents their after-dinner relaxations, in scattered groupings, suggesting fashion and privilege, but also domestic harmony.UK1812-1823 19thResidentialSocial and Sitting Spaces
3777Mrs Sperling murdering flies, assisted by her maid who received the dead and woundedA little-known watercolour by an amateur artist, Diana Sperling, who recorded the social and domestic life of her Essex land-owning family and friends 1812-1823. The subject matter is unusual. It is rare to find explicit references to maids and mistresses sharing domestic work.UK1812-1823 19thResidentialSocial and Sitting Spaces
3778Pouring out the lavender oil into the Vases, in the lavender house at Park Place: Emma, Isabella, Harvey, Diana, ElisaA little-known watercolour by an amateur artist, Diana Sperling, who recorded the social and domestic life of her Essex land-owning family and friends 1812-1823. Here the younger members of the family amuse themselves in the lavender house at Park Place at Henley-on-Thames.UK1812-1823 19thResidentialOther / Unknown
3779Mum S at Work in the minor hall - Dynes Hall - Brisk near her dozingA little-known watercolour by an amateur artist, Diana Sperling, who recorded the social and domestic life of her Essex land-owning family and friends 1812-1823. Here Diana’s mother is busy at some needlework in the natural light of the doorway. UK1812-182319thSocial and Sitting Spaces, Transitional
4060Living room-Scotty's Castle, Death Valley, CaliforniaThis is an unusual as a representation of an American western interior, Mexican influences are suggested here. USAnd20thResidentialSocial and Sitting Spaces
4061Front Room reflected in a mirror. The Home Place, near Norfolk, NebraskaThis unusual representation plays with the reflective qualities of a mirror. USA1947
1981
20thResidentialSocial and Sitting Spaces
4062Siegfried Sassoon sitting in a wingback chairA portrait of the First World War poet Sassoon in a grand but comfortable setting. UKc.1910-2020thResidentialSocial and Sitting Spaces
4063A Room of One's OwnThis dust cover provides an extremely partial view of an interior, only showing a clock on a mantelpiece. However, in doing so, this representation suggests the significance of these items in the construction of the 'domestic'.
Woolf's novels are central to the history of the representation of the interior in literature. Refer to Grant, C., 'Reading the House of Fiction: From Object to Interior 1720-1920' in Home Cultures (special issue: The Domestic Interior in British Literature), vol. 2, issue 3, pp.233-250.
UK192920thResidentialOther / Unknown
4064Gertrude Stein in Paris, sitting on a chair near a sculpture and framed artHere a potentially 'domestic' interior is full of references to Gertrude Stein's artistic interests, illustrative of the multiple identities that can be conveyed through goods placed within an interior.USA1903-420thResidentialSocial and Sitting Spaces
4065[Interior with a desk, bookshelves, and paintings]In this photograph the portrait on the wall shows a mother and child, offering an alternative vision of domesticity to the austere masculinity traditionally associated with the domestic study, library and work spaces.USAnd20thResidentialSocial and Sitting Spaces
4066[Interior with large window, bed, and desk]This photograph is in a fragile condition. However, it is an interesting interior representation because of the cluster of domestic objects depicted. A wide variety of furnishings are shown within a single room - a table and chair are placed near to the bed and a range of storage equipment can be made out.USA20thResidentialSocial and Sitting Spaces, Bedroom
4067Villa Curonia, Dining RoomThis representation emphasises the relationship between furniture and fabrics. Although uninhabited, the function of this interior as a social space is suggested by the prominent position of the table and chairs.Italy20thResidentialSocial and Sitting Spaces, Dining Room
4068Villa Curonia (yellow room)A twentieth-century photograph of an interior that makes strong reference to an eighteenth-century interior, with heavily upholstered furnishings and eighteenth-century portraiture. It is useful for considering the reappropriation and reinterpretation of interior styles over time and between different geographical regions.Italy20thResidentialSocial and Sitting Spaces
4069The American Woman's Home [Frontispiece]The interior is shown here as a site of domestic harmony, occupied by a family group of different ages and including both men and women.USA186919thResidentialSocial and Sitting Spaces
4070The Servants Book of KnowledgeA useful source that represents the domestic interior through the lens of domestic service - instructions to servants reveal contemporary perceptions about the appropriate use of space and the appropriate conduct of different figures who share the same domestic interior. The elite employer will experience the home and relate to the interior in a very different way to the servant.UK177318thResidentialWork Space
4071The Servants Book of KnowledgeA useful source that represents the domestic interior through the lens of domestic service - instructions to servants reveal contemporary perceptions about the appropriate use of space and the appropriate conduct of different figures who share the same domestic interior. The elite employer will experience the home and relate to the interior in a very different way to the servant.UK177318thResidentialSocial and Sitting Spaces, Work Space
6068Tongue in Chic: Sleek Italian Together with VN1184, this offers advice on how to imitate an expensive interior decoration scheme.

In this particular case, high-design Italian furniture is replaced by much cheaper but visually similar alternatives. The home as a site of conspicuous consumption and display is clearly acknowledged here, while the practice of ‘faking it’ is encouraged. These representations suggest that the home is the site of a complex dynamic of consumption, status construction and social communication, and that the elements used to configure its interior decor can be manipulated strategically.
USA197920thResidentialSocial and Sitting Spaces
6069Tongue in Chic: Sleek ItalianTogether with VN1183, this offers advice on how to imitate an expensive interior decoration scheme.

In this particular case, high-design Italian furniture is replaced by much cheaper but visually similar alternatives. The home as a site of conspicuous consumption and display is clearly acknowledged here, while the practice of ‘faking it’ is encouraged. These representations suggest that the home is the site of a complex dynamic of consumption, status construction and social communication, and that the elements used to configure its interior decor can be manipulated strategically.
USA197920thResidentialSocial and Sitting Spaces
6070Tongue in Chic: Palm Beach PatioTogether with VN1186, this offers advice on how to imitate an expensive interior decoration scheme.

Costly designer furniture is replaced by much cheaper but visually similar alternatives. The home as a site of conspicuous consumption and display is clearly acknowledged here, while the practice of ‘faking it’ is encouraged. These representations suggest that the home is the site of a complex dynamic of consumption, status construction and social communication, and that the elements used to configure its interior decor can be manipulated strategically.
USA197920thResidentialSocial and Sitting Spaces
6071Tongue in Chic: Palm Beach PatioTogether with VN1185, this offers advice on how to imitate an expensive interior decoration scheme.

Costly designer furniture is replaced by much cheaper but visually similar alternatives. The home as a site of conspicuous consumption and display is clearly acknowledged here, while the practice of ‘faking it’ is encouraged. These representations suggest that the home is the site of a complex dynamic of consumption, status construction and social communication, and that the elements used to configure its interior decor can be manipulated strategically.
USA197920thResidentialSocial and Sitting Spaces
6072Tongue in Chic: Thirties DecoTogether with VN1188, this offers advice on how to imitate an expensive interior decoration scheme.

Expensive antiques are replaced by much cheaper but visually similar alternatives. The home as a site of conspicuous consumption and display is clearly acknowledged here, while the practice of ‘faking it’ is encouraged. These representations suggest that the home is the site of a complex dynamic of consumption, status construction and social communication, and that the elements used to configure its interior decor can be manipulated strategically.
USA197920thResidentialSocial and Sitting Spaces
6073Tongue in Chic: Thirties Deco Together with VN1187, this offers advice on how to imitate an expensive interior decoration scheme.

Expensive antiques are replaced by much cheaper but visually similar alternatives. The home as a site of conspicuous consumption and display is clearly acknowledged here, while the practice of ‘faking it’ is encouraged. These representations suggest that the home is the site of a complex dynamic of consumption, status construction and social communication, and that the elements used to configure its interior decor can be manipulated strategically.
USA197920thResidentialSocial and Sitting Spaces
3773‘On an Unsociable Family’This representation deploys a familiar piece of metonymy. The fireside represents the entire domestic interior. Unusually, however, the fire fails to warm, and this cold hearth only emphasises the failure of the family to unite. The monosyllabic conversation is especially expressive of dreary domestic coexistence.UK178918thResidentialSocial and Sitting Spaces
6054Decoracion This image is from a ten-volume encyclopaedia of interior decoration, published in Spain in 1963 as part of a distance-learning course. The 1960s were a period of cultural renewal and modernisation in the context of Spain’s ongoing fascist dictatorship. This encyclopaedia mixes both local and foreign examples of contemporary interior settings. While it is overall eclectic in style, it shows a marked predilection for Northern European design. A preference for Italian design had replaced this by the late 1960s. Spain196320thResidentialSocial and Sitting Spaces
6055Decoracion This image is from a ten-volume encyclopaedia of interior decoration, published in Spain in 1963 as part of a distance-learning course. The 1960s were a period of cultural renewal and modernisation in the context of Spain’s ongoing fascist dictatorship. This encyclopaedia mixes both local and foreign examples of contemporary interior settings. While it is overall eclectic in style, it shows a marked predilection for Northern European design. A preference for Italian design had replaced this by the late 1960s.

Three different modes of representation are used here to provide complementary information about the same space. The main illustration, a freehand line drawing, offers a general view of the room and a good sense of the general effect of the disposition of furniture and decorative elements. The text describes colours and materials in greater detail, while the technical drawing gives more complete information about the layout of the room, available space and the use of zones and furnishings.
Spain196320thResidentialSocial and Sitting Spaces, Dining Room
6056Decoracion This image is from a ten-volume encyclopaedia of interior decoration, published in Spain in 1963 as part of a distance-learning course. The 1960s were a period of cultural renewal and modernisation in the context of Spain’s ongoing fascist dictatorship. This encyclopaedia mixes both local and foreign examples of contemporary interior settings. While it is overall eclectic in style, it shows a marked predilection for Northern European design. A preference for Italian design had replaced this by the late 1960s.

The text that accompanies this photograph concentrates on describing the various objects in the room, with particular attention being paid to the names of designers and artists, and the origins of the decorative items. The importance of the home as a site of display and for the reproduction of cultural capital is clearly represented here.
Spain196320thResidentialSocial and Sitting Spaces
6057Decoracion This image is from a ten-volume encyclopaedia of interior decoration, published in Spain in 1963 as part of a distance-learning course. The 1960s were a period of cultural renewal and modernisation in the context of Spain’s ongoing fascist dictatorship. This encyclopaedia mixes both local and foreign examples of contemporary interior settings. While it is overall eclectic in style, it shows a marked predilection for Northern European design. A preference for Italian design had replaced this by the late 1960s. Spain196320thResidentialSocial and Sitting Spaces
6058Decoracion This image is from a ten-volume encyclopaedia of interior decoration, published in Spain in 1963 as part of a distance-learning course. The 1960s were a period of cultural renewal and modernisation in the context of Spain’s ongoing fascist dictatorship. This encyclopaedia mixes both local and foreign examples of contemporary interior settings. While it is overall eclectic in style, it shows a marked predilection for Northern European design. A preference for Italian design had replaced this by the late 1960s.

The work presented here is by a local Barcelonese designer, and is the reproduction of a children’s room design for an Interiors and Decoration trade fair, Hogarhotel.
USA196320thCommercial , ResidentialBedroom
6059Decoracion This image is from a ten-volume encyclopaedia of interior decoration, published in Spain in 1963 as part of a distance-learning course. The 1960s were a period of cultural renewal and modernisation in the context of Spain’s ongoing fascist dictatorship. This encyclopaedia mixes both local and foreign examples of contemporary interior settings. While it is overall eclectic in style, it shows a marked predilection for Northern European design. A preference for Italian design had replaced this by the late 1960s.

The room is described as being for a girl, and the text emphasises the use of colour in the overall decorative scheme. There is an abundance of textiles, coverings, hangings, and large flowered patterns. The room is airy and bright. Compare with VN1174, a decorative scheme proposed for an older woman.
Spain196320thResidentialBedroom
6060Decoracion This image is from a ten-volume encyclopaedia of interior decoration, published in Spain in 1963, as part of a distance-learning course. The 1960s were a period of cultural renewal and modernisation in the context of Spain’s ongoing fascist dictatorship. This encyclopaedia mixes both local and foreign examples of contemporary interior settings. While it is overall eclectic in style, it shows a marked predilection for Northern European design. A preference for Italian design had replaced this by the late 1960s.

In contrast to VN1173, the femininity that transpires from this decorative scheme is more sexually charged than the one proposed for a girl’s bedroom. Here the use of darker colours, and deep reds in particular, constructs a more seductive environment. The choice of accessories (cushions, perfume, mirror, even the telephone) is also telling, and this interior comes across as a decidedly scenographical environment.
Spain196320thResidentialBedroom
6061Decoracion This image is from a ten-volume encyclopaedia of interior decoration, published in Spain in 1963 as part of a distance-learning course. The 1960s were a period of cultural renewal and modernisation in the context of Spain’s ongoing fascist dictatorship. This encyclopaedia mixes both local and foreign examples of contemporary interior settings. While it is overall eclectic in style, it shows a marked predilection for Northern European design. A preference for Italian design had replaced this by the late 1960s.

The stated aim of this particular image is to foreground the use of plastic laminate for the floor. While there is no indication as to the type of room this is, the various elements in it clearly define it as a feminine space, possibly a bedroom.
Spain196320thResidentialUndifferentiated Spaces, Bedroom
6062Decoracion This image is from a ten-volume encyclopaedia of interior decoration, published in Spain in 1963, as part of a distance-learning course. The 1960s were a period of cultural renewal and modernisation in the context of Spain’s ongoing fascist dictatorship. This encyclopaedia mixes both local and foreign examples of contemporary interior settings. While it is overall eclectic in style, it shows a marked predilection for Northern European design. A preference for Italian design had replaced this by the late 1960s. Spain196320thResidentialDining Room
6063Decoracion This image is from a ten-volume encyclopaedia of interior decoration, published in Spain in 1963 as part of a distance-learning course. The 1960s were a period of cultural renewal and modernisation in the context of Spain’s ongoing fascist dictatorship. This encyclopaedia mixes both local and foreign examples of contemporary interior settings. While it is overall eclectic in style, it shows a marked predilection for Northern European design. A preference for Italian design had replaced this by the late 1960s.

These two drawings are given as examples of how the manipulation of the representational strategy can help the professional achieve a more dramatic effect. Representation itself is therefore explicitly presented here as a strategic tool of communication between designer and client.
Spain196320thResidentialSocial and Sitting Spaces
6064Decoracion This image is from a ten-volume encyclopaedia of interior decoration, published in Spain in 1963, as part of a distance-learning course. The 1960s were a period of cultural renewal and modernisation in the context of Spain’s ongoing fascist dictatorship. This encyclopaedia mixes both local and foreign examples of contemporary interior settings. While it is overall eclectic in style, it shows a marked predilection for Northern European design. A preference for Italian design had replaced this by the late 1960s.

This is a suggestion for a spacious kitchen with eating area. The focus here is on materials and the customisation of certain standard elements to achieve the desired result. In contrast with the representation of kitchens in advertising during the same period (seeVN1026 for instance) this space is not obviously gendered.
Spain196320thResidentialKitchen
6065Decoracion This image is from a ten-volume encyclopaedia of interior decoration, published in Spain in 1963, as part of a distance-learning course. The 1960s were a period of cultural renewal and modernisation in the context of Spain’s ongoing fascist dictatorship. This encyclopaedia mixes both local and foreign examples of contemporary interior settings. While it is overall eclectic in style, it shows a marked predilection for Northern European design. A preference for Italian design had replaced this by the late 1960s.

This is a practical demonstration of the gendering of domestic spaces. While not clearly stated in the text, the examples shown correspond to a boy’s and a girl’s bedroom.
Spain196320thResidentialWork Space
6066Decoracion This image is from a ten-volume encyclopaedia of interior decoration, published in Spain in 1963, as part of a distance-learning course. The 1960s were a period of cultural renewal and modernisation in the context of Spain’s ongoing fascist dictatorship. This encyclopaedia mixes both local and foreign examples of contemporary interior settings. While it is overall eclectic in style, it shows a marked predilection for Northern European design. A preference for Italian design had replaced this by the late 1960s. Spain196320thResidentialBedroom
6067Decoracion This image is from a ten-volume encyclopaedia of interior decoration, published in Spain in 1963, as part of a distance-learning course. The 1960s were a period of cultural renewal and modernisation in the context of Spain’s ongoing fascist dictatorship. This encyclopaedia mixes both local and foreign examples of contemporary interior settings. While it is overall eclectic in style, it shows a marked predilection for Northern European design. A preference for Italian design had replaced this by the late 1960s.

This illustration is most probably of a Latin American interior, possibly Mexican. The room combines a strong feeling of locality (the figure of a saint over the mantelpiece, a cowhide rug), as well as traditional and modern items of furniture and lighting. It is a grand eclecticism, emphasised by the wide-angle lens and the low point of view.
Spain, Mexico196320thResidentialSocial and Sitting Spaces
3771[Letter from Jane Austen to Cassandra Austen, Saturday 1 to Sunday 2 December 1798]A characteristically tart description of a slightly threadbare lying-in chamber stressing the undignified aspects of genteel economy and the wearinesses of motherhood. UK179818thResidentialBedroom, Social and Sitting Spaces
3772[Description of Mawley, home of Sir Walter Blount by Mrs Phillip Lybbe Powys]Although this appears a typical piece of polite travelogue the comments on a distinctive Catholic weakness for foreign nick-nackery are rare and suggestive of regimes of taste as yet unexplored by historians. An exquisitely appointed lady’s dressing room was a noted feature of fashionable interior decoration. UK177118thResidentialBedroom
4034Mabel Dodge Luhan's Los Gallos Residence, The Living Room)This photograph suggests national identity, domestic comfort and spirituality. USAndResidentialSocial and Sitting Spaces
4035First-rate HouseTypical of architectural representations, this image depicts the layout of the interior alongside an elevation.

From a series of designs of a 'first', 'second', 'third' and 'fourth'-rate house, each with different interior plans, different exterior detail and different room sizes and layouts. The 'first'-rate house is the largest and most ornate. These representations therefore categorise interiors within a hierarchical scale.
USA182319thResidential
4036Second-rate HouseTypical of architectural representations, this image depicts the layout of the interior alongside an elevation.

From a series of designs of a 'first', 'second', 'third' and 'fourth'-rate house, each with different interior plans, different exterior detail and different room sizes and layouts. The 'first'-rate house is the largest and most ornate. These representations therefore categorise interiors within a hierarchical scale.
USA182319thResidential
4037Third-rate HouseTypical of architectural representations, this image depicts the layout of the interior alongside an elevation.

From a series of designs of a 'first', 'second', 'third' and 'fourth'-rate house, each with different interior plans, different exterior detail and different room sizes and layouts. The 'first'-rate house is the largest and most ornate. These representations therefore categorise interiors within a hierarchical scale.
USA182319thResidential
4038Fourth-rate HouseTypical of architectural representations, this image depicts the layout of the interior alongside an elevation.

From a series of designs of a 'first', 'second', 'third' and 'fourth'-rate house, each with different interior plans, different exterior detail and different room sizes and layouts. The 'first'-rate house is the largest and most ornate. These representations therefore categorise interiors within a hierarchical scale.
USA182319thResidential
4039Farm HouseSuch rough sketches of interiors are rare, this one particularly so as it is a representation of an interior from a theatrical scene. Following the format of architectural plans, this sketch offers a birds-eye view of a cut-through interior, but also includes the scheme of furniture within the interior space.USAnd20thResidentialSocial and Sitting Spaces
40401st Floor HouseSuch rough sketches of interiors are rare, this one particularly so, as it is a representation of an interior from a theatrical scene. Following the format of architectural plans, this sketch offers a birds-eye view of a cut-through interior, but also includes the scheme of furniture within the interior space.USAnd20thResidentialSocial and Sitting Spaces, Multifunctional Living Space
4041‘Act Two - Scene Two - Sitting Room, Sara's House’Such sketches of interiors are rare as a representational mode. This one is particularly so, as it is a representation of an interior from a theatrical scene. Following the format of architectural plans, this sketch offers a birds-eye view of a cut-through interior, but also includes the scheme of furniture within the interior space. USAnd20thResidentialSocial and Sitting Spaces
4042Interior of house at W. 25th St., NYCThis photograph is an interior view of an opulent New York townhouse. The co-ordinated fabric and wallpaper is particularly striking, drawing together different elements of the interior.USAc.1884ResidentialSocial and Sitting Spaces
4043Interior of Chief's House, Chilkat, AlaskaAn unusual representation showing the interior of a late-nineteenth-century Alaskan home. As with other interior representations, the decorative elements of furnishings and ornament draw together different elements of the interior. USAc.189819thResidentialOther / Unknown
4044Interior of an Indian Hut, Yakutat Bay. Indian wounded in bear fight An unusual representation of a nineteenth-century American interior, a multifunctional living space. The photograph shows family members gathered around a central fireplace, with animal skins and food drying overhead.USA1889-189119thResidentialMultifunctional Living Space, Social and Sitting Spaces
4045Little Chief - Cheyenne, at home with his friends This is one of a series of drawings by Indian prisoners at St. Augustine, Florida. The image makes reference to the relationship between interior and exterior, the dramatic decorative scheme of the exterior of the teepee is shown next to a view through to the interior of a neighbouring tent.USA1875-7819thResidentialSocial and Sitting Spaces, Other / Unknown
4046Idahna Hotel Boise, Idaho This is an unusual representation of a commercial domestic space. The rise of hotels and hotel-based holidays is an interesting nineteenth- and twentieth-century development in Europe and America. Here the hotel interior suggests domestic comfort. Compare to the more stark institutionalised hotel interior depicted in HG1350.USAnd20thCommercial , Social and Sitting Spaces
4048Mourning Becomes Electra: Interior of Mannon Sitting RoomThis image is one of seventeen photographs of drawings by Albert M. Pyke of scenes in motion pictures by Dudley Nichols. USA[1947]20thResidentialSocial and Sitting Spaces
4049Mourning Becomes Electra: Interior of Lavinia's RoomThis image is one of seventeen photographs of drawings by Albert M. Pyke of scenes in motion pictures by Dudley Nichols. USA[1947]20thResidentialBedroom
4050A Dining Room, Windsor Hotel This is a representation of an American commercial interior. The rise of hotels and hotel-based holidays is an interesting nineteenth- and twentieth-century development in Europe and America. The medium-sized tables used in the dining room of this hotel suggests either that guests were expected to socialise with each other, or that family groups were catered for. The similarity to other institutional interiors, such as boarding schools for example, is noticeable. A cosy 'home from home' has clearly not been created in this hotel interior. The smaller boutique hotels with elegant interior spaces favoured in the late twentieth century contrast to these earlier institutional settings. Sociability appears to be encouraged here, whereas privacy is the main purpose of more modern hotels.USA1879-189419thCommercial , Dining Room
4051[Woman seated in front of a grand piano]A stereograph that provides a duplicated image of an interior. USAc.192520thResidentialSocial and Sitting Spaces
4052[Man and woman sitting in room in front of window]A stereograph that provides a duplicated image of an interior.USAc.192520thResidentialSocial and Sitting Spaces
4053For John's House [Charcoal sketch of room in John Hermann's house in Erwinna, Pennsylvania]An interesting sketch of an interior that conveys 'domesticity' through a constellation of everyday objects, from a comb to a water jug. USAndResidentialSocial and Sitting Spaces, Bedroom
4054Cloister Music Room, Glenwood Mission Inn, Riverside, California This Californian music room is reminiscent of a medieval hall. Plush fabrics soften the stone interior. USAc.190420thCommercial , Institutional , Social and Sitting Spaces
4055The Futurist Table. The room before the guests arrivedThe formal appearance of the place settings stands at odds with the informal expressive wall hangings. The interior appears both ordered and disorderly, both inviting and threatening.c.193120thResidentialDining Room
4056Strikes-On-Both-Sides in Blackfoot lodgeA remarkable representation of the interior of a twentieth-century Native American teepee. Note the layering of fabric to provide a decorative effect within the interior. A peripatetic lifestyle is suggested by the small and moveable furnishings (rugs and furs). Compare to HG1345, a sketch of a Native American encampment which emphasises the dramatic decorative effect on the exterior of a teepee.USA20thResidentialSocial and Sitting Spaces, Multifunctional Living Space
4057Passaic Avenue home at ChristmasThis representation shows an interior with temporary decorations on display. It is a useful example of domestic materiality, combining the ephemeral or the temporary with the fixed.
An eighteenth-century temporary interior can be found at KH81.
USAndResidentialSocial and Sitting Spaces
4058The fountain in the living room of Scotty's Castle, Death Valley, CaliforniaThis is an unusual representation of an American western interior, Mexican influences are suggested here. USA20thResidentialSocial and Sitting Spaces
4059Death Valley Scotty's room in his castle, Death Valley National Monument, California This is an unusual as a representation of an American western interior, Mexican influences are suggested here. USA20th
5852North and South In the opening of chapter six of North and South the author explores the emotional upheaval of a house move, made all the more intense in this instance because it is very much against the wishes of the heroine’s mother, Mrs Hale, and the long-standing family servant, Dixon. The text stresses disorder with even the garden disrupted by the move, at the same time as it considers the house and the most personal spaces within it as a repository of memory. UK185519thResidential
5853North and South This passage about the selection of a new home to rent in the industrial north of England by a displaced, dissenting clergyman’s family from the south consists of a conversation between a father and daughter. It focuses on the accommodation of the members of the household including two live-in servants within the spaces of the house. The name of the suburb, Crampton, brings to mind the idea of being cramped both in the proximity of the houses to one another and within each house.

Assignment of rooms to different members of the household involves taking into consideration their personal needs such as the mother’s need for a cheerful sitting room and the principal servant’s difficulty with stairs, as well as minimising the less desirable qualities of the rented home such as the unattractive wallpaper.
UK185519thResidentialSocial and Sitting Spaces, Bedroom, Library / Study, Dining Room, Kitchen, Multifunctional Living Space
5854North and South In a novel which from the title onwards is about contrasting ways of living and being, this extract shows the hero John Thornton mentally contrasting the heroine Margaret Hale’s home with his own.

Although now resident in a northern industrial town the Hale family have carried over something of their previous existence, close to nature in a rural country vicarage, in their vase of ivy and beech leaves as well as their habit of not closing the curtains after dark. Even the chintz covers on their furniture suggest the natural world and the fruit on their tea table is resting on leaves.

The baskets of work and the books have been laid aside in the Hale household because of recent use. This is very much at odds with the considered placement of objects in the Thorntons’ drawing room.

This scene parallels one at the house kept for the hero John Thornton by his mother, see entry LM1026.
UK185519thResidentialSocial and Sitting Spaces
5855North and South This passage locates Mrs Thornton's immaculately-kept drawing room in the context of the cotton-mill yard it overlooks, and sees it through the eyes of the heroine paying a visit to the house of the hero, kept by his mother. Everything is bright and clean but there is a cold brittleness about the scene depicted.

In contrast to the home of the heroine Margaret Hale where the servants are full players in the family psychodrama, here the servants are invisible producers of spotlessness against the odds.

The calculated placing of books for decorative effect contrasts with the casual laying aside of books in the course of their being read in the Hale household. See LM1025.
UK185519thResidentialSocial and Sitting Spaces
5857Chronicles Volume 1 Published more than forty years after the event, the passage referenced records the response of a then unknown young musician from Hibbing Minnesota to the stimulus of a New York apartment in the very early 1960s. At this date Dylan did not have his own apartment and was relying on friends for a place to sleep.

He enumerates the furnishings in great detail right down to the flip-down drawers on the violet wood-veneer desk. He writes as though his eyes are wandering around the room just after he has woken up and he is describing the contents to someone who has never seen anything like it (himself). Dylan, who had grown up in small-town America, had just moved to the nation's cultural capital. His wide-eyed response to the interior parallels his inner creative life poised on the brink of the vast range of possibilities alluded to in the second-last sentence.
USA2004ResidentialSocial and Sitting Spaces
5858Madame Bovary In this extract the eponymous heroine is visiting the home where she has lodged her baby with a wet nurse. The wet nurse lives in one room like the family depicted in FD1118.

The author begins with some of the room's shortcomings: the absence of bed curtains and the broken window pane vividly evoked by the star shape created by the cheap blue wrapping paper used to patch it, before taking an inventory of the room's contents including the mantelpiece on which are bits of firewood, another example of disorder.

The presence of the kneading tub for bread-making and the washing slab bring ideas of physical labour to the fore. There seems to be a heavy irony in the use of the phrase "the most recent superfluity" in a room singularly lacking in contents. This superfluity is a depiction of Fame Blowing Her Trumpet, a subject grotesquely at odds with its surroundings. The bathos of this print's presence in such a pitiful interior is underscored by if not having been bought but having been obtained for free, torn out of a piece of advertising literature. The print's improvised frame consists of six cobbler's pegs, a finishing touch in the description of this poor interior's deficiencies.
185719thResidentialMultifunctional Living Space
5859What a carve up! This passage deals with the domestic interior of a single man living on his own. It describes the kitchen of a middle-aged man so alienated from society that at this point in the narrative it is a matter of years since he has spoken to anyone.

This representation of the domestic interior is preoccupied with issues of dirt and cleanliness, of brightness and darkness. The narrator is conscious of the darkness outside and how he must appear to the outside world which has just intruded on him in the person of his female neighbour.
UK199420thResidentialKitchen
5860What a carve up! This passage deals with the domestic interior of a single man living on his own. It describes the living space of a middle-aged man so alienated from society that at this point in the narrative it is a matter of years since he has spoken to anyone.

His taste in curtains and pictures has moved on since he first took on the flat but he has done little to change his surroundings apart from fill it with books, papers, magazines and videotapes. The videotapes, some of these only fragmentary, seem to sum up his lack of human contact and communication. The narrator’s anxiety about the absence of some imagined norm of "a few well-chosen ornaments" would seem to hint at a possible unexpressed anxiety about the absence of a female partner in his life.
199420thResidentialSocial and Sitting Spaces
6051Decoracion This image is from a ten-volume encyclopaedia of interior decoration, published in Spain in 1963 as part of a distance-learning course. The 1960s were a period of cultural renewal and modernisation in the context of Spain’s ongoing fascist dictatorship. This encyclopaedia mixes both local and foreign examples of contemporary interior settings. While it is overall eclectic in style, it shows a marked predilection for Northern European design. A preference for Italian design had replaced this by the late 1960s.

‘Rural’ dining room. See VN1166 for ‘urban’ version. The rural/urban distinction here implies the difference between a primary residence in the city and a second holiday home. Both proposals of interior decoration are decidedly contemporary, with Scandinavian furniture and colour laminates. In any case, the comparison implies that a home must be adapted to its external context, and that the interior is influenced by the exterior setting.
Spain196320thResidentialDining Room
6052Decoracion This image is from a ten-volume encyclopaedia of interior decoration, published in Spain in 1963 as part of a distance-learning course. The 1960s were a period of cultural renewal and modernisation in the context of Spain’s ongoing fascist dictatorship. This encyclopaedia mixes both local and foreign examples of contemporary interior settings. While it is overall eclectic in style, it shows a marked predilection for Northern European design. A preference for Italian design had replaced this by the late 1960s.

‘Urban’ dining room. See VN1165 for ‘rural’ version. The rural/urban distinction here implies the difference between a primary residence in the city and a second holiday home. Both proposals of interior decoration are decidedly contemporary, with Scandinavian furniture and colour laminates. In any case, the comparison implies that a home must be adapted to its external context, and that the interior is influenced by the exterior setting.
Spain1963ResidentialDining Room
6053Decoracion This image is from a ten-volume encyclopaedia of interior decoration, published in Spain in 1963 as part of a distance-learning course. The 1960s were a period of cultural renewal and modernisation in the context of Spain’s ongoing fascist dictatorship. This encyclopaedia mixes both local and foreign examples of contemporary interior settings. While it is overall eclectic in style, it shows a marked predilection for Northern European design. A preference for Italian design had replaced this by the late 1960s.

Electrical appliances in the living areas of the home have often felt problematic and ‘unhomely’, leading to an attempt to hide them or domesticate them. Current approaches tend to make them disappear into the background by technological means (see VN1033). In this mid-century image, wood panelling and custom-made covered recesses preserve the visual unity of the room.
Spain196320thResidentialSocial and Sitting Spaces
4018Moeurs des sauvages ameriquainsThis is an unusual portrayal of an eighteenth-century Native American interior, a cutaway view that emphasises mysticism and spirituality. France, USA172418thInstitutional , Multifunctional Living Space
4019The Inside of a House in Nootka SoundUnusual for its portrayal of a Native American interior, this view of the interior suggests simple domestic comfort and communal living.USA[1748?]18thResidentialMultifunctional Living Space
4020The Inside of a House in OonalashkaThis is an unusual representation for its portrayal of eighteenth-century Native American interiors. Here the domestic interior is portrayed as a space for communal living. USA1784?18thResidentialMultifunctional Living Space
4022Death of Genl. Z Taylor, 12th President of the United States, at the Presidents House July 9th 1850, 25 minutes past 10 o'clock pmIn this representation both the domestic and professional identities of the American president are conflated as his family and ministers are shown gathering at his deathbed. The paleness of the president lying on stark white sheets appears in sharp relief against the sober suits of the surrounding ministers and grieving family members.USA185019thInstitutional , ResidentialBedroom
4023Jos. HutchinsonAlthough heavily posed and perhaps a studio portrait, nevertheless this can surely be read as a representation of the domestic.USAndResidentialSocial and Sitting Spaces
4024Eva le Gallienne, Walter Beak, and Donald CameronA theatrical scene of a domestic nature. USAndResidentialSocial and Sitting Spaces
4025“Mourning Becomes Electra": Stair hall - Brant's boarding house.One of seventeen photographs of drawings by Albert M. Pyke of scenes in motion pictures by Dudley Nichols (in Series V.) William E. Flannery, Art Director.USA[1947]20thResidentialTransitional
4026The Washington FamilyA copy of a portrait of the Washington family. An emancipated black house servant stands behind them. It is strongly reminiscent of eighteenth-century English conversation pieces.USAc.186019thInstitutional , ResidentialSocial and Sitting Spaces
4027[Photographs of Mabel Dodge Luhan's residences mounted on album page] This set of photographs juxtaposes a variety of interior views on a single sheet. USAn.d.ResidentialSocial and Sitting Spaces, Transitional, Multifunctional Living Space, Dining Room
4028Kitchen of the John Hancock House, Lexington, no. 53692A view of an interior furnished with the trappings of the American west. USAc.190020thResidentialKitchen
4029Eugene O'Neill sitting with Carlotta Monterey O'Neill in living roomNote the screen by the door, which appears to provide an alternative method of constructing a boundary. An intimate yet formal interior scene is suggested, the intimacy enhanced by the drawn blinds. The structure of the representation, however, invites the viewer to look past the inhabitants and through into the room behind where the display of crockery reflects the imagery of the screen in front.USA194320thResidentialSocial and Sitting Spaces
4030Eugene O'Neill sitting at his deskBoundaries and thresholds are pronounced here; the relationship between interior and exterior is artistically referenced. Also striking is the relationship between the study in the foreground and the comfortable space furnished with a sofa behind, perhaps for contemplation and relaxation.USA194320thResidentialSocial and Sitting Spaces, Work Space, Library / Study
4031The interior of a house designed by Giuseppe Terragni, Casa del Fascio di Como, 1932-36Here dramatic architectural effect rather than domestic comfort is emphasised.Italy1932-3620thResidentialTransitional
4032Blueprints of a house designed by Alberto Sartoris in Vevey, SwitzerlandThese blueprints of a house designed by Alberto Sartoris are an interesting example of a twentieth-century Italian interior plan. Switzerland1938-920thResidentialOther / Unknown
4033Mabel Dodge Luhan's Los Gallos Residence, The Dining RoomThis photograph depicts an uninhabited, but clearly social space. USAndResidentialDining Room
5836St Jerome in his Study Saint Jerome who lived in the fourth century AD is celebrated for having translated the Old and New Testament into Latin.

In this representation, the interior is described with as much care and given as much, if not more, attention than the figure of the saint set deep within the space at the back of the room. The thick stone walls with their internal mouldings suggest the sort of building of which this room might form a part, while the strong sunlight coming through the windows and falling on the window embrasures suggests another world going on outside.

This very masculine space is stocked with the paraphernalia for the scholarly life: books, papers, a writing desk, a writing slope, inkpot, and quill pen. A crucifix sitting before Jerome on the table, a human skull on the window sill, and a rosary and his cardinal's hat hanging on the wall behind him, brand this as the study of a man of religion, mindful of the transitoriness of human life. The prominent sleeping lion refers to the legend in which Jerome pulled a thorn from a lion's paw and the lion thereafter became his companion. The sleeping animals suggest relaxation and comfort.

Engraving, which builds up the image on the printing plate by means of a network of fine lines to hold the printing ink, is one of the printmaking processes best suited to the depiction of detail and Dürer was one of its greatest exponents. The artist has given prominence to a gourd-like object hanging in the top right corner which may be an exercise on his part in showing off his skill at depicting a geometrical form with nothing more than a series of lines.





Germany151416thResidentialLibrary / Study
5837Woman Meditating on a Skull This late-sixteenth-century image is laden with Christian symbolism. As well as the altarpiece-like representation of the Crucifixion, the human skull, the clock and the lamp all symbolise the transience of human life.

This chiaroscuro woodcut, a printmaking technique which produces a printed image in a narrow range of colours resembling a wash drawing, also works on another level. With the exception of the skull, the objects depicted could be encountered in a wealthy Italian home at this date, perhaps in an oratory, a place within a house set aside for Christian prayer and devotion. The person depicted in this quasi-realistic domestic setting is not a saint or biblical character, as so often seen in Renaissance printmaking, but an ordinary woman in contemporary dress.
Italy159116thResidentialUndifferentiated Spaces
5844Evening Wind There is an enigmatic ambiguity about this work often found in Hopper's prints and paintings which seem to rest on the point of narrative. The indentations on the wall seen through the opening indicates that it is rusticated and hence likely to be an external wall, and this, and the wind in the title causing the curtains to billow, would seem to suggest that this is a window. The fact that no window sill is visible and the opening extends below the line of the bed as well as the undifferentiated blankness of the space outside the room almost gives it the appearance of a door which adds to the vulnerability of the naked young girl.

The prints of Walter Sickert provide a point of early-twentieth-century British comparison with this image, see LM1011.
USA192120thResidentialBedroom
5845La Belle Gâtée (The Spoilt Beauty) or The Camden Town Murder The setting for this encounter between a naked woman (perhaps a prostitute) and a fully clothed man is indicated by little more than an iron bedstead, some floorboards and the suggestion of one wall of a room. In a later state (modified version of this image taken from the same printing plate) the back wall is given the effect of bold floral wallpaper and the bedclothes highlighted.

The technique of this print is etching and aquatint. Etching records the artist's drawn line in a waxy coating on the printing plate before the action of acid bites the line into the plate while aquatint is used to create areas of tone.

Sickert also explored the theme of encounters between dressed men and naked women in his oil paintings and was a pioneer of the exploration of this type of seedy interior in prints.
UK190820thCommercial , Bedroom
5846MelusinaThis late-fifteenth-century hand-coloured woodcut conveys a domestic interior with little more than a bed and a fire in which the mythical figure of Melusina (more usually depicted as a twin-tailed mermaid) appears. This print is typical of northern European fifteenth-century woodcuts of interiors which often concentrate on just the essentials. Germanyc.148115thResidentialBedroom
5847A Lady Making Lace Prior to the stock market crash of 1929 there was a boom in the popularity of etchings which saw them fetching very high prices. Many were landscapes or portraits but they also included genre subjects such as this which existed side by side with avant-garde art and interior design produced in the same period.

The room’s occupant is presented in profile engaged in a traditional female activity while the items ranged around her invite the viewer to construct a biography of her. Although a striking example, this is not untypical of more traditional printmaking of this period.
UK192820thResidentialSocial and Sitting Spaces
5850Lot and His Daughters In Genesis 19:30-38, Lot and his daughters took refuge in a cave, the most primitive type of domestic interior. Believing themselves to be the last people alive on earth, Lot's daughters made their father drunk and lay with him in turn. This incest is the focus of this highly eroticised image.

The elaborate dining arrangement set up outside the mouth of the cave suggests a bucolic picnic rather than true living arrangements.

Goltzius is celebrated for his virtuosity as a printmaker and for his ability to create sparkling effects and convey the qualities of different types of surfaces out of a network of lines.
Netherlands 159716thBedroom
6038Casa Mila - La Pedrera
Plano de un piso: planta baja 1906 (plan of apartment: ground floor 1906)
Casa Mila (1906-1910), also known as La Pedrera (the stone quarry), was Gaudi's last private commission, before he turned his full attention to building the Sagrada Familia cathedral. The large apartment block was commissioned by Pere Mila i Camps, who was a great admirer of Gaudi's architecture.

This technical drawing of one of the building’s residential floors is strongly representative of Gaudi’s innovative approach to the layout of residential spaces, and of his organic architectural shapes. The ‘strangeness’ of Casa Mila as an architectural object comes through as strongly in this architectural drawing as it does in photographs of the building’s ondulating facade and ornamental ironwork.
Spain1906 [plan]20thResidentialBathroom, Bedroom, Dining Room, Kitchen, Transitional, Utility, Other / Unknown
6039Casa Mila - La Pedrera Adolf Mas i Ginesta (1861-1936) was one of the finest Barcelonese photographers of the turn of the century. He specialised in works of art, architecture, interior design and public monuments. In 1909 he established the Arxiu Mas, a commercial image archive.
Over the course of his career he took many pictures of domestic interiors, most of which have never been published. He photographed the residences of the Spanish aristocracy across Spain and the Balearic Islands, but most of his interiors are of the apartments of the Barcelona bourgeoisie. The period between 1890 and 1920 was particularly rich in this respect, with work from the great Catalan 'Modernista' architects, such as Antoni Gaudi, Josep Puig i Cadafalch and Josep Domenech i Montaner. These architects collaborated with some of the best local Art Nouveau craftsmen and cabinetmakers, such as Gaspar Homar or Jordi Busquets.
Mas's photography was mostly to be used as documents for commercial purposes, either by the publishing industry or by the designers and architects themselves. With rare exceptions, none of the interior views include people, and the images aim to be neutral and provide a good general sense of space.

Casa Mila (1906-1910), also known as La Pedrera (the stone quarry), was Gaudi's last private commission, before he turned his full attention to building the Sagrada Familia cathedral. The large apartment block was commissioned by Pere Mila i Camps, who was a great admirer of Gaudi's architecture.
Spain191420thResidentialSocial and Sitting Spaces
6040Casa Mila - La Pedrera Adolf Mas i Ginesta (1861-1936) was one of the finest Barcelonese photographers of the turn of the century. He specialised in works of art, architecture, interior design and public monuments. In 1909 he established the Arxiu Mas, a commercial image archive.
Over the course of his career he took many pictures of domestic interiors, most of which have never been published. He photographed the residences of the Spanish aristocracy across Spain and the Balearic Islands, but most of his interiors are of the apartments of the Barcelona bourgeoisie. The period between 1890 and 1920 was particularly rich in this respect, with work from the great Catalan 'Modernista' architects, such as Antoni Gaudi, Josep Puig i Cadafalch and Josep Domenech i Montaner. These architects collaborated with some of the best local Art Nouveau craftsmen and cabinetmakers, such as Gaspar Homar or Jordi Busquets.
Mas's photography was mostly to be used as documents for commercial purposes, either by the publishing industry or by the designers and architects themselves. With rare exceptions, none of the interior views include people, and the images aim to be neutral and provide a good general sense of space.

Casa Mila (1906-1910), also known as La Pedrera (the stone quarry), was Gaudi's last private commission, before he turned his full attention to building the Sagrada Familia cathedral. The large apartment block was commissioned by Pere Mila i Camps, who was a great admirer of Gaudi's architecture. This is a view of one of the flats, as yet unfurnished.
Spain191420thResidentialUndifferentiated Spaces
6041Casa Batllo. Planos (Plans)
Date of project: 1904. Carried out 1904-6
The Instituto Amatller de Arte Hispánico, founded in 1941, is a research institute specialising in Spanish art and architecture, with a photo archive of some 300,000 original negatives from various collections, the oldest one being Arxiu Mas, started by Adolfo Mas around 1900. The Institute was organised by its first director, José Gudiol Ricart (1904-1985), following the general idea of the Frick Art Reference Library of New York. One of the immediate decisions taken was the acquisition of the Arxiu Mas. The Institute also holds photographs of interiors by Gudiol, mostly taken during the 1930s and 1940s.

The Batllo house (1904-06) was one of Antoni Gaudi's last private commissions. It consisted mostly in the remodelling of the facade of an existing block of apartments. While the exterior of the building was the main focus of his work, Gaudi also made some significant changes to the interior of the house. The interior walls were replaced by his signature curved partitions, opening up new areas for circulation and providing greater flexibility of use by joining adjacent rooms with large folding doors. He introduced skylights and improved the systems for ventilation. He also paid great attention to the detailing of the interior, designing special furniture and decorating surfaces. The large second-floor patio at the back of the house was expanded, with the back facade covered in mosaic tiles.
Spain20thResidential
6042Casa Batllo. Rear balconies The Instituto Amatller de Arte Hispánico, founded in 1941, is a research institute specialising in Spanish art and architecture, with a photo archive of some 300,000 original negatives from various collections, the oldest one being Arxiu Mas, started by Adolfo Mas around 1900. The Institute was organised by its first director, José Gudiol Ricart (1904-1985), following the general idea of the Frick Art Reference Library of New York. One of the immediate decisions taken was the acquisition of the Arxiu Mas. The Institute also holds photographs of interiors by Gudiol, mostly taken during the 1930s and 1940s.

The Batllo house (1904-06) was one of Antoni Gaudi's last private commissions. It consisted mostly in the remodelling of the facade of an existing block of apartments. While the exterior of the building was the main focus of his work, Gaudi also made some significant changes to the interior of the house. The interior walls were replaced by his signature curved partitions, opening up new areas for circulation and providing greater flexibility of use by joining adjacent rooms with large folding doors. He introduced skylights and improved the systems for ventilation. He also paid great attention to the detailing of the interior, designing special furniture and decorating surfaces. The large second-floor patio at the back of the house was expanded, with the back facade covered in mosaic tiles.
Spain20thResidential
6043Casa Batllo Adolf Mas i Ginesta (1861-1936) was one of the finest Barcelonese photographers of the turn of the century. He specialised in works of art, architecture, interior design and public monuments. In 1909 he established the Arxiu Mas, a commercial image archive.
Over the course of his career he took many pictures of domestic interiors, most of which have never been published. He photographed the residences of the Spanish aristocracy across Spain and the Balearic Islands, but most of his interiors are of the apartments of the Barcelona bourgeoisie. The period between 1890 and 1920 was particularly rich in this respect, with work from the great Catalan 'Modernista' architects, such as Antoni Gaudi, Josep Puig i Cadafalch and Josep Domenech i Montaner. These architects collaborated with some of the best local Art Nouveau craftsmen and cabinetmakers, such as Gaspar Homar or Jordi Busquets.
Mas's photography was mostly to be used as documents for commercial purposes, either by the publishing industry or by the designers and architects themselves. With rare exceptions, none of the interior views include people, and the images aim to be neutral and provide a good general sense of space.

The Batllo house (1904-06) was one of Antoni Gaudi's last private commissions. It consisted mostly in the remodelling of the facade of an existing block of apartments. While the exterior of the building was the main focus of his work, Gaudi also made some significant changes to the interior of the house. The interior walls were replaced by his signature curved partitions, opening up new areas for circulation and providing greater flexibility of use by joining adjacent rooms with large folding doors. He introduced skylights and improved the systems for lighting and ventilation. He also paid great attention to the detailing of the interior, designing special furniture and decorating surfaces. The large second-floor patio at the back of the house was expanded, with the back facade covered in mosaic tiles.
Spain192720thResidentialSocial and Sitting Spaces
6044Casa Batllo Adolf Mas i Ginesta (1861-1936) was one of the finest Barcelonese photographers of the turn of the century. He specialised in works of art, architecture, interior design and public monuments. In 1909 he established the Arxiu Mas, a commercial image archive.
Over the course of his career he took many pictures of domestic interiors, most of which have never been published. He photographed the residences of the Spanish aristocracy across Spain and the Balearic Islands, but most of his interiors are of the apartments of the Barcelona bourgeoisie. The period between 1890 and 1920 was particularly rich in this respect, with work from the great Catalan 'Modernista' architects, such as Antoni Gaudi, Josep Puig i Cadafalch and Josep Domenech i Montaner. These architects collaborated with some of the best local Art Nouveau craftsmen and cabinetmakers, such as Gaspar Homar or Jordi Busquets.
Mas's photography was mostly to be used as documents for commercial purposes, either by the publishing industry or by the designers and architects themselves. With rare exceptions, none of the interior views include people, and the images aim to be neutral and provide a good general sense of space.

The Batllo house (1904-06) was one of Antoni Gaudi's last private commissions. It consisted mostly in the remodelling of the facade of an existing block of apartments. While the exterior of the building was the main focus of his work, Gaudi also made some significant changes to the interior of the house. The interior walls were replaced by his signature curved partitions, opening up new areas for circulation and providing greater flexibility of use by joining adjacent rooms with large folding doors. He introduced skylights and improved the systems for ventilation. He also paid great attention to the detailing of the interior, designing special furniture and decorating surfaces. The large second-floor patio at the back of the house was expanded, with the back facade covered in mosaic tiles.
Spain192720thResidentialTransitional
6045Casa Battlo. Chapel Adolf Mas i Ginesta (1861-1936) was one of the finest Barcelonese photographers of the turn of the century. He specialised in works of art, architecture, interior design and public monuments. In 1909 he established the Arxiu Mas, a commercial image archive.
Over the course of his career he took many pictures of domestic interiors, most of which have never been published. He photographed the residences of the Spanish aristocracy across Spain and the Balearic Islands, but most of his interiors are of the apartments of the Barcelona bourgeoisie. The period between 1890 and 1920 was particularly rich in this respect, with work from the great Catalan 'Modernista' architects, such as Antoni Gaudi, Josep Puig i Cadafalch and Josep Domenech i Montaner. These architects collaborated with some of the best local Art Nouveau craftsmen and cabinetmakers, such as Gaspar Homar or Jordi Busquets.
Mas's photography was mostly to be used as documents for commercial purposes, either by the publishing industry or by the designers and architects themselves. With rare exceptions, none of the interior views include people, and the images aim to be neutral and provide a good general sense of space.

The Batllo house (1904-06) was one of Antoni Gaudi's last private commissions. It consisted mostly in the remodelling of the facade of an existing block of apartments. While the exterior of the building was the main focus of his work, Gaudi also made some significant changes to the interior of the house. The interior walls were replaced by his signature curved partitions, opening up new areas for circulation and providing greater flexibility of use by joining adjacent rooms with large folding doors. He introduced skylights and improved the systems for ventilation. He also paid great attention to the detailing of the interior, designing special furniture and decorating surfaces. The large second-floor patio at the back of the house was expanded, with the back facade covered in mosaic tiles.
Spain192720thResidentialOther / Unknown
6046Casa Batllo. Salon Adolf Mas i Ginesta (1861-1936) was one of the finest Barcelonese photographers of the turn of the century. He specialised in works of art, architecture, interior design and public monuments. In 1909 he established the Arxiu Mas, a commercial image archive.
Over the course of his career he took many pictures of domestic interiors, most of which have never been published. He photographed the residences of the Spanish aristocracy across Spain and the Balearic Islands, but most of his interiors are of the apartments of the Barcelona bourgeoisie. The period between 1890 and 1920 was particularly rich in this respect, with work from the great Catalan 'Modernista' architects, such as Antoni Gaudi, Josep Puig i Cadafalch and Josep Domenech i Montaner. These architects collaborated with some of the best local Art Nouveau craftsmen and cabinetmakers, such as Gaspar Homar or Jordi Busquets.
Mas's photography was mostly to be used as documents for commercial purposes, either by the publishing industry or by the designers and architects themselves. With rare exceptions, none of the interior views include people, and the images aim to be neutral and provide a good general sense of space.

The Batllo house (1904-06) was one of Antoni Gaudi's last private commissions. It consisted mostly in the remodelling of the facade of an existing block of apartments. While the exterior of the building was the main focus of his work, Gaudi also made some significant changes to the interior of the house. The interior walls were replaced by his signature curved partitions, opening up new areas for circulation and providing greater flexibility of use by joining adjacent rooms with large folding doors. He introduced skylights and improved the systems for ventilation. He also paid great attention to the detailing of the interior, designing special furniture and decorating surfaces. The large second-floor patio at the back of the house was expanded, with the back facade covered in mosaic tiles.
Spain192720thResidentialDining Room
6047Casa Baron Quadres - Diagonal 373 Adolf Mas i Ginesta (1861-1936) was one of the finest Barcelonese photographers of the turn of the century. He specialised in works of art, architecture, interior design and public monuments. In 1909 he established the Arxiu Mas, a commercial image archive.
Over the course of his career he took many pictures of domestic interiors, most of which have never been published. He photographed the residences of the Spanish aristocracy across Spain and the Balearic Islands, but most of his interiors are of the apartments of the Barcelona bourgeoisie. The period between 1890 and 1920 was particularly rich in this respect, with work from the great Catalan 'Modernista' architects, such as Antoni Gaudi, Josep Puig i Cadafalch and Josep Domenech i Montaner. These architects collaborated with some of the best local Art Nouveau craftsmen and cabinetmakers, such as Gaspar Homar or Jordi Busquets.
Mas's photography was mostly to be used as documents for commercial purposes, either by the publishing industry or by the designers and architects themselves. With rare exceptions, none of the interior views include people, and the images aim to be neutral and provide a good general sense of space.
Spain190420thResidentialBathroom
6048Casa Baron Quadres, Diagonal 373 Adolf Mas i Ginesta (1861-1936) was one of the finest Barcelonese photographers of the turn of the century. He specialised in works of art, architecture, interior design and public monuments. In 1909 he established the Arxiu Mas, a commercial image archive.
Over the course of his career he took many pictures of domestic interiors, most of which have never been published. He photographed the residences of the Spanish aristocracy across Spain and the Balearic Islands, but most of his interiors are of the apartments of the Barcelona bourgeoisie. The period between 1890 and 1920 was particularly rich in this respect, with work from the great Catalan 'Modernista' architects, such as Antoni Gaudi, Josep Puig i Cadafalch and Josep Domenech i Montaner. These architects collaborated with some of the best local Art Nouveau craftsmen and cabinetmakers, such as Gaspar Homar or Jordi Busquets.
Mas's photography was mostly to be used as documents for commercial purposes, either by the publishing industry or by the designers and architects themselves. With rare exceptions such as this one, none of the interior views include people, and the images aim to be neutral and provide a good general sense of space.
Spain190420thResidentialSocial and Sitting Spaces
6049Casa de Josep Puig I Cadafalch Adolf Mas i Ginesta (1861-1936) was one of the finest Barcelonese photographers of the turn of the century. He specialised in works of art, architecture, interior design and public monuments. In 1909 he established the Arxiu Mas, a commercial image archive.
Over the course of his career he took many pictures of domestic interiors, most of which have never been published. He photographed the residences of the Spanish aristocracy across Spain and the Balearic Islands, but most of his interiors are of the apartments of the Barcelona bourgeoisie. The period between 1890 and 1920 was particularly rich in this respect, with work from the great Catalan 'Modernista' architects, such as Antoni Gaudi, Josep Puig i Cadafalch and Josep Domenech i Montaner. These architects collaborated with some of the best local Art Nouveau craftsmen and cabinetmakers, such as Gaspar Homar or Jordi Busquets.
Mas's photography was mostly to be used as documents for commercial purposes, either by the publishing industry or by the designers and architects themselves. With rare exceptions, none of the interior views include people, and the images aim to be neutral and provide a good general sense of space.
Spain189719thResidentialSocial and Sitting Spaces
6050Casa fin de semana (weekend home) Adolf Mas i Ginesta (1861-1936) was one of the finest Barcelonese photographers of the turn of the century. He specialised in works of art, architecture, interior design and public monuments. In 1909 he established the Arxiu Mas, a commercial image archive.
Over the course of his career he took many pictures of domestic interiors, most of which have never been published. He photographed the residences of the Spanish aristocracy across Spain and the Balearic Islands, but most of his interiors are of the apartments of the Barcelona bourgeoisie. The period between 1890 and 1920 was particularly rich in this respect, with work from the great Catalan 'Modernista' architects, such as Antoni Gaudi, Josep Puig i Cadafalch and Josep Domenech i Montaner. These architects collaborated with some of the best local Art Nouveau craftsmen and cabinetmakers, such as Gaspar Homar or Jordi Busquets.
Mas's photography was mostly to be used as documents for commercial purposes, either by the publishing industry or by the designers and architects themselves. With rare exceptions, none of the interior views include people, and the images aim to be neutral and provide a good general sense of space.
Spain193620thResidential
3769[Letter from John Parker, Browshome to Elizabeth Parker, Birthwaite]A querulous letter from an aging widower to his daughter calling her home to manage the house. Without a wife, Parker’s reliance on the household government of his elder daughter is painfully apparent. The letter represents the domestic interior as a world turned upside down, and implies of course the scene of calm government and subordination which was the vanished ideal.UK174918thResidential
3770Wives and DaughtersHere the projected redecoration reveals the insensitive superficiality of the stepmother, whose plans will obliterate the backdrop of Molly’s happier childhood, and consign the cherished relics of her dead mother to the lumber room. The episode reveals Molly’s attachment to the past and her struggle to accept the arrival of ‘the new mother’. UK186619thResidentialBedroom
3758[Letter from Jane Farrin to her daughter, Jan 18 1777]An unusual glimpse of the privacies of domestic life among the yeomanry. Jane Farrin of an Essex farming family is nursing her dying sister, who has some sort of dementia, which imprisons both Jane and the nurse. Both find the house almost intolerable.UK177718thResidentialBedroom
3759[Revd David Jones’ Diary]It was very common for male diarists to refer to domestic life but not to describe it. Here in the Christian Gentleman & Preacher's Diary for 1807, itinerant preacher David Jones records only the basic facts of domesticity. All the entries in his diary are terse, although slightly more detail is given for his preaching tours. Cumulatively, his home appears as simply a resting place, the relatively insignificant base from which he launched his Christian mission across South Wales.

UK180719thResidential
3760[Letter of Ann Baker to her father Daniel Baker]
A very valuable insight into the sexual division of authority within the domestic interior. Ann Baker is relating what is in effect an informal contract proposed by her husband-to-be about the conduct of their married life at home. Who is to preside over the domestic interior is a crucial issue. Here the mother-in-law has abdicated her authority, which must have made the offer more attractive. Ann is promised ‘the whole management of the affairs of the family’. The letter suggests that negotiations around domestic authority prior to marriage may have been more common than historians have imagined. UKc.170718thResidential
3761[Letter from Mary Platt to her niece Elizabeth York, Aug 12 1792]A sad account of the break-up of an old lady’s home. The melancholy of death shrouds the domestic interior and all its objects. The house is damp and unhealthy, the linen and plate claimed by mildew and tarnish. Nevertheless, the niece is praised for her care of the sad old relics. In the rest of the letter, the aunt sympathises with her niece over the fatigue of house guests.UK179218thResidential
3762‘Antichamber’Thomas Sheraton’s Cabinet Dictionary was an early-nineteenth-century bible of correct and formal advice on architecture, layout, decoration and furniture. It owes a great debt to Vitruvius and the ancient idea that surroundings should mirror status. UK180319thResidentialSocial and Sitting Spaces, Transitional, Other / Unknown
3763‘Bed’ Thomas Sheraton’s Cabinet Dictionary was an early-nineteenth-century bible of correct and formal advice on architecture, layout, decoration and furniture. It owes a great debt to Vitruvius and the ancient idea that surroundings should mirror status. Anxieties about the effeminising force of luxury also surface, epitomised here by soft beds.UK180319thResidentialBedroom
3764‘Cabinet’Thomas Sheraton’s Cabinet Dictionary was an early-nineteenth-century bible of correct and formal advice on architecture, layout, decoration and furniture. It owes a great debt to Vitruvius and the ancient idea that surroundings should mirror status. UK180319thResidentialOther / Unknown
3765‘Dining Room’Thomas Sheraton’s Cabinet Dictionary was an early-nineteenth-century bible of correct and formal advice on architecture, layout, decoration and furniture. It owes a great debt to Vitruvius and the ancient idea that surroundings should mirror status. UK180319thResidentialDining Room
3766‘Drawing Room’ Thomas Sheraton’s Cabinet Dictionary was an early-nineteenth-century bible of correct and formal advice on architecture, layout, decoration and furniture. It owes a great debt to Vitruvius and the ancient idea that surroundings should mirror status. UK180319thResidentialSocial and Sitting Spaces
3767‘Furnish’Thomas Sheraton’s Cabinet Dictionary was an early-nineteenth-century bible of correct and formal advice on architecture, layout, decoration and furniture. It owes a great debt to Vitruvius and the ancient idea that surroundings should mirror status. UK180319thResidential
3768‘Building’Thomas Sheraton’s Cabinet Dictionary was an early-nineteenth-century bible of correct and formal advice on architecture, layout, decoration and furniture. It owes a great debt to Vitruvius and the ancient idea that surroundings should mirror status. Here, like Vitruvius, Sheraton stressed the sovereign importance of situation and aspect. UK180319thResidentialLibrary / Study, Other / Unknown
3749[Advertisement for lodging]An interesting advertisement for a comfortable middling urban lodging, convenient (note the wainscot and the closets) but hardly modish. UK175818thResidentialWork Space, Multifunctional Living Space, Kitchen, Other / Unknown
3750[Advertisements for house sales]These advertisements offer a rare glimpse of the domestic interior at the very moment of its dissolution. Death or bankruptcy were the commonest reasons for a sale. The household goods of Teale are perhaps on the plain side for a cabinet maker and upholsterer. UK179818thResidentialKitchen, Multifunctional Living Space, Work Space
3751[Advertisement for sale of furniture]This advertisement offers a rare glimpse of the domestic interior at the very moment of its dissolution. Death or bankruptcy were the commonest reasons for a sale. The pianoforte, chintz hangings, sofa and mahogany indicate a household of some material and social pretension.UK179718thResidential
3752[Advertisement for an auction]This auction notice offers a rare glimpse of the domestic interior at the very moment of its dissolution. Death or bankruptcy were the commonest reasons for a sale. The Reverend Mr Dean had a fashionable well-appointed home full of decorative features; his curtains matched his sofa as fashionable taste demanded, and he had much equipment for polite dining.UK179918thResidentialSocial and Sitting Spaces
3753[Advertisements for house sales]These advertisements offer a rare glimpse of the domestic interior at the very moment of its dissolution. These are particularly useful when objects can be tied to social occupation and rank. Mr Floyde appears to have been a surgeon or apothecary; he boasted both chic bedside carpets and an electrical machine. UK179918thResidential
3754[Advertisements for house sales and auctions]These advertisements offer a rare glimpse of the domestic interior at the very moment of its dissolution. Particularly interesting are the goods of the bankrupt William Tipping. Perhaps it was his taste for fashionable household furniture that helped bring Tipping down?UK180019thResidential
3755Papering the Saloon at Tickell Park, September 2nd 1816A little-known representation from a lady’s album of naive watercolours, painted while Diana Sperling was living at home at Dynes Hall, near Halstead, Essex between 1816 and 1823. Many like this example depict scenes in and about Tickford Park, the Buckinghamshire home of the Van Hagens who were related to the Sperlings. The ladies are pasting paper and fixing a narrow border. It is rare to see depictions of women of this social class engaged in decorating work on this scale.UK181619thResidentialSocial and Sitting Spaces
3756[Letter from James Hewitt JP to his Brother Joseph Hewitt, Coventry]
The author of the letter is James Hewitt, a Coventry alderman, and ambitious borough magistrate. Here he shows a demanding interest in the decoration of his house. His use of wallpaper is utterly correct, with stucco paper in the hall, yellow paper made to match the damask of the best bedchamber, and a light and airy paper sought for a white room. He paid attention to the aspect of the house, the relative importance of the different rooms, the circulation of warmth, and the dampness of the cellars. UK174918thResidentialSocial and Sitting Spaces
3733Letters On The Improvement of the Mind Addressed To A Lady A fascinating piece of moral advice, urging female attention to the neatness and order of the house and furniture, performed however without parade and bustle lest she take on the ‘air of a housemaid’.UK177318thResidential
3734George Woodward's Letters from East Hendred 1753-1761A hilarious account of the domestic difficulties presented by an uncouth, unmarried brother. Here the brother is shipped off for the night lest he embarrass the important guests, inter alia the Warden of All Souls and his wife. The extract reminds us how far polite sociability required anxious social engineering. It was a goal, not an everyday reality.UK175518thResidentialSocial and Sitting Spaces
3735A Letter of Genteel and Moral Advice to a Young LadyA classic prescriptive statement about female management of the domestic interior, symbolised here in the keys. In his concern about litter and disarray, the author insinuates a link between sluttish mess and loose morals.UK174018thResidential
3736[Letter from Mary Warde of Squerries, Kent to her cousin Mary Warde, Hooton Pagnell, Yorkshire]A typical letter from a fashionable young lady on tour about the great houses near London. Passing comment on the taste of the owners seems de rigueur, though Miss Warde’s responses are utterly conventional. Cannons, the monumental palace of the Duke of Chandos, was everywhere criticised for its excess.

The letters of Mary Warde of Squerries Court, near Westerham, Kent (b.1760), present her as the archetypal young woman-about-town in the 1730s and 1740s, enjoying London plays, opera and masquerades, and polite tourism as well as fox-hunting. In 1745, she married a Buckinghamshire gentleman, the 2nd son of a baronet, and MP for Bletchingley and Great Marlow.
UK174018thResidentialSocial and Sitting Spaces
3737[John Courtney’s Diary]An unusual diary entry about an act of vandalism. The bricks thrown deep inside the house clearly alarmed and affronted Mrs Courtney. The attack on the house is an attack on her person. The breaching the threshold reveals her vulnerability. She took immediate action.

The diarist John Courtney of Beverley, born in 1734, was one of the subscribers to the new assembly rooms in Beverley, and he dined regularly with prominent townspeople. He was keen on music, and had an organ built and installed in his house, where he occasionally held concerts. He made regular visits to York, Scarborough, Harrogate, Bath and of course London. In York where he attended the assizes he saw the author Laurence Sterne in a bookshop. And at Harrogate and Bath he met Tobias Smollett.
UK176118thResidential
3738[Letter of William Lindley architect at Doncaster to Bryan Cooke with ideas for a new house to cost about £2,000]A rare manuscript letter from an architect laying bare a concern with flows of servants. UK178518thResidentialDining Room, Social and Sitting Spaces
3739[Letter of William Lindley architect at Doncaster to Bryan Cooke explaining his design]An interesting and unusual manuscript letter wherein an architect is forced to justify his plan to a landed customer.United Kindgom178618thResidentialSocial and Sitting Spaces, Transitional, Work Space
3740[Letter of William Lindley architect at Doncaster to Bryan Cooke explaining his design for servants’ quarters, storage, wash houses and so on.]The architect’s letter is at pains to stress the economy as well as the convenience of the plan. Certainly due attention is paid to storage and how the servants might use the spaces. UK178618thResidentialWork Space, Transitional, Library / Study
3741[Letter of William Lindley architect at Doncaster to Bryan Cooke explaining his design for water closets]Unusual insight into the building of water closets, with an attempt to separate the ladies and the gentlemen. A modish concern for privacy is revealed. Separate flows of elite men and women and of servants are a central concern of the correspondence.UK178718thResidentialBathroom, Social and Sitting Spaces, Other / Unknown
3742[An inventory of the Linen, Plate, China, Glass, Delft and Pottery Ware, Household Goods and Sundry Fixtures belonging to the Revd Mr Forth and Mrs Forth at Slingsby taken the third day of December 1791]An informal inventory, unusual because unlike most inventories drawn up as legal documents at death, it records a prosperous family in their early married life.UK179618thResidential
3743[An inventory of the Linen, Plate, China, Glass, Delft and Pottery Ware, Household Goods and Sundry Fixtures belonging to the Revd Mr Forth and Mrs Forth at Slingsby taken the third day of December 1791]An informal inventory, interesting because unlike most inventories drawn up as legal documents at death, it records a prosperous family in their early married life. It gives wonderful access to the contents of the backstage rooms of the domestic interior.UK179118thResidentialOther / Unknown, Work Space, Kitchen
3744[Letter from Ann Toll, servant of Mary Hartley to brother David Hartley, Bath May 27]
Mary Hartley lived in various lodgings with her servant-come-nurse, who wrote her letters when she was most ill. A very frail woman, she suffered a terrifying series of minor amputations on what appears to have been a gangrenous foot. The letter reveals Mary’s dependence on her half-brother (an MP) for all her comforts, but also the importance of the view to the outside world. UK178418thResidentialDining Room
3745[Letter from Ann Toll, servant of Mary Hartley to brother David Hartley]Mary Hartley lived in various lodgings with her servant-come-nurse Ann Toll, who wrote her letters when she was most ill. A very frail woman, she suffered a terrifying series of minor amputations on what appears to have been a gangrenous foot. The letter reveals the concern to keep Mary isolated from the traffic and clamour of the house. UK178418thResidentialDining Room, Bedroom, Social and Sitting Spaces, Other / Unknown
3746The AbsenteeA classic statement about the perils of poor taste in interior decoration. A compelling satire on the pretensions of upholsterers, and of the women who employ them, leading to the neglect of their social duties and responsibilities in the frenzied pursuit of metropolitan fashion. Here the aptly named Mr Soho, who styles himself the first architectural upholsterer of the age, calls for ‘new hangings, new draperys, new cornices, new candelabras, new everything!’ in a ridiculous mish-mash of styles with Greek, Ottoman, Moorish and Chinese elements. Soho was a recognised centre of luxury goods. Wedgwood had his show room here.United kingdom, Ireland181219thResidentialSocial and Sitting Spaces
3747[Advertisements for auctions]These advertisements offer a rare glimpse of the domestic interior at the very moment of its dissolution. Death or bankruptcy were the commonest reasons for a sale.UK179318thResidentialDining Room, Social and Sitting Spaces
3748[Advertisements for auctions]These advertisements offer a rare glimpse of the domestic interior at the very moment of its dissolution. Death or bankruptcy were the commonest reasons for a sale.UK179518thResidentialKitchen
3711[Joseph Trollope and Sons Letterbook]
This is but one letter among hundreds transcribed in the letter book of Joseph Trollope and Sons, between June 1797 and May 1808. The letters provide a rare insight into the desires and anxieties of a group of consumers and the vocabulary they employed to voice their wishes and their concerns. Indeed, in aggregate, the letters offer a lexicon of the working language of consumer taste. Wallpaper should be proper for its place and situation, as befitted the rule of decorum. Wallpaper shored up social and spatial hierarchies, the innate appreciation of which was a proof of taste.UK179918thResidentialTransitional
3712[Joseph Trollope and Sons Letterbook] This is but one letter among hundreds transcribed in the letterbook of Joseph Trollope and Sons, between June 1797 and May 1808. The letters provide a rare insight into the desires and anxieties of a group of consumers and the vocabulary they employed to voice their wishes and their concerns. Indeed, in aggregate, the letters offer a lexicon of the working language of consumer taste. Wallpaper should be proper for its place and situation, as befitted the rule of decorum. Wallpaper shored up social and spatial hierarchies, the innate appreciation of which was a proof of taste.England179818thResidentialBedroom, Nursery
3713[Joseph Trollope and Sons Letterbook]
This is but one letter among hundreds transcribed in the letter book of Joseph Trollope and Sons, between June 1797 and May 1808. The letters provide a rare insight into the desires and anxieties of a group of consumers and the vocabulary they employed to voice their wishes and their concerns. Indeed, in aggregate, the letters offer a lexicon of the working language of consumer taste. Wallpaper should be proper for its place and situation, as befitted the rule of decorum. Wallpaper shored up social and spatial hierarchies, the innate appreciation of which was a proof of taste.179918thResidentialBedroom, Social and Sitting Spaces
3714[Joseph Trollope and Sons Letterbook]This is but one letter among hundreds transcribed in the letter book of Joseph Trollope and Sons, between June 1797 and May 1808. The letters provide a rare insight into the desires and anxieties of a group of consumers and the vocabulary they employed to voice their wishes and their concerns. Indeed, in aggregate, the letters offer a lexicon of the working language of consumer taste. Wallpaper should be proper for its place and situation, as befitted the rule of decorum. Wallpaper shored up social and spatial hierarchies, the innate appreciation of which was a proof of taste. In this letter female monitoring of the work of redecoration is indicated.UK180319thResidentialSocial and Sitting Spaces
3715[Joseph Trollope and Sons Letterbook]This is but one letter among hundreds transcribed in the letter book of Joseph Trollope and Sons, between June 1797 and May 1808. The letters provide a rare insight into the desires and anxieties of a group of consumers and the vocabulary they employed to voice their wishes and their concerns. Indeed, in aggregate, the letters offer a lexicon of the working language of consumer taste. Wallpaper should be proper for its place and situation, as befitted the rule of decorum. Wallpaper shored up social and spatial hierarchies, the innate appreciation of which was a proof of taste. Mrs Neave’s decorative choices are also foregrounded.179918thResidentialBedroom, Transitional
3716[Joseph Trollope and Sons Letterbook]This is but one letter among hundreds transcribed in the letter book of Joseph Trollope and Sons, between June 1797 and May 1808. The letters provide a rare insight into the desires and anxieties of a group of consumers and the vocabulary they employed to voice their wishes and their concerns. Indeed, in aggregate, the letters offer a lexicon of the working language of consumer taste. Wallpaper should be proper for its place and situation, as befitted the rule of decorum. Wallpaper shored up social and spatial hierarchies, the innate appreciation of which was a proof of taste.UK179918thResidentialBedroom, Nursery
3717[Lord Cholmondeley to a landlord, confirming a letting deal]This is a representation of an interior which actually serves as a contract between tenant and landlord. Cholmondeley kept a copy of the letter as security against the landlord's improvements of the interior decoration. UK167917thResidential
3718[John Egerton's Diary]
John Egerton (1796-1876) was a bachelor cleric-about-town in the 1820s. His manuscript diaries, kept in the Chester and Cheshire Record Office, record his social life, polite pursuits and intellectual interests in London and the south of England. He took singing and violoncello lessons, played the flute and rented a piano. He regularly attended surgeries at Guy's Hospital. This example, describing a house party in Hertfordshire, suggests the perils of country society for an urban bachelor. However, the billiard table argues for some provision for masculine entertainment indoors.UK182619thResidentialLeisure / Games Room, Social and Sitting Spaces
3719[John Egerton's Diary]
John Egerton (1796-1876) was a bachelor cleric-about-town in the 1820s. His manuscript diaries, kept in the Chester and Cheshire Record Office, record his social life, polite pursuits and intellectual interests in London and the south of England. He took singing and violoncello lessons, played the flute and rented a piano. He regularly attended public surgeries at Guy's Hospital. Here Egerton offers an ingenuous description of bachelor domesticity in lodgings.UK182619thResidentialSocial and Sitting Spaces, Dining Room
3720[John Egerton's Diary]
John Egerton (1796-1876) was a bachelor cleric-about-town in the 1820s. His manuscript diaries, kept in the Chester and Cheshire Record Office, record his social life, polite pursuits and intellectual interests in London and the south of England. He took singing and violoncello lessons, played the flute and rented a piano. He regularly attended public surgeries at Guy's Hospital. Here Egerton offers a terse account of a clumsy arrival and successful proposal.UK182419thResidentialTransitional
3721[Letter from HL Cholmeley, Feltham to Lord Cholmondeley, at Nantwich, Cheshire, July 19 1679]
A description of a lodging fit for Lord Cholmondeley. It is not clear whether the writer is the landlord or an agent acting for Cholmondeley. Interestingly, a distinction is drawn between the basic appliances: the boilers, tubs, copper and so on, and the movables, the “necessarys for the look of his consequence”. This representation is effectively an advertisement.UK167917thResidentialKitchen
3722[Letter from William Ramsden, Charterhouse to Elizabeth Parker, Alkincoats, Lancashire]A representation of domestic interiority. Mr William Ramsden, writing from the arm of his wife's easy chair, makes the nursery the emotional centre of his family life. Here he contemplates the scene of his beloved wife’s lying in with a new baby. His fluent celebration of a patriotic domesticity anticipates the gemutlich domesticity associated with middle-class Victorians. Ramsden was a cleric and schoolmaster at the Charterhouse school in London. His letters are preserved in the Lancashire Record Office at Preston.UK176318thInstitutional , Nursery
3723[Letter from William Ramsden, Charterhouse to Elizabeth Shackleton, Alkincoats, Lancashire]

A representation of domestic interiority. Ramsden was a cleric and teacher at the Charterhouse school in London in the 1760s and 70s. His fluent celebration of a patriotic domesticity anticipates the gemutlich domesticity associated with middle-class Victorians. As he said in another letter: '...here comes Supper (Dinr I should say) Smelts at Top, 'Sparagus at Bottom, a smiling Wife -Who'd be a king?’ Insight into the details of middling domestic life are comparatively rare, and this passage paints a vivid scene of an evening at home. Wife and daughter are inevitably sewing. Ramsden's letters are preserved in the Lancashire Record Office at Preston.UK177318thInstitutional , Social and Sitting Spaces
3724[Elizabeth Freke her book]A personal inventory buried within an autobiography. Elizabeth Freke (1642-1714) was a Norfolk gentlewoman. She recorded her life in two manuscript versions now in the British Library (Add. MSS 45718-45719). Her autobiographical memoir has been described in the OED as ‘an almost entirely secular account of a propertied gentlewoman's complex and unhappy marriage.’ The inventory is a melancholy document here, inspired by anxiety and tinged with autumnal regret. UK171118thResidentialUtility
3725[Elizabeth Freke her book]A personal inventory buried within an autobiography. Elizabeth Freke (1642-1714) was a Norfolk gentlewoman. She recorded her life in two manuscript versions now in the British Library (Add. MSS 45718-45719). Her autobiographical memoir has been described in the OED as ‘an almost entirely secular account of a propertied gentlewoman's complex and unhappy marriage.’ The inventory is a melancholy document here, inspired by anxiety and tinged with autumnal regret.UK171118thResidentialOther / Unknown, Transitional
3726[Dorothy Richardson's Journal]Reportage about interiors is a stock feature of the 18th-century travelogue. Dorothy Richardson was an unmarried tourist, who kept substantial accounts of her annual tours about the British Isles. Her manuscript journals drew heavily on topographical publications and often have the unmistakeable tone of the guidebook. However, her own tastes can be discerned. In this example, Richardson approvingly describes the amateur artistic productions of the ladies which decorate the dining room and a bedroom. Her unpublished travel journals are preserved in the John Rylands Library.UK177018thResidentialDining Room, Bedroom
3727[Dorothy Richardson's Journal]Reportage about interiors is a stock feature of the 18th-century travelogue. Dorothy Richardson was an unmarried tourist, who kept substantial accounts of her annual tours about the British Isles. Her manuscript journals drew heavily on topographical publications and often have the unmistakeable tone of the guidebook. However her own prejudices can frequently be discerned. In this example, Richardson begins with a bland description of the grand appointments of Lord Despenser's mansion at High Wycombe, but ends by disparaging his vulgar expense and want of true taste. Her unpublished travel journals are preserved in the John Rylands Library.UK177018thResidentialDining Room, Library / Study
3728[Letter to Barbara Wilkinson from Dorothy Rudston, Flamborough 1752]
A slightly long-suffering description of the modest lodgings of a devout unmarried gentlewoman of very limited means. Dorothy and her maid were to live in two rooms, with use of a communal kitchen and garden. This purports to be straight description, but may also have served to demonstrate Rudston's Christian stoicism.UK175218thResidentialWork Space, Kitchen, Multifunctional Living Space
3729[Letter to Mrs Ogle from her son John Furnis Ogle]A positive description of the exuberantly crafted interior and gardens of a vicarage in Loath, Lincolnshire, done up as a Gothic cottage ornée. To John Furnis, the son of a vicar and embarking on orders himself, a vicarage of this decorative pretension seems a revelation. UK180019thResidentialSocial and Sitting Spaces
3730An Unfortunate Mother’s advice to her Absent DaughtersA classic statement about female domestic authority and the proper dignity of the elite housekeeper. The performance of female management is stressed, as is the government of servants.UK176118thResidentialDining Room
3731[Letter from Matthew Robinson-Morris 2nd Baron Rokeby to Elizabeth Robinson]
A complex description of home, interesting among other things because of the focus on furniture, posture, place and behaviour, such as sofas encouraging Eastern lolling, and the special place of favour by the fireside. It also reiterates the importance to propertied men of an effective housekeeper.UK174018thResidentialSocial and Sitting Spaces
3732[A copy of a letter from Margaret Lady Stanley to her mother Mrs Owen Old Burlington street May ye 19th 1790]A very unusual letter from a separated woman justifying leaving her husband. One of Lady Stanley’s grievances was the manner in which her husband conducted domestic life. Her social isolation and desolation was such that she decided that ‘a cabin exempt from the Domination of a man’ would be preferable to all the riches of the Stanleys. She wrote from exile in Lisbon.Portugal, UK179018thResidentialSocial and Sitting Spaces
5768The Story of StratoniceThis is one of two panels illustrating episodes from the story of Antiochus and Stratonice. Antiochus was wasting away with an incurable illness. The famous Greek Doctor Erasistratus was called to cure him and was the only person able to deduce the reason for his illness: that he was in love with his beautiful young stepmother, Stratonice. The doctor persuaded Antiochus’s father, the old king, to give up his young wife to his son, whereupon the son recovered.

In these panels a horizontal division of space, using columns, is used to structure the narrative. This panel shows the ailing Antiochus being examined in bed by Erasistratus on the left, and the doctor’s consultation with the father of Antiochus on the right.
Italy15thResidentialBedroom
6035Casa Vicens Adolf Mas i Ginesta (1861-1936) was one of the finest Barcelonese photographers of the turn of the century. He specialised in works of art, architecture, interior design and public monuments. In 1909 he established the Arxiu Mas, a commercial image archive.
Over the course of his career he took many pictures of domestic interiors, most of which have never been published. He photographed the residences of the Spanish aristocracy across Spain and the Balearic Islands, but most of his interiors are of the apartments of the Barcelona bourgeoisie. The period between 1890 and 1920 was particularly rich in this respect, with work from the great Catalan 'Modernista' architects, such as Antoni Gaudi, Josep Puig i Cadafalch and Josep Domenech i Montaner. These architects collaborated with some of the best local Art Nouveau craftsmen and cabinetmakers, such as Gaspar Homar or Jordi Busquets.
Mas's photography was mostly to be used as documents for commercial purposes, either by the publishing industry or by the designers and architects themselves. With rare exceptions, none of the interior views include people, and the images aim to be neutral and provide a good general sense of space.

Casa Vicenc was built by Antoni Gaudi in 1883 for Manuel Vicenc Montaner, the owner of a ceramic tiles factory in Valencia. It was a holiday family home, located in what was at the time a quiet town on the outskirts of Barcelona, and Gaudi’s first major commission. This view across the courtyard, with the leafy garden and the building at the back, transmits both a sense of grandness and a feeling of relaxed and leisurely domestic living.
Spain193620thResidential
6036Casa Vicens Adolf Mas i Ginesta (1861-1936) was one of the finest Barcelonese photographers of the turn of the century. He specialised in works of art, architecture, interior design and public monuments. In 1909 he established the Arxiu Mas, a commercial image archive.
Over the course of his career he took many pictures of domestic interiors, most of which have never been published. He photographed the residences of the Spanish aristocracy across Spain and the Balearic Islands, but most of his interiors are of the apartments of the Barcelona bourgeoisie. The period between 1890 and 1920 was particularly rich in this respect, with work from the great Catalan 'Modernista' architects, such as Antoni Gaudi, Josep Puig i Cadafalch and Josep Domenech i Montaner. These architects collaborated with some of the best local Art Nouveau craftsmen and cabinetmakers, such as Gaspar Homar or Jordi Busquets.
Mas's photography was mostly to be used as documents for commercial purposes, either by the publishing industry or by the designers and architects themselves. With rare exceptions, none of the interior views include people, and the images aim to be neutral and provide a good general sense of space.

Casa Vicenc was built by Antoni Gaudi in 1883 for Manuel Vicenc Montaner, the owner of a ceramic tiles factory in Valencia. It was a holiday family home, located in what was at the time a quiet town on the outskirts of Barcelona, and Gaudi’s first major commission. An interior view of the main living area, furnished in the Moorish style.
Spain193620thResidentialSocial and Sitting Spaces
6037Casa Vicens Adolf Mas i Ginesta (1861-1936) was one of the finest Barcelonese photographers of the turn of the century. He specialised in works of art, architecture, interior design and public monuments. In 1909 he established the Arxiu Mas, a commercial image archive.
Over the course of his career he took many pictures of domestic interiors, most of which have never been published. He photographed the residences of the Spanish aristocracy across Spain and the Balearic Islands, but most of his interiors are of the apartments of the Barcelona bourgeoisie. The period between 1890 and 1920 was particularly rich in this respect, with work from the great Catalan 'Modernista' architects, such as Antoni Gaudi, Josep Puig i Cadafalch and Josep Domenech i Montaner. These architects collaborated with some of the best local Art Nouveau craftsmen and cabinetmakers, such as Gaspar Homar or Jordi Busquets.
Mas's photography was mostly to be used as documents for commercial purposes, either by the publishing industry or by the designers and architects themselves. With rare exceptions, none of the interior views include people, and the images aim to be neutral and provide a good general sense of space.

Casa Vicenc was built by Antoni Gaudi in 1883 for Manuel Vicenc Montaner, the owner of a ceramic tiles factory in Valencia. It was a holiday family home, located in what was at the time a quiet town on the outskirts of Barcelona, and Gaudi’s first major commission.
Spain193620thResidentialSocial and Sitting Spaces
4449Sitting room, Alvar Aalto House, Riihitie, Helsinki.Simplicity, functionalism and elegance combined with traditional elements such as the grand piano and open hearth in Alvar Aalto’s sitting room.

The house was designed by Aino and Alvar in 1934 to act as both home and office. It was completed in 1936. Nowadays owned by the Aalto Foundation, the house is open to the public.

Nowadays the house is open to the public and so presents a representation of Aalto’s home.

www.alvaraalto.fi
Finland20thResidentialSocial and Sitting Spaces
6032Hotel España. Carrer Sant Pau 9-11 Adolf Mas i Ginesta (1861-1936) was one of the finest Barcelonese photographers of the turn of the century. He specialised in works of art, architecture, interior design and public monuments. In 1909 he established the Arxiu Mas, a commercial image archive.
Over the course of his career he took many pictures of domestic interiors, most of which have never been published. He photographed the residences of the Spanish aristocracy across Spain and the Balearic Islands, but most of his interiors are of the apartments of the Barcelona bourgeoisie. The period between 1890 and 1920 was particularly rich in this respect, with work from the great Catalan 'Modernista' architects, such as Antoni Gaudi, Josep Puig i Cadafalch and Josep Domenech i Montaner. These architects collaborated with some of the best local Art Nouveau craftsmen and cabinetmakers, such as Gaspar Homar or Jordi Busquets.
Mas's photography was mostly to be used as documents for commercial purposes, either by the publishing industry or by the designers and architects themselves. With rare exceptions, none of the interior views include people, and the images aim to be neutral and provide a good general sense of space.

The main hall of the Hotel España in Barcelona, built by Modernista architect Josep Domenech i Montaner in 1902.
Spain190320thCommercial , Leisure / Games Room
6033Palau Guell. C nou de la Rambla 3-5 Adolf Mas i Ginesta (1861-1936) was one of the finest Barcelonese photographers of the turn of the century. He specialised in works of art, architecture, interior design and public monuments. In 1909 he established the Arxiu Mas, a commercial image archive.
Over the course of his career he took many pictures of domestic interiors, most of which have never been published. He photographed the residences of the Spanish aristocracy across Spain and the Balearic Islands, but most of his interiors are of the apartments of the Barcelona bourgeoisie. The period between 1890 and 1920 was particularly rich in this respect, with work from the great Catalan 'Modernista' architects, such as Antoni Gaudi, Josep Puig i Cadafalch and Josep Domenech i Montaner. These architects collaborated with some of the best local Art Nouveau craftsmen and cabinetmakers, such as Gaspar Homar or Jordi Busquets.
Mas's photography was mostly to be used as documents for commercial purposes, either by the publishing industry or by the designers and architects themselves. With rare exceptions, none of the interior views include people, and the images aim to be neutral and provide a good general sense of space.
Spain192720thResidentialSocial and Sitting Spaces
6034Palau Guell. C nou de la Rambla 3-5 Adolf Mas i Ginesta (1861-1936) was one of the finest Barcelonese photographers of the turn of the century. He specialised in works of art, architecture, interior design and public monuments. In 1909 he established the Arxiu Mas, a commercial image archive.
Over the course of his career he took many pictures of domestic interiors, most of which have never been published. He photographed the residences of the Spanish aristocracy across Spain and the Balearic Islands, but most of his interiors are of the apartments of the Barcelona bourgeoisie. The period between 1890 and 1920 was particularly rich in this respect, with work from the great Catalan 'Modernista' architects, such as Antoni Gaudi, Josep Puig i Cadafalch and Josep Domenech i Montaner. These architects collaborated with some of the best local Art Nouveau craftsmen and cabinetmakers, such as Gaspar Homar or Jordi Busquets.
Mas's photography was mostly to be used as documents for commercial purposes, either by the publishing industry or by the designers and architects themselves. With rare exceptions, none of the interior views include people, and the images aim to be neutral and provide a good general sense of space.
Spain192720thResidentialTransitional
5992Casa Lleo MoreraAdolf Mas i Ginesta (1861-1936) was one of the finest Barcelonese photographers of the turn of the century. He specialised in works of art, architecture, interior design and public monuments. In 1909 he established the Arxiu Mas, a commercial image archive.
Over the course of his career he took many pictures of domestic interiors, most of which have never been published. He photographed the residences of the Spanish aristocracy across Spain and the Balearic Islands, but most of his interiors are of the apartments of the Barcelona bourgeoisie. The period between 1890 and 1920 was particularly rich in this respect, with work from the great Catalan 'Modernista' architects, such as Antoni Gaudi, Josep Puig i Cadafalch and Josep Domenech i Montaner. These architects collaborated with some of the best local Art Nouveau craftsmen and cabinetmakers, such as Gaspar Homar or Jordi Busquets.
Mas's photography was mostly to be used as documents for commercial purposes, either by the publishing industry or by the designers and architects themselves. With rare exceptions, none of the interior views include people, and the images aim to be neutral and provide a good general sense of space.

Dining room of the Casa Lleo Morera, designed by Puig i Cadafalch in 1902, with interiors and furniture by Gaspar Homar.
Spain20thResidentialDining Room
5993Monasterio de Pedralbes The Instituto Amatller de Arte Hispánico, founded in 1941, is a research institute specialising in Spanish art and architecture, with a photo archive of some 300,000 original negatives from various collections, the oldest one being Arxiu Mas, started by Adolfo Mas around 1900. The Institute was organised by its first director, José Gudiol Ricart (1904-1985), following the general idea of the Frick Art Reference Library of New York. One of the immediate decisions taken was the acquisition of the Arxiu Mas. The Institute also holds photographs of interiors by Gudiol, mostly taken during the 1930s and 1940s.

This is one of five photographs of the interior of the Pedralbes Monastery in Barcelona. (See cross-references). The views capture the modesty of the everyday environments, the simplicity of the the interiors and furnishings, from monks’ cells to kitchens and other working areas.
Spain193120thInstitutional , Other / Unknown
5994Monasterio de Pedralbes The Instituto Amatller de Arte Hispánico, founded in 1941, is a research institute specialising in Spanish art & architecture, with a photo archive of some 300,000 original negatives from various collections, the oldest one being Arxiu Mas, started by Adolfo Mas around 1900. The Institute was organised by its first director, José Gudiol Ricart (1904-1985), following the general idea of the Frick Art Reference Library of New York. One of the immediate decisions taken was the acquisition of the Arxiu Mas. The Institute also holds photographs of interiors by Gudiol, mostly taken during the 1930s and 1940s.

This is one of five photographs of the interior of the Pedralbes Monastery in Barcelona. (See cross-references). The views capture the modesty of the everyday environments, the simplicity of the the interiors and furnishings, from monks’ cells to kitchens and other working areas.
Spainc.1936 20thInstitutional , Other / Unknown
5995Monasterio de PedralbesThe Instituto Amatller de Arte Hispánico, founded in 1941, is a research institute specialising in Spanish art and architecture, with a photo archive of some 300,000 original negatives from various collections, the oldest one being Arxiu Mas, started by Adolfo Mas around 1900. The Institute was organised by its first director, José Gudiol Ricart (1904-1985), following the general idea of the Frick Art Reference Library of New York. One of the immediate decisions taken was the acquisition of the Arxiu Mas. The Institute also holds photographs of interiors by Gudiol, mostly taken during the 1930s and 1940s.

This is one of five photographs of the interior of the Pedralbes Monastery in Barcelona. (See cross-references). The views capture the modesty of the everyday environments, the simplicity of the the interiors and furnishings, from monks’ cells to kitchens and other working areas.
Spain193620thInstitutional ,
5996Monasterio de Pedralbes The Instituto Amatller de Arte Hispánico, founded in 1941, is a research institute specialising in Spanish art and architecture, with a photo archive of some 300,000 original negatives from various collections, the oldest one being Arxiu Mas, started by Adolfo Mas around 1900. The Institute was organised by its first director, José Gudiol Ricart (1904-1985), following the general idea of the Frick Art Reference Library of New York. One of the immediate decisions taken was the acquisition of the Arxiu Mas. The Institute also holds photographs of interiors by Gudiol, mostly taken during the 1930s and 1940s.

This is one of five photographs of the interior of the Pedralbes Monastery in Barcelona. (See cross-references). The views capture the modesty of the everyday environments, the simplicity of the the interiors and furnishings, from monks’ cells to kitchens and other working areas.
Spain193620thInstitutional , Work Space
5997Monasterio de Pedralbes The Instituto Amatller de Arte Hispánico, founded in 1941, is a research institute specialising in Spanish art and architecture, with a photo archive of some 300,000 original negatives from various collections, the oldest one being Arxiu Mas, started by Adolfo Mas around 1900. The Institute was organised by its first director, José Gudiol Ricart (1904-1985), following the general idea of the Frick Art Reference Library of New York. One of the immediate decisions taken was the acquisition of the Arxiu Mas. The Institute also holds photographs of interiors by Gudiol, mostly taken during the 1930s and 1940s.

This is one of five photographs of the interior of the Pedralbes Monastery in Barcelona. (See cross-references). The views capture the modesty of the everyday environments, the simplicity of the the interiors and furnishings, from monks’ cells to kitchens and other working areas.
Spain193620thInstitutional , Bedroom
5998Casa D. Cales Pas Campoamor Adolf Mas i Ginesta (1861-1936) was one of the finest Barcelonese photographers of the turn of the century. He specialised in works of art, architecture, interior design and public monuments. In 1909 he established the Arxiu Mas, a commercial image archive.
Over the course of his career he took many pictures of domestic interiors, most of which have never been published. He photographed the residences of the Spanish aristocracy across Spain and the Balearic Islands, but most of his interiors are of the apartments of the Barcelona bourgeoisie. The period between 1890 and 1920 was particularly rich in this respect, with work from the great Catalan 'Modernista' architects, such as Antoni Gaudi, Josep Puig i Cadafalch and Josep Domenech i Montaner. These architects collaborated with some of the best local Art Nouveau craftsmen and cabinetmakers, such as Gaspar Homar or Jordi Busquets.
Mas's photography was mostly to be used as documents for commercial purposes, either by the publishing industry or by the designers and architects themselves. With rare exceptions, none of the interior views include people, and the images aim to be neutral and provide a good general sense of space.
Spain193220thResidentialSocial and Sitting Spaces
5999Casa Llorens. Ronda Universitat Adolf Mas i Ginesta (1861-1936) was one of the finest Barcelonese photographers of the turn of the century. He specialised in works of art, architecture, interior design and public monuments. In 1909 he established the Arxiu Mas, a commercial image archive.
Over the course of his career he took many pictures of domestic interiors, most of which have never been published. He photographed the residences of the Spanish aristocracy across Spain and the Balearic Islands, but most of his interiors are of the apartments of the Barcelona bourgeoisie. The period between 1890 and 1920 was particularly rich in this respect, with work from the great Catalan 'Modernista' architects, such as Antoni Gaudi, Josep Puig i Cadafalch and Josep Domenech i Montaner. These architects collaborated with some of the best local Art Nouveau craftsmen and cabinetmakers, such as Gaspar Homar or Jordi Busquets.
Mas's photography was mostly to be used as documents for commercial purposes, either by the publishing industry or by the designers and architects themselves. With rare exceptions, none of the interior views include people, and the images aim to be neutral and provide a good general sense of space.
Spain190820thResidentialTransitional
6000Estudio MasrieraAdolf Mas i Ginesta (1861-1936) was one of the finest Barcelonese photographers of the turn of the century. He specialised in works of art, architecture, interior design and public monuments. In 1909 he established the Arxiu Mas, a commercial image archive.
Over the course of his career he took many pictures of domestic interiors, most of which have never been published. He photographed the residences of the Spanish aristocracy across Spain and the Balearic Islands, but most of his interiors are of the apartments of the Barcelona bourgeoisie. The period between 1890 and 1920 was particularly rich in this respect, with work from the great Catalan 'Modernista' architects, such as Antoni Gaudi, Josep Puig i Cadafalch and Josep Domenech i Montaner. These architects collaborated with some of the best local Art Nouveau craftsmen and cabinetmakers, such as Gaspar Homar or Jordi Busquets.
Mas's photography was mostly to be used as documents for commercial purposes, either by the publishing industry or by the designers and architects themselves. With rare exceptions, none of the interior views include people, and the images aim to be neutral and provide a good general sense of space.

Mas photographed quite a few artists' studios as well. He was part of Barcelona's turn-of-the-century intellectual bohemia, a social group of bourgeois creative professionals that included artists, architects and writers.
Spain190420thResidentialWork Space
6001Casa Cabanyes Adolf Mas i Ginesta (1861-1936) was one of the finest Barcelonese photographers of the turn of the century. He specialised in works of art, architecture, interior design and public monuments. In 1909 he established the Arxiu Mas, a commercial image archive.
Over the course of his career he took many pictures of domestic interiors, most of which have never been published. He photographed the residences of the Spanish aristocracy across Spain and the Balearic Islands, but most of his interiors are of the apartments of the Barcelona bourgeoisie. The period between 1890 and 1920 was particularly rich in this respect, with work from the great Catalan 'Modernista' architects, such as Antoni Gaudi, Josep Puig i Cadafalch and Josep Domenech i Montaner. These architects collaborated with some of the best local Art Nouveau craftsmen and cabinetmakers, such as Gaspar Homar or Jordi Busquets.
Mas's photography was mostly to be used as documents for commercial purposes, either by the publishing industry or by the designers and architects themselves. With rare exceptions, none of the interior views include people, and the images aim to be neutral and provide a good general sense of space.
Spain191320thResidentialSocial and Sitting Spaces
6002Casa Cabanyes Adolf Mas i Ginesta (1861-1936) was one of the finest Barcelonese photographers of the turn of the century. He specialised in works of art, architecture, interior design and public monuments. In 1909 he established the Arxiu Mas, a commercial image archive.
Over the course of his career he took many pictures of domestic interiors, most of which have never been published. He photographed the residences of the Spanish aristocracy across Spain and the Balearic Islands, but most of his interiors are of the apartments of the Barcelona bourgeoisie. The period between 1890 and 1920 was particularly rich in this respect, with work from the great Catalan 'Modernista' architects, such as Antoni Gaudi, Josep Puig i Cadafalch and Josep Domenech i Montaner. These architects collaborated with some of the best local Art Nouveau craftsmen and cabinetmakers, such as Gaspar Homar or Jordi Busquets.
Mas's photography was mostly to be used as documents for commercial purposes, either by the publishing industry or by the designers and architects themselves. With rare exceptions, none of the interior views include people, and the images aim to be neutral and provide a good general sense of space.
Spain191320thResidentialKitchen
6003Casa CabanyesAdolf Mas i Ginesta (1861-1936) was one of the finest Barcelonese photographers of the turn of the century. He specialised in works of art, architecture, interior design and public monuments. In 1909 he established the Arxiu Mas, a commercial image archive.
Over the course of his career he took many pictures of domestic interiors, most of which have never been published. He photographed the residences of the Spanish aristocracy across Spain and the Balearic Islands, but most of his interiors are of the apartments of the Barcelona bourgeoisie. The period between 1890 and 1920 was particularly rich in this respect, with work from the great Catalan 'Modernista' architects, such as Antoni Gaudi, Josep Puig i Cadafalch and Josep Domenech i Montaner. These architects collaborated with some of the best local Art Nouveau craftsmen and cabinetmakers, such as Gaspar Homar or Jordi Busquets.
Mas's photography was mostly to be used as documents for commercial purposes, either by the publishing industry or by the designers and architects themselves. With rare exceptions, none of the interior views include people, and the images aim to be neutral and provide a good general sense of space.
Spain191320thResidentialSocial and Sitting Spaces
6004Casa Cabanyes Adolf Mas i Ginesta (1861-1936) was one of the finest Barcelonese photographers of the turn of the century. He specialised in works of art, architecture, interior design and public monuments. In 1909 he established the Arxiu Mas, a commercial image archive.
Over the course of his career he took many pictures of domestic interiors, most of which have never been published. He photographed the residences of the Spanish aristocracy across Spain and the Balearic Islands, but most of his interiors are of the apartments of the Barcelona bourgeoisie. The period between 1890 and 1920 was particularly rich in this respect, with work from the great Catalan 'Modernista' architects, such as Antoni Gaudi, Josep Puig i Cadafalch and Josep Domenech i Montaner. These architects collaborated with some of the best local Art Nouveau craftsmen and cabinetmakers, such as Gaspar Homar or Jordi Busquets.
Mas's photography was mostly to be used as documents for commercial purposes, either by the publishing industry or by the designers and architects themselves. With rare exceptions, none of the interior views include people, and the images aim to be neutral and provide a good general sense of space.
Spain191320thResidentialBedroom
6005Casa Saborit Adolf Mas i Ginesta (1861-1936) was one of the finest Barcelonese photographers of the turn of the century. He specialised in works of art, architecture, interior design and public monuments. In 1909 he established the Arxiu Mas, a commercial image archive.
Over the course of his career he took many pictures of domestic interiors, most of which have never been published. He photographed the residences of the Spanish aristocracy across Spain and the Balearic Islands, but most of his interiors are of the apartments of the Barcelona bourgeoisie. The period between 1890 and 1920 was particularly rich in this respect, with work from the great Catalan 'Modernista' architects, such as Antoni Gaudi, Josep Puig i Cadafalch and Josep Domenech i Montaner. These architects collaborated with some of the best local Art Nouveau craftsmen and cabinetmakers, such as Gaspar Homar or Jordi Busquets.
Mas's photography was mostly to be used as documents for commercial purposes, either by the publishing industry or by the designers and architects themselves. With rare exceptions, none of the interior views include people, and the images aim to be neutral and provide a good general sense of space.
Spain191320thResidentialTransitional
6006Casa Particular Adolf Mas i Ginesta (1861-1936) was one of the finest Barcelonese photographers of the turn of the century. He specialised in works of art, architecture, interior design and public monuments. In 1909 he established the Arxiu Mas, a commercial image archive.
Over the course of his career he took many pictures of domestic interiors, most of which have never been published. He photographed the residences of the Spanish aristocracy across Spain and the Balearic Islands, but most of his interiors are of the apartments of the Barcelona bourgeoisie. The period between 1890 and 1920 was particularly rich in this respect, with work from the great Catalan 'Modernista' architects, such as Antoni Gaudi, Josep Puig i Cadafalch and Josep Domenech i Montaner. These architects collaborated with some of the best local Art Nouveau craftsmen and cabinetmakers, such as Gaspar Homar or Jordi Busquets.
Mas's photography was mostly to be used as documents for commercial purposes, either by the publishing industry or by the designers and architects themselves. With rare exceptions, none of the interior views include people, and the images aim to be neutral and provide a good general sense of space.
Spain20thResidentialBedroom
6007Casa Baro de Vilagaya Adolf Mas i Ginesta (1861-1936) was one of the finest Barcelonese photographers of the turn of the century. He specialised in works of art, architecture, interior design and public monuments. In 1909 he established the Arxiu Mas, a commercial image archive.
Over the course of his career he took many pictures of domestic interiors, most of which have never been published. He photographed the residences of the Spanish aristocracy across Spain and the Balearic Islands, but most of his interiors are of the apartments of the Barcelona bourgeoisie. The period between 1890 and 1920 was particularly rich in this respect, with work from the great Catalan 'Modernista' architects, such as Antoni Gaudi, Josep Puig i Cadafalch and Josep Domenech i Montaner. These architects collaborated with some of the best local Art Nouveau craftsmen and cabinetmakers, such as Gaspar Homar or Jordi Busquets.
Mas's photography was mostly to be used as documents for commercial purposes, either by the publishing industry or by the designers and architects themselves. With rare exceptions, none of the interior views include people, and the images aim to be neutral and provide a good general sense of space.
Spain191420thResidentialSocial and Sitting Spaces
6008Casa Luis Masriera Adolf Mas i Ginesta (1861-1936) was one of the finest Barcelonese photographers of the turn of the century. He specialised in works of art, architecture, interior design and public monuments. In 1909 he established the Arxiu Mas, a commercial image archive.
Over the course of his career he took many pictures of domestic interiors, most of which have never been published. He photographed the residences of the Spanish aristocracy across Spain and the Balearic Islands, but most of his interiors are of the apartments of the Barcelona bourgeoisie. The period between 1890 and 1920 was particularly rich in this respect, with work from the great Catalan 'Modernista' architects, such as Antoni Gaudi, Josep Puig i Cadafalch and Josep Domenech i Montaner. These architects collaborated with some of the best local Art Nouveau craftsmen and cabinetmakers, such as Gaspar Homar or Jordi Busquets.
Mas's photography was mostly to be used as documents for commercial purposes, either by the publishing industry or by the designers and architects themselves. With rare exceptions, none of the interior views include people, and the images aim to be neutral and provide a good general sense of space.
Spain191220thResidentialSocial and Sitting Spaces
6009Casa Luis Masriera Adolf Mas i Ginesta (1861-1936) was one of the finest Barcelonese photographers of the turn of the century. He specialised in works of art, architecture, interior design and public monuments. In 1909 he established the Arxiu Mas, a commercial image archive.
Over the course of his career he took many pictures of domestic interiors, most of which have never been published. He photographed the residences of the Spanish aristocracy across Spain and the Balearic Islands, but most of his interiors are of the apartments of the Barcelona bourgeoisie. The period between 1890 and 1920 was particularly rich in this respect, with work from the great Catalan 'Modernista' architects, such as Antoni Gaudi, Josep Puig i Cadafalch and Josep Domenech i Montaner. These architects collaborated with some of the best local Art Nouveau craftsmen and cabinetmakers, such as Gaspar Homar or Jordi Busquets.
Mas's photography was mostly to be used as documents for commercial purposes, either by the publishing industry or by the designers and architects themselves. With rare exceptions, none of the interior views include people, and the images aim to be neutral and provide a good general sense of space.
Spain191220thResidentialSocial and Sitting Spaces, Transitional
6010Casa GallifaAdolf Mas i Ginesta (1861-1936) was one of the finest Barcelonese photographers of the turn of the century. He specialised in works of art, architecture, interior design and public monuments. In 1909 he established the Arxiu Mas, a commercial image archive.
Over the course of his career he took many pictures of domestic interiors, most of which have never been published. He photographed the residences of the Spanish aristocracy across Spain and the Balearic Islands, but most of his interiors are of the apartments of the Barcelona bourgeoisie. The period between 1890 and 1920 was particularly rich in this respect, with work from the great Catalan 'Modernista' architects, such as Antoni Gaudi, Josep Puig i Cadafalch and Josep Domenech i Montaner. These architects collaborated with some of the best local Art Nouveau craftsmen and cabinetmakers, such as Gaspar Homar or Jordi Busquets.
Mas's photography was mostly to be used as documents for commercial purposes, either by the publishing industry or by the designers and architects themselves. With rare exceptions, none of the interior views include people, and the images aim to be neutral and provide a good general sense of space.
Spain191320thResidentialSocial and Sitting Spaces, Transitional
6011Casa Viladesau Adolf Mas i Ginesta (1861-1936) was one of the finest Barcelonese photographers of the turn of the century. He specialised in works of art, architecture, interior design and public monuments. In 1909 he established the Arxiu Mas, a commercial image archive.
Over the course of his career he took many pictures of domestic interiors, most of which have never been published. He photographed the residences of the Spanish aristocracy across Spain and the Balearic Islands, but most of his interiors are of the apartments of the Barcelona bourgeoisie. The period between 1890 and 1920 was particularly rich in this respect, with work from the great Catalan 'Modernista' architects, such as Antoni Gaudi, Josep Puig i Cadafalch and Josep Domenech i Montaner. These architects collaborated with some of the best local Art Nouveau craftsmen and cabinetmakers, such as Gaspar Homar or Jordi Busquets.
Mas's photography was mostly to be used as documents for commercial purposes, either by the publishing industry or by the designers and architects themselves. With rare exceptions, none of the interior views include people, and the images aim to be neutral and provide a good general sense of space.
Spain20thResidentialLibrary / Study
6012Casa Viñas Adolf Mas i Ginesta (1861-1936) was one of the finest Barcelonese photographers of the turn of the century. He specialised in works of art, architecture, interior design and public monuments. In 1909 he established the Arxiu Mas, a commercial image archive.
Over the course of his career he took many pictures of domestic interiors, most of which have never been published. He photographed the residences of the Spanish aristocracy across Spain and the Balearic Islands, but most of his interiors are of the apartments of the Barcelona bourgeoisie. The period between 1890 and 1920 was particularly rich in this respect, with work from the great Catalan 'Modernista' architects, such as Antoni Gaudi, Josep Puig i Cadafalch and Josep Domenech i Montaner. These architects collaborated with some of the best local Art Nouveau craftsmen and cabinetmakers, such as Gaspar Homar or Jordi Busquets.
Mas's photography was mostly to be used as documents for commercial purposes, either by the publishing industry or by the designers and architects themselves. With rare exceptions, none of the interior views include people, and the images aim to be neutral and provide a good general sense of space.
Spain20thResidentialSocial and Sitting Spaces
6013Monasterio de Montserrat Adolf Mas i Ginesta (1861-1936) was one of the finest Barcelonese photographers of the turn of the century. He specialised in works of art, architecture, interior design and public monuments. In 1909 he established the Arxiu Mas, a commercial image archive.
Over the course of his career he took many pictures of domestic interiors, most of which have never been published. He photographed the residences of the Spanish aristocracy across Spain and the Balearic Islands, but most of his interiors are of the apartments of the Barcelona bourgeoisie. The period between 1890 and 1920 was particularly rich in this respect, with work from the great Catalan 'Modernista' architects, such as Antoni Gaudi, Josep Puig i Cadafalch and Josep Domenech i Montaner. These architects collaborated with some of the best local Art Nouveau craftsmen and cabinetmakers, such as Gaspar Homar or Jordi Busquets.
Mas's photography was mostly to be used as documents for commercial purposes, either by the publishing industry or by the designers and architects themselves. With rare exceptions, none of the interior views include people, and the images aim to be neutral and provide a good general sense of space.

As part of his work on religious buildings, Mas photographed various convents and monasteries, showing an interest both in the architectural aspects and in the more human aspects of institutional domestic life.
Spain20thInstitutional , Dining Room
6014Casa de la Marquesa de Domecq Adolf Mas i Ginesta (1861-1936) was one of the finest Barcelonese photographers of the turn of the century. He specialised in works of art, architecture, interior design and public monuments. In 1909 he established the Arxiu Mas, a commercial image archive.
Over the course of his career he took many pictures of domestic interiors, most of which have never been published. He photographed the residences of the Spanish aristocracy across Spain and the Balearic Islands, but most of his interiors are of the apartments of the Barcelona bourgeoisie. The period between 1890 and 1920 was particularly rich in this respect, with work from the great Catalan 'Modernista' architects, such as Antoni Gaudi, Josep Puig i Cadafalch and Josep Domenech i Montaner. These architects collaborated with some of the best local Art Nouveau craftsmen and cabinetmakers, such as Gaspar Homar or Jordi Busquets.
Mas's photography was mostly to be used as documents for commercial purposes, either by the publishing industry or by the designers and architects themselves. With rare exceptions, none of the interior views include people, and the images aim to be neutral and provide a good general sense of space.
Spain192620thResidentialSocial and Sitting Spaces
6015Casa de la Marquesa de Los Alamos Adolf Mas i Ginesta (1861-1936) was one of the finest Barcelonese photographers of the turn of the century. He specialised in works of art, architecture, interior design and public monuments. In 1909 he established the Arxiu Mas, a commercial image archive.
Over the course of his career he took many pictures of domestic interiors, most of which have never been published. He photographed the residences of the Spanish aristocracy across Spain and the Balearic Islands, but most of his interiors are of the apartments of the Barcelona bourgeoisie. The period between 1890 and 1920 was particularly rich in this respect, with work from the great Catalan 'Modernista' architects, such as Antoni Gaudi, Josep Puig i Cadafalch and Josep Domenech i Montaner. These architects collaborated with some of the best local Art Nouveau craftsmen and cabinetmakers, such as Gaspar Homar or Jordi Busquets.
Mas's photography was mostly to be used as documents for commercial purposes, either by the publishing industry or by the designers and architects themselves. With rare exceptions, none of the interior views include people, and the images aim to be neutral and provide a good general sense of space.
Spain192620thResidentialDining Room
6016Palacio Monpensier Adolf Mas i Ginesta (1861-1936) was one of the finest Barcelonese photographers of the turn of the century. He specialised in works of art, architecture, interior design and public monuments. In 1909 he established the Arxiu Mas, a commercial image archive.
Over the course of his career he took many pictures of domestic interiors, most of which have never been published. He photographed the residences of the Spanish aristocracy across Spain and the Balearic Islands, but most of his interiors are of the apartments of the Barcelona bourgeoisie. The period between 1890 and 1920 was particularly rich in this respect, with work from the great Catalan 'Modernista' architects, such as Antoni Gaudi, Josep Puig i Cadafalch and Josep Domenech i Montaner. These architects collaborated with some of the best local Art Nouveau craftsmen and cabinetmakers, such as Gaspar Homar or Jordi Busquets.
Mas's photography was mostly to be used as documents for commercial purposes, either by the publishing industry or by the designers and architects themselves. With rare exceptions, none of the interior views include people, and the images aim to be neutral and provide a good general sense of space.
Spain192620thResidentialSocial and Sitting Spaces
6017Casa Duquesa de Parcen Adolf Mas i Ginesta (1861-1936) was one of the finest Barcelonese photographers of the turn of the century. He specialised in works of art, architecture, interior design and public monuments. In 1909 he established the Arxiu Mas, a commercial image archive.
Over the course of his career he took many pictures of domestic interiors, most of which have never been published. He photographed the residences of the Spanish aristocracy across Spain and the Balearic Islands, but most of his interiors are of the apartments of the Barcelona bourgeoisie. The period between 1890 and 1920 was particularly rich in this respect, with work from the great Catalan 'Modernista' architects, such as Antoni Gaudi, Josep Puig i Cadafalch and Josep Domenech i Montaner. These architects collaborated with some of the best local Art Nouveau craftsmen and cabinetmakers, such as Gaspar Homar or Jordi Busquets.
Mas's photography was mostly to be used as documents for commercial purposes, either by the publishing industry or by the designers and architects themselves. With rare exceptions, none of the interior views include people, and the images aim to be neutral and provide a good general sense of space.
Spain192620thResidentialSocial and Sitting Spaces
6018Casa Duquesa de Parcen Adolf Mas i Ginesta (1861-1936) was one of the finest Barcelonese photographers of the turn of the century. He specialised in works of art, architecture, interior design and public monuments. In 1909 he established the Arxiu Mas, a commercial image archive.
Over the course of his career he took many pictures of domestic interiors, most of which have never been published. He photographed the residences of the Spanish aristocracy across Spain and the Balearic Islands, but most of his interiors are of the apartments of the Barcelona bourgeoisie. The period between 1890 and 1920 was particularly rich in this respect, with work from the great Catalan 'Modernista' architects, such as Antoni Gaudi, Josep Puig i Cadafalch and Josep Domenech i Montaner. These architects collaborated with some of the best local Art Nouveau craftsmen and cabinetmakers, such as Gaspar Homar or Jordi Busquets.
Mas's photography was mostly to be used as documents for commercial purposes, either by the publishing industry or by the designers and architects themselves. With rare exceptions, none of the interior views include people, and the images aim to be neutral and provide a good general sense of space.
Spain192620thResidentialSocial and Sitting Spaces
6019Casa Popular Adolf Mas i Ginesta (1861-1936) was one of the finest Barcelonese photographers of the turn of the century. He specialised in works of art, architecture, interior design and public monuments. In 1909 he established the Arxiu Mas, a commercial image archive.
Over the course of his career he took many pictures of domestic interiors, most of which have never been published. He photographed the residences of the Spanish aristocracy across Spain and the Balearic Islands, but most of his interiors are of the apartments of the Barcelona bourgeoisie. The period between 1890 and 1920 was particularly rich in this respect, with work from the great Catalan 'Modernista' architects, such as Antoni Gaudi, Josep Puig i Cadafalch and Josep Domenech i Montaner. These architects collaborated with some of the best local Art Nouveau craftsmen and cabinetmakers, such as Gaspar Homar or Jordi Busquets.
Mas's photography was mostly to be used as documents for commercial purposes, either by the publishing industry or by the designers and architects themselves. With rare exceptions, none of the interior views include people, and the images aim to be neutral and provide a good general sense of space.

Over the course of his career Mas also took some pictures of non-elite dwellings, such as this one in the Spanish region of La Alberca, Salamanca. His neutral approach to documenting dwellings was applied across social groups. See also his pictures of cave dwellings in Valencia (VN1135 and VN1136).
Spain192820thResidentialKitchen
6020Casa de los Sanchez de Tagle The Instituto Amatller de Arte Hispánico, founded in 1941, is a research institute specialising in Spanish art and architecture, with a photo archive of some 300,000 original negatives from various collections, the oldest one being Arxiu Mas, started by Adolfo Mas around 1900. The Institute was organised by its first director, José Gudiol Ricart (1904-1985), following the general idea of the Frick Art Reference Library of New York. One of the immediate decisions taken was the acquisition of the Arxiu Mas. The Institute also holds photographs of interiors by Gudiol, mostly taken during the 1930s and 1940s. Spain195920thResidentialSocial and Sitting Spaces
6021Casa Senorial Adolf Mas i Ginesta (1861-1936) was one of the finest Barcelonese photographers of the turn of the century. He specialised in works of art, architecture, interior design and public monuments. In 1909 he established the Arxiu Mas, a commercial image archive.
Over the course of his career he took many pictures of domestic interiors, most of which have never been published. He photographed the residences of the Spanish aristocracy across Spain and the Balearic Islands, but most of his interiors are of the apartments of the Barcelona bourgeoisie. The period between 1890 and 1920 was particularly rich in this respect, with work from the great Catalan 'Modernista' architects, such as Antoni Gaudi, Josep Puig i Cadafalch and Josep Domenech i Montaner. These architects collaborated with some of the best local Art Nouveau craftsmen and cabinetmakers, such as Gaspar Homar or Jordi Busquets.
Mas's photography was mostly to be used as documents for commercial purposes, either by the publishing industry or by the designers and architects themselves. With rare exceptions, none of the interior views include people, and the images aim to be neutral and provide a good general sense of space.
Spain20thResidentialLibrary / Study
6022Cueva - exterior Adolf Mas i Ginesta (1861-1936) was one of the finest Barcelonese photographers of the turn of the century. He specialised in works of art, architecture, interior design and public monuments. In 1909 he established the Arxiu Mas, a commercial image archive.
Over the course of his career he took many pictures of domestic interiors, most of which have never been published. He photographed the residences of the Spanish aristocracy across Spain and the Balearic Islands, but most of his interiors are of the apartments of the Barcelona bourgeoisie. The period between 1890 and 1920 was particularly rich in this respect, with work from the great Catalan 'Modernista' architects, such as Antoni Gaudi, Josep Puig i Cadafalch and Josep Domenech i Montaner. These architects collaborated with some of the best local Art Nouveau craftsmen and cabinetmakers, such as Gaspar Homar or Jordi Busquets.
Mas's photography was mostly to be used as documents for commercial purposes, either by the publishing industry or by the designers and architects themselves. With rare exceptions, none of the interior views include people, and the images aim to be neutral and provide a good general sense of space.

Over the course of his career Mas also took some pictures of non-elite dwellings, such as this one in the Spanish region of Benimanet, Valencia. His neutral approach to documenting dwellings was applied across social groups. See also VN1132.
Spain20thResidentialWork Space
6023Cueva - interior Adolf Mas i Ginesta (1861-1936) was one of the finest Barcelonese photographers of the turn of the century. He specialised in works of art, architecture, interior design and public monuments. In 1909 he established the Arxiu Mas, a commercial image archive.
Over the course of his career he took many pictures of domestic interiors, most of which have never been published. He photographed the residences of the Spanish aristocracy across Spain and the Balearic Islands, but most of his interiors are of the apartments of the Barcelona bourgeoisie. The period between 1890 and 1920 was particularly rich in this respect, with work from the great Catalan 'Modernista' architects, such as Antoni Gaudi, Josep Puig i Cadafalch and Josep Domenech i Montaner. These architects collaborated with some of the best local Art Nouveau craftsmen and cabinetmakers, such as Gaspar Homar or Jordi Busquets.
Mas's photography was mostly to be used as documents for commercial purposes, either by the publishing industry or by the designers and architects themselves. With rare exceptions, none of the interior views include people, and the images aim to be neutral and provide a good general sense of space.

Over the course of his career Mas also took some pictures of non-elite dwellings, such as this one in the Spanish region of Benimanet, Valencia. His neutral approach to documenting dwellings was applied across social groups.
Spain20thResidentialDining Room, Bedroom
6024Casa natal de Francisco de Goya Adolf Mas i Ginesta (1861-1936) was one of the finest Barcelonese photographers of the turn of the century. He specialised in works of art, architecture, interior design and public monuments. In 1909 he established the Arxiu Mas, a commercial image archive.
Over the course of his career he took many pictures of domestic interiors, most of which have never been published. He photographed the residences of the Spanish aristocracy across Spain and the Balearic Islands, but most of his interiors are of the apartments of the Barcelona bourgeoisie. The period between 1890 and 1920 was particularly rich in this respect, with work from the great Catalan 'Modernista' architects, such as Antoni Gaudi, Josep Puig i Cadafalch and Josep Domenech i Montaner. These architects collaborated with some of the best local Art Nouveau craftsmen and cabinetmakers, such as Gaspar Homar or Jordi Busquets.
Mas's photography was mostly to be used as documents for commercial purposes, either by the publishing industry or by the designers and architects themselves. With rare exceptions, none of the interior views include people, and the images aim to be neutral and provide a good general sense of space.

This is a picture of the house where Francisco Goya was born.
Spain191820thResidentialBedroom
6025Alhambra Adolf Mas i Ginesta (1861-1936) was one of the finest Barcelonese photographers of the turn of the century. He specialised in works of art, architecture, interior design and public monuments. In 1909 he established the Arxiu Mas, a commercial image archive.
Over the course of his career he took many pictures of domestic interiors, most of which have never been published. He photographed the residences of the Spanish aristocracy across Spain and the Balearic Islands, but most of his interiors are of the apartments of the Barcelona bourgeoisie. The period between 1890 and 1920 was particularly rich in this respect, with work from the great Catalan 'Modernista' architects, such as Antoni Gaudi, Josep Puig i Cadafalch and Josep Domenech i Montaner. These architects collaborated with some of the best local Art Nouveau craftsmen and cabinetmakers, such as Gaspar Homar or Jordi Busquets.
Mas's photography was mostly to be used as documents for commercial purposes, either by the publishing industry or by the designers and architects themselves. With rare exceptions, none of the interior views include people, and the images aim to be neutral and provide a good general sense of space.

Over the course of his career Mas also took some pictures of non-elite dwellings. His neutral approach to documenting dwellings was applied across social groups.
Spain192420thResidentialKitchen
6026Vivienda en una cueva Adolf Mas i Ginesta (1861-1936) was one of the finest Barcelonese photographers of the turn of the century. He specialised in works of art, architecture, interior design and public monuments. In 1909 he established the Arxiu Mas, a commercial image archive.
Over the course of his career he took many pictures of domestic interiors, most of which have never been published. He photographed the residences of the Spanish aristocracy across Spain and the Balearic Islands, but most of his interiors are of the apartments of the Barcelona bourgeoisie. The period between 1890 and 1920 was particularly rich in this respect, with work from the great Catalan 'Modernista' architects, such as Antoni Gaudi, Josep Puig i Cadafalch and Josep Domenech i Montaner. These architects collaborated with some of the best local Art Nouveau craftsmen and cabinetmakers, such as Gaspar Homar or Jordi Busquets.
Mas's photography was mostly to be used as documents for commercial purposes, either by the publishing industry or by the designers and architects themselves. With rare exceptions, none of the interior views include people, and the images aim to be neutral and provide a good general sense of space.

Over the course of his career Mas also took some pictures of non-elite dwellings, such as this one in the Spanish region of Benimanet, Valencia. His neutral approach to documenting dwellings was applied across social groups. See also VN1132.
Spain20thResidentialSocial and Sitting Spaces
6027Vivienda en una cueva Adolf Mas i Ginesta (1861-1936) was one of the finest Barcelonese photographers of the turn of the century. He specialised in works of art, architecture, interior design and public monuments. In 1909 he established the Arxiu Mas, a commercial image archive.
Over the course of his career he took many pictures of domestic interiors, most of which have never been published. He photographed the residences of the Spanish aristocracy across Spain and the Balearic Islands, but most of his interiors are of the apartments of the Barcelona bourgeoisie. The period between 1890 and 1920 was particularly rich in this respect, with work from the great Catalan 'Modernista' architects, such as Antoni Gaudi, Josep Puig i Cadafalch and Josep Domenech i Montaner. These architects collaborated with some of the best local Art Nouveau craftsmen and cabinetmakers, such as Gaspar Homar or Jordi Busquets.
Mas's photography was mostly to be used as documents for commercial purposes, either by the publishing industry or by the designers and architects themselves. With rare exceptions, none of the interior views include people, and the images aim to be neutral and provide a good general sense of space.

Over the course of his career Mas also took some pictures of non-elite dwellings, such as this home built into a cave. His neutral approach to documenting dwellings was applied across social groups.
Spain20thResidentialDining Room
6028Vivienda en una cueva Adolf Mas i Ginesta (1861-1936) was one of the finest Barcelonese photographers of the turn of the century. He specialised in works of art, architecture, interior design and public monuments. In 1909 he established the Arxiu Mas, a commercial image archive.
Over the course of his career he took many pictures of domestic interiors, most of which have never been published. He photographed the residences of the Spanish aristocracy across Spain and the Balearic Islands, but most of his interiors are of the apartments of the Barcelona bourgeoisie. The period between 1890 and 1920 was particularly rich in this respect, with work from the great Catalan 'Modernista' architects, such as Antoni Gaudi, Josep Puig i Cadafalch and Josep Domenech i Montaner. These architects collaborated with some of the best local Art Nouveau craftsmen and cabinetmakers, such as Gaspar Homar or Jordi Busquets.
Mas's photography was mostly to be used as documents for commercial purposes, either by the publishing industry or by the designers and architects themselves. With rare exceptions, none of the interior views include people, and the images aim to be neutral and provide a good general sense of space.

Over the course of his career Mas also took some pictures of non-elite dwellings, such as this home built into a cave. His neutral approach to documenting dwellings was applied across social groups.
Spain20thResidentialSocial and Sitting Spaces
6029Casa de Lope de Vega Adolf Mas i Ginesta (1861-1936) was one of the finest Barcelonese photographers of the turn of the century. He specialised in works of art, architecture, interior design and public monuments. In 1909 he established the Arxiu Mas, a commercial image archive.
Over the course of his career he took many pictures of domestic interiors, most of which have never been published. He photographed the residences of the Spanish aristocracy across Spain and the Balearic Islands, but most of his interiors are of the apartments of the Barcelona bourgeoisie. The period between 1890 and 1920 was particularly rich in this respect, with work from the great Catalan 'Modernista' architects, such as Antoni Gaudi, Josep Puig i Cadafalch and Josep Domenech i Montaner. These architects collaborated with some of the best local Art Nouveau craftsmen and cabinetmakers, such as Gaspar Homar or Jordi Busquets.
Mas's photography was mostly to be used as documents for commercial purposes, either by the publishing industry or by the designers and architects themselves. With rare exceptions, none of the interior views include people, and the images aim to be neutral and provide a good general sense of space.

This is a picture of the home of the sixteenth-century Spanish playwright Lope de Vega.
Spain194620thResidentialDining Room
6030Casa de Lope de Vega The Instituto Amatller de Arte Hispánico, founded in 1941, is a research institute specialising in Spanish art and architecture, with a photo archive of some 300,000 original negatives from various collections, the oldest one being Arxiu Mas, started by Adolfo Mas around 1900. The Institute was organised by its first director, José Gudiol Ricart (1904-1985), following the general idea of the Frick Art Reference Library of New York. One of the immediate decisions taken was the acquisition of the Arxiu Mas. The Institute also holds photographs of interiors by Gudiol, mostly taken during the 1930s and 1940s. Spain194620thResidentialBedroom
6031Casa de Lope de Vega The Instituto Amatller de Arte Hispánico, founded in 1941, is a research institute specialising in Spanish art and architecture, with a photo archive of some 300,000 original negatives from various collections, the oldest one being Arxiu Mas, started by Adolfo Mas around 1900. The Institute was organised by its first director, José Gudiol Ricart (1904-1985), following the general idea of the Frick Art Reference Library of New York. One of the immediate decisions taken was the acquisition of the Arxiu Mas. The Institute also holds photographs of interiors by Gudiol, mostly taken during the 1930s and 1940s. Spain194620thResidentialKitchen
4435Modern Scandinavian FurnitureThe book Modern Scandinavian Furniture was published in 1964 as a prescriptive text extolling the benefits and aesthetic virtues of adopting the clean modern lines of Scandinavian design. In both Britain and the USA, contemporary Scandinavian products were frequently pointed to in the period following the Second World War as models of good design. Encouraging their adoption was seen as the means by which a ‘softened’ version of Modernism might be proselytised in the attempt to wean the general public away from historicist or poorly designed styles. To some extent then, Scandinavian modern represented in furniture, furnishings and decor a ‘third way’ just as it did in the politics of the era.

This image was included in Modern Scandinavian Furniture (1963) as representing a modern lightness of touch in an otherwise more traditional decorative scheme in Denmark. It was used in contrast with the image in HM1096, a detail of an overtly Modern Scandinavian room.
Denmark20thInstitutional , ResidentialOther / Unknown
4436Modern Scandinavian FurnitureThe book Modern Scandinavian Furniture was published in 1964 as a prescriptive text extolling the benefits and aesthetic virtues of adopting the clean modern lines of Scandinavian design. In both Britain and the USA, contemporary Scandinavian products were frequently pointed to in the period following the Second World War as models of good design. Encouraging their adoption was seen as the means by which a ‘softened’ version of Modernism might be proselytised in the attempt to wean the general public away from historicist or poorly designed styles. To some extent then, Scandinavian modern represented in furniture, furnishings and decor a ‘third way’ just as it did in the politics of the era.

See HM1095.
Denmark20thResidentialOther / Unknown
4437Modern Scandinavian FurnitureThe book Modern Scandinavian Furniture was published in 1964 as a prescriptive text extolling the benefits and aesthetic virtues of adopting the clean modern lines of Scandinavian design. In both Britain and the USA, contemporary Scandinavian products were frequently pointed to in the period following the Second World War as models of good design. Encouraging their adoption was seen as the means by which a ‘softened’ version of Modernism might be proselytised in the attempt to wean the general public away from historicist or poorly designed styles. To some extent then, Scandinavian modern represented in furniture, furnishings and decor a ‘third way’ just as it did in the politics of the era.

It is unlikely that this ‘room’ existed in reality. More likely is the construction of an idealised display through which it would be possible to proselytise a message of a united Scandinavian design industry.
Finland, Denmark, Sweden20thInstitutional , ResidentialOther / Unknown
4438Modern Scandinavian FurnitureThe book Modern Scandinavian Furniture was published in 1964 as a prescriptive text extolling the benefits and aesthetic virtues of adopting the clean modern lines of Scandinavian design. In both Britain and the USA, contemporary Scandinavian products were frequently pointed to in the period following the Second World War as models of good design. Encouraging their adoption was seen as the means by which a ‘softened’ version of Modernism might be proselytised in the attempt to wean the general public away from historicist or poorly designed styles. To some extent then, Scandinavian modern represented in furniture, furnishings and decor a ‘third way’ just as it did in the politics of the era.

The image here presents an ideal of Danish Modernism according to Modern Scandinavian Furniture (1963). See HM1093.
Denmark20thInstitutional , ResidentialMultifunctional Living Space
4439Modern Scandinavian FurnitureThe book Modern Scandinavian Furniture was published in 1964 as a prescriptive text extolling the benefits and aesthetic virtues of adopting the clean modern lines of Scandinavian design. In both Britain and the USA, contemporary Scandinavian products were frequently pointed to in the period following the Second World War as models of good design. Encouraging their adoption was seen as the means by which a ‘softened’ version of Modernism might be proselytised in the attempt to wean the general public away from historicist or poorly designed styles. To some extent then, Scandinavian modern represented in furniture, furnishings and decor a ‘third way’ just as it did in the politics of the era.Denmark20th
4440Modern Scandinavian FurnitureThe book Modern Scandinavian Furniture was published in 1964 as a prescriptive text extolling the benefits and aesthetic virtues of adopting the clean modern lines of Scandinavian design. In both Britain and the USA, contemporary Scandinavian products were frequently pointed to in the period following the Second World War as models of good design. Encouraging their adoption was seen as the means by which a ‘softened’ version of Modernism might be proselytised in the attempt to wean the general public away from historicist or poorly designed styles. To some extent then, Scandinavian modern represented in furniture, furnishings and decor a ‘third way’ just as it did in the politics of the era.20thResidentialKitchen
4441Modern Scandinavian FurnitureThe book Modern Scandinavian Furniture was published in 1964 as a prescriptive text extolling the benefits and aesthetic virtues of adopting the clean modern lines of Scandinavian design. In both Britain and the USA, contemporary Scandinavian products were frequently pointed to in the period following the Second World War as models of good design. Encouraging their adoption was seen as the means by which a ‘softened’ version of Modernism might be proselytised in the attempt to wean the general public away from historicist or poorly designed styles. To some extent then, Scandinavian modern represented in furniture, furnishings and decor a ‘third way’ just as it did in the politics of the era.Denmark20thResidentialMultifunctional Living Space
4442Modern Scandinavian FurnitureThe book Modern Scandinavian Furniture was published in 1964 as a prescriptive text extolling the benefits and aesthetic virtues of adopting the clean modern lines of Scandinavian design. In both Britain and the USA, contemporary Scandinavian products were frequently pointed to in the period following the Second World War as models of good design. Encouraging their adoption was seen as the means by which a ‘softened’ version of Modernism might be proselytised in the attempt to wean the general public away from historicist or poorly designed styles. To some extent then, Scandinavian modern represented in furniture, furnishings and decor a ‘third way’ just as it did in the politics of the era.Finland20thResidentialSocial and Sitting Spaces
4443Modern Scandinavian FurnitureThe book Modern Scandinavian Furniture was published in 1964 as a prescriptive text extolling the benefits and aesthetic virtues of adopting the clean modern lines of Scandinavian design. In both Britain and the USA, contemporary Scandinavian products were frequently pointed to in the period following the Second World War as models of good design. Encouraging their adoption was seen as the means by which a ‘softened’ version of Modernism might be proselytised in the attempt to wean the general public away from historicist or poorly designed styles. To some extent then, Scandinavian modern represented in furniture, furnishings and decor a ‘third way’ just as it did in the politics of the era.Sweden20thResidentialSocial and Sitting Spaces
4444Modern Scandinavian FurnitureThe book Modern Scandinavian Furniture was published in 1964 as a prescriptive text extolling the benefits and aesthetic virtues of adopting the clean modern lines of Scandinavian design. In both Britain and the USA, contemporary Scandinavian products were frequently pointed to in the period following the Second World War as models of good design. Encouraging their adoption was seen as the means by which a ‘softened’ version of Modernism might be proselytised in the attempt to wean the general public away from historicist or poorly designed styles. To some extent then, Scandinavian modern represented in furniture, furnishings and decor a ‘third way’ just as it did in the politics of the era.Sweden20thResidentialWork Space
4445Modern Scandinavian FurnitureThe book Modern Scandinavian Furniture was published in 1964 as a prescriptive text extolling the benefits and aesthetic virtues of adopting the clean modern lines of Scandinavian design. In both Britain and the USA, contemporary Scandinavian products were frequently pointed to in the period following the Second World War as models of good design. Encouraging their adoption was seen as the means by which a ‘softened’ version of Modernism might be proselytised in the attempt to wean the general public away from historicist or poorly designed styles. To some extent then, Scandinavian modern represented in furniture, furnishings and decor a ‘third way’ just as it did in the politics of the era.Sweden, Denmark, Finland20thResidentialSocial and Sitting Spaces
4446Modern Scandinavian FurnitureThe book Modern Scandinavian Furniture was published in 1964 as a prescriptive text extolling the benefits and aesthetic virtues of adopting the clean modern lines of Scandinavian design. In both Britain and the USA, contemporary Scandinavian products were frequently pointed to in the period following the Second World War as models of good design. Encouraging their adoption was seen as the means by which a ‘softened’ version of Modernism might be proselytised in the attempt to wean the general public away from historicist or poorly designed styles. To some extent then, Scandinavian modern represented in furniture, furnishings and decor a ‘third way’ just as it did in the politics of the era.Finland20thResidential
4447View of Alvar Aalto’s sitting room, Alvar Aalto House, Riihitie, HelsinkiThis detail of the Finnish designer Alvar Aalto’s sitting room provides a view of one of the key elements of modern Scandinavian design in which functional simplicity was combined with fluid form inspired by the natural world. The organic shapes of the table legs and shelf bracket are juxtaposed here by plants and the fruit and gourd ornament above the fireplace. The iconic Savoy vase, designed in 1936, seen here on the table, also reinforces this theme.

The pendant lampshade was designed in the early 1950s.

Nowadays the house is open to the public and so presents a representation of Aalto’s home.

www.alvaraalto.fi
Finland20thResidentialSocial and Sitting Spaces
4448Detail of sitting room, Alvar Aalto House, Riihitie, HelsinkiThis corner of a room in Alvar Aalto’s home in Helsinki provides a good example of the extent to which the architect upheld the belief, common across modernist Scandinavian practice, that functionalism could and should also provide beauty; an ideal that was applied to interiors just as it was to the objects he designed. The white painted aluminium pendant lamp nicknamed the ‘Lentävä Lautanen’ (Flying Saucer) manufactured by Aalto’s firm Artek in the 1950s and ‘60s exemplifies this idea.

Nowadays the house is open to the public and so presents a representation of Aalto’s home.

www.alvaraalto.fi
Finland20thResidentialSocial and Sitting Spaces
5954Sala reproduccion de la del Castillo de Peñaranda del Duero (Burgos) Adolf Mas i Ginesta (1861-1936) was one of the finest Barcelonese photographers of the turn of the century. He specialised in works of art, architecture, interior design and public monuments. In 1909 he established the Arxiu Mas, a commercial image archive.
Over the course of his career he took many pictures of domestic interiors, most of which have never been published. He photographed the residences of the Spanish aristocracy across Spain and the Balearic Islands, but most of his interiors are of the apartments of the Barcelona bourgeoisie. The period between 1890 and 1920 was particularly rich in this respect, with work from the great Catalan 'Modernista' architects, such as Antoni Gaudi, Josep Puig i Cadafalch and Josep Domenech i Montaner. These architects collaborated with some of the best local Art Nouveau craftsmen and cabinetmakers, such as Gaspar Homar or Jordi Busquets.
Mas's photography was mostly to be used as documents for commercial purposes, either by the publishing industry or by the designers and architects themselves. With rare exceptions, none of the interior views include people, and the images aim to be neutral and provide a good general sense of space.

This is a picture of the reproduction of a historic house, the Castle of Peñaranda in Burgos.

This room has been lit in order to show the elaborate stone carving decoration of the fireplace, window surround and ceiling architecture.
Spain1923-197920thResidentialSocial and Sitting Spaces
5955Sala Barcelonesa sXIX (1860) Adolf Mas i Ginesta (1861-1936) was one of the finest Barcelonese photographers of the turn of the century. He specialised in works of art, architecture, interior design and public monuments. In 1909 he established the Arxiu Mas, a commercial image archive.
Over the course of his career he took many pictures of domestic interiors, most of which have never been published. He photographed the residences of the Spanish aristocracy across Spain and the Balearic Islands, but most of his interiors are of the apartments of the Barcelona bourgeoisie. The period between 1890 and 1920 was particularly rich in this respect, with work from the great Catalan 'Modernista' architects, such as Antoni Gaudi, Josep Puig i Cadafalch and Josep Domenech i Montaner. These architects collaborated with some of the best local Art Nouveau craftsmen and cabinetmakers, such as Gaspar Homar or Jordi Busquets.
Mas's photography was mostly to be used as documents for commercial purposes, either by the publishing industry or by the designers and architects themselves. With rare exceptions, none of the interior views include people, and the images aim to be neutral and provide a good general sense of space.

This photograph records the scenographic reconstruction of a 1860s Barcelonese interior for an exhibition. The print is from 1979, the date and details of the original photograph are unknown.
Spain1860-1979ResidentialSocial and Sitting Spaces
5956Casa Dr Schafer. Calle Copernico 14 Adolf Mas i Ginesta (1861-1936) was one of the finest Barcelonese photographers of the turn of the century. He specialised in works of art, architecture, interior design and public monuments. In 1909 he established the Arxiu Mas, a commercial image archive.
Over the course of his career he took many pictures of domestic interiors, most of which have never been published. He photographed the residences of the Spanish aristocracy across Spain and the Balearic Islands, but most of his interiors are of the apartments of the Barcelona bourgeoisie. The period between 1890 and 1920 was particularly rich in this respect, with work from the great Catalan 'Modernista' architects, such as Antoni Gaudi, Josep Puig i Cadafalch and Josep Domenech i Montaner. These architects collaborated with some of the best local Art Nouveau craftsmen and cabinetmakers, such as Gaspar Homar or Jordi Busquets.
Mas's photography was mostly to be used as documents for commercial purposes, either by the publishing industry or by the designers and architects themselves. With rare exceptions, none of the interior views include people, and the images aim to be neutral and provide a good general sense of space.

This photograph shows a bourgeois interior depicting a rich combination of historically diverse furnishings and works of art, eclectic and historicist. See VN1078 for another view of the room.
Spain193220thResidentialLibrary / Study
5957Casa Olano Adolf Mas i Ginesta (1861-1936) was one of the finest Barcelonese photographers of the turn of the century. He specialised in works of art, architecture, interior design and public monuments. In 1909 he established the Arxiu Mas, a commercial image archive.
Over the course of his career he took many pictures of domestic interiors, most of which have never been published. He photographed the residences of the Spanish aristocracy across Spain and the Balearic Islands, but most of his interiors are of the apartments of the Barcelona bourgeoisie. The period between 1890 and 1920 was particularly rich in this respect, with work from the great Catalan 'Modernista' architects, such as Antoni Gaudi, Josep Puig i Cadafalch and Josep Domenech i Montaner. These architects collaborated with some of the best local Art Nouveau craftsmen and cabinetmakers, such as Gaspar Homar or Jordi Busquets.
Mas's photography was mostly to be used as documents for commercial purposes, either by the publishing industry or by the designers and architects themselves. With rare exceptions, none of the interior views include people, and the images aim to be neutral and provide a good general sense of space.

This photograph shows a room arrangement for a dining room. This heavily decorated space, that appears somewhat cramped, contrasts with the grander, wood panelled spaces of Casa Mata in VN1084.
Spain190720thResidentialDining Room
5958Casa OlanoAdolf Mas i Ginesta (1861-1936) was one of the finest Barcelonese photographers of the turn of the century. He specialised in works of art, architecture, interior design and public monuments. In 1909 he established the Arxiu Mas, a commercial image archive.
Over the course of his career he took many pictures of domestic interiors, most of which have never been published. He photographed the residences of the Spanish aristocracy across Spain and the Balearic Islands, but most of his interiors are of the apartments of the Barcelona bourgeoisie. The period between 1890 and 1920 was particularly rich in this respect, with work from the great Catalan 'Modernista' architects, such as Antoni Gaudi, Josep Puig i Cadafalch and Josep Domenech i Montaner. These architects collaborated with some of the best local Art Nouveau craftsmen and cabinetmakers, such as Gaspar Homar or Jordi Busquets.
Mas's photography was mostly to be used as documents for commercial purposes, either by the publishing industry or by the designers and architects themselves. With rare exceptions, none of the interior views include people, and the images aim to be neutral and provide a good general sense of space.

This photograph shows the decorative treatment of a grand hall and staircase. For another image of a hallway and staircase see VN1085.
Spain190720thResidentialTransitional
5959Casa Olano Adolf Mas i Ginesta (1861-1936) was one of the finest Barcelonese photographers of the turn of the century. He specialised in works of art, architecture, interior design and public monuments. In 1909 he established the Arxiu Mas, a commercial image archive.
Over the course of his career he took many pictures of domestic interiors, most of which have never been published. He photographed the residences of the Spanish aristocracy across Spain and the Balearic Islands, but most of his interiors are of the apartments of the Barcelona bourgeoisie. The period between 1890 and 1920 was particularly rich in this respect, with work from the great Catalan 'Modernista' architects, such as Antoni Gaudi, Josep Puig i Cadafalch and Josep Domenech i Montaner. These architects collaborated with some of the best local Art Nouveau craftsmen and cabinetmakers, such as Gaspar Homar or Jordi Busquets.
Mas's photography was mostly to be used as documents for commercial purposes, either by the publishing industry or by the designers and architects themselves. With rare exceptions, none of the interior views include people, and the images aim to be neutral and provide a good general sense of space.

The three images depicting Casa Olano show a consistent decorative scheme. There is not a strong contrast between the treatment of each room, in a style that is eclectic and historicist.
Spain191620thResidentialSocial and Sitting Spaces
5960Casa Bertran y Musitu Adolf Mas i Ginesta (1861-1936) was one of the finest Barcelonese photographers of the turn of the century. He specialised in works of art, architecture, interior design and public monuments. In 1909 he established the Arxiu Mas, a commercial image archive.
Over the course of his career he took many pictures of domestic interiors, most of which have never been published. He photographed the residences of the Spanish aristocracy across Spain and the Balearic Islands, but most of his interiors are of the apartments of the Barcelona bourgeoisie. The period between 1890 and 1920 was particularly rich in this respect, with work from the great Catalan 'Modernista' architects, such as Antoni Gaudi, Josep Puig i Cadafalch and Josep Domenech i Montaner. These architects collaborated with some of the best local Art Nouveau craftsmen and cabinetmakers, such as Gaspar Homar or Jordi Busquets.
Mas's photography was mostly to be used as documents for commercial purposes, either by the publishing industry or by the designers and architects themselves. With rare exceptions, none of the interior views include people, and the images aim to be neutral and provide a good general sense of space.

This photograph shows a grand salon with an integrated decorative scheme. The Bertran y Musitu residence was probably one of the most spectacular in Barcelona barring the Park Guell (see VN1147). It was also much more conservative in style and decoration.
Spain191620thResidentialSocial and Sitting Spaces
5961Casa BuresAdolf Mas i Ginesta (1861-1936) was one of the finest Barcelonese photographers of the turn of the century. He specialised in works of art, architecture, interior design and public monuments. In 1909 he established the Arxiu Mas, a commercial image archive.
Over the course of his career he took many pictures of domestic interiors, most of which have never been published. He photographed the residences of the Spanish aristocracy across Spain and the Balearic Islands, but most of his interiors are of the apartments of the Barcelona bourgeoisie. The period between 1890 and 1920 was particularly rich in this respect, with work from the great Catalan 'Modernista' architects, such as Antoni Gaudi, Josep Puig i Cadafalch and Josep Domenech i Montaner. These architects collaborated with some of the best local Art Nouveau craftsmen and cabinetmakers, such as Gaspar Homar or Jordi Busquets.
Mas's photography was mostly to be used as documents for commercial purposes, either by the publishing industry or by the designers and architects themselves. With rare exceptions, none of the interior views include people, and the images aim to be neutral and provide a good general sense of space.

This photograph shows a historicist decorative interior scheme with an illusionist ceiling. The light, gilt decoration contrasts with the heavier furniture.
Spain190220thResidentialSocial and Sitting Spaces
5962Casa Par. Notario Calle Ausias March 24 Adolf Mas i Ginesta (1861-1936) was one of the finest Barcelonese photographers of the turn of the century. He specialised in works of art, architecture, interior design and public monuments. In 1909 he established the Arxiu Mas, a commercial image archive.
Over the course of his career he took many pictures of domestic interiors, most of which have never been published. He photographed the residences of the Spanish aristocracy across Spain and the Balearic Islands, but most of his interiors are of the apartments of the Barcelona bourgeoisie. The period between 1890 and 1920 was particularly rich in this respect, with work from the great Catalan 'Modernista' architects, such as Antoni Gaudi, Josep Puig i Cadafalch and Josep Domenech i Montaner. These architects collaborated with some of the best local Art Nouveau craftsmen and cabinetmakers, such as Gaspar Homar or Jordi Busquets.
Mas's photography was mostly to be used as documents for commercial purposes, either by the publishing industry or by the designers and architects themselves. With rare exceptions, none of the interior views include people, and the images aim to be neutral and provide a good general sense of space.

This photograph shows a notary’s house, bourgeois and respectable, more formal in treatment than VN1074, for instance.
Spain191520thResidentialSocial and Sitting Spaces
5963Casa Apel.les Mestres. Pasaje PermanyerAdolf Mas i Ginesta (1861-1936) was one of the finest Barcelonese photographers of the turn of the century. He specialised in works of art, architecture, interior design and public monuments. In 1909 he established the Arxiu Mas, a commercial image archive.
Over the course of his career he took many pictures of domestic interiors, most of which have never been published. He photographed the residences of the Spanish aristocracy across Spain and the Balearic Islands, but most of his interiors are of the apartments of the Barcelona bourgeoisie. The period between 1890 and 1920 was particularly rich in this respect, with work from the great Catalan 'Modernista' architects, such as Antoni Gaudi, Josep Puig i Cadafalch and Josep Domenech i Montaner. These architects collaborated with some of the best local Art Nouveau craftsmen and cabinetmakers, such as Gaspar Homar or Jordi Busquets.
Mas's photography was mostly to be used as documents for commercial purposes, either by the publishing industry or by the designers and architects themselves. With rare exceptions, none of the interior views include people, and the images aim to be neutral and provide a good general sense of space.

Mas photographed quite a few artists' studios as well. He was part of Barcelona's turn-of-the-century intellectual bohemia, a social group of bourgeois creative professionals that included artists, architects and writers. This is the home of the Modernista painter Apel.les Mestres. The image captures the accumulation of objects as one of the defining characteristics of this interior.
Spain193620thResidentialLibrary / Study
5964Casa Guell Adolf Mas i Ginesta (1861-1936) was one of the finest Barcelonese photographers of the turn of the century. He specialised in works of art, architecture, interior design and public monuments. In 1909 he established the Arxiu Mas, a commercial image archive.
Over the course of his career he took many pictures of domestic interiors, most of which have never been published. He photographed the residences of the Spanish aristocracy across Spain and the Balearic Islands, but most of his interiors are of the apartments of the Barcelona bourgeoisie. The period between 1890 and 1920 was particularly rich in this respect, with work from the great Catalan 'Modernista' architects, such as Antoni Gaudi, Josep Puig i Cadafalch and Josep Domenech i Montaner. These architects collaborated with some of the best local Art Nouveau craftsmen and cabinetmakers, such as Gaspar Homar or Jordi Busquets.

Mas's photography was mostly to be used as documents for commercial purposes, either by the publishing industry or by the designers and architects themselves. With rare exceptions, none of the interior views include people, and the images aim to be neutral and provide a good general sense of space.
Spain192720thResidentialBedroom
5965Casa Dr Schafer - Copernico 14Adolf Mas i Ginesta (1861-1936) was one of the finest Barcelonese photographers of the turn of the century. He specialised in works of art, architecture, interior design and public monuments. In 1909 he established the Arxiu Mas, a commercial image archive.
Over the course of his career he took many pictures of domestic interiors, most of which have never been published. He photographed the residences of the Spanish aristocracy across Spain and the Balearic Islands, but most of his interiors are of the apartments of the Barcelona bourgeoisie. The period between 1890 and 1920 was particularly rich in this respect, with work from the great Catalan 'Modernista' architects, such as Antoni Gaudi, Josep Puig i Cadafalch and Josep Domenech i Montaner. These architects collaborated with some of the best local Art Nouveau craftsmen and cabinetmakers, such as Gaspar Homar or Jordi Busquets.
Mas's photography was mostly to be used as documents for commercial purposes, either by the publishing industry or by the designers and architects themselves. With rare exceptions, none of the interior views include people, and the images aim to be neutral and provide a good general sense of space.

This photograph shows a bourgeois interior depicting a rich combination of furnishings and works of art, with an emphasis on religious figures. Note the number of books on display.
Spain193220thResidentialLibrary / Study
5966Casa Mercader LlorachAdolf Mas i Ginesta (1861-1936) was one of the finest Barcelonese photographers of the turn of the century. He specialised in works of art, architecture, interior design and public monuments. In 1909 he established the Arxiu Mas, a commercial image archive.
Over the course of his career he took many pictures of domestic interiors, most of which have never been published. He photographed the residences of the Spanish aristocracy across Spain and the Balearic Islands, but most of his interiors are of the apartments of the Barcelona bourgeoisie. The period between 1890 and 1920 was particularly rich in this respect, with work from the great Catalan 'Modernista' architects, such as Antoni Gaudi, Josep Puig i Cadafalch and Josep Domenech i Montaner. These architects collaborated with some of the best local Art Nouveau craftsmen and cabinetmakers, such as Gaspar Homar or Jordi Busquets.
Mas's photography was mostly to be used as documents for commercial purposes, either by the publishing industry or by the designers and architects themselves. With rare exceptions, none of the interior views include people, and the images aim to be neutral and provide a good general sense of space.
Spain192020thResidentialLibrary / Study
5967Casa Mata. Nueva Belen 2Adolf Mas i Ginesta (1861-1936) was one of the finest Barcelonese photographers of the turn of the century. He specialised in works of art, architecture, interior design and public monuments. In 1909 he established the Arxiu Mas, a commercial image archive.
Over the course of his career he took many pictures of domestic interiors, most of which have never been published. He photographed the residences of the Spanish aristocracy across Spain and the Balearic Islands, but most of his interiors are of the apartments of the Barcelona bourgeoisie. The period between 1890 and 1920 was particularly rich in this respect, with work from the great Catalan 'Modernista' architects, such as Antoni Gaudi, Josep Puig i Cadafalch and Josep Domenech i Montaner. These architects collaborated with some of the best local Art Nouveau craftsmen and cabinetmakers, such as Gaspar Homar or Jordi Busquets.
Mas's photography was mostly to be used as documents for commercial purposes, either by the publishing industry or by the designers and architects themselves. With rare exceptions, none of the interior views include people, and the images aim to be neutral and provide a good general sense of space.

This 1920s interior is distinctly modern, with simple but high-quality furniture. There is an emphasis on clean lines and co-ordination of style. VN1084 shows a more traditional-looking room in the same house.
Spainc.1923 20thResidentialSocial and Sitting Spaces
5968Casa Mansana. Paseo de GraciaAdolf Mas i Ginesta (1861-1936) was one of the finest Barcelonese photographers of the turn of the century. He specialised in works of art, architecture, interior design and public monuments. In 1909 he established the Arxiu Mas, a commercial image archive.
Over the course of his career he took many pictures of domestic interiors, most of which have never been published. He photographed the residences of the Spanish aristocracy across Spain and the Balearic Islands, but most of his interiors are of the apartments of the Barcelona bourgeoisie. The period between 1890 and 1920 was particularly rich in this respect, with work from the great Catalan 'Modernista' architects, such as Antoni Gaudi, Josep Puig i Cadafalch and Josep Domenech i Montaner. These architects collaborated with some of the best local Art Nouveau craftsmen and cabinetmakers, such as Gaspar Homar or Jordi Busquets.
Mas's photography was mostly to be used as documents for commercial purposes, either by the publishing industry or by the designers and architects themselves. With rare exceptions, none of the interior views include people, and the images aim to be neutral and provide a good general sense of space.

This particular image focuses on the owner’s display of his Oriental decorative arts collection with eastern objects and works of art.
Spain191620thResidentialTransitional
5969Estudio Graner Adolf Mas i Ginesta (1861-1936) was one of the finest Barcelonese photographers of the turn of the century. He specialised in works of art, architecture, interior design and public monuments. In 1909 he established the Arxiu Mas, a commercial image archive.
Over the course of his career he took many pictures of domestic interiors, most of which have never been published. He photographed the residences of the Spanish aristocracy across Spain and the Balearic Islands, but most of his interiors are of the apartments of the Barcelona bourgeoisie. The period between 1890 and 1920 was particularly rich in this respect, with work from the great Catalan 'Modernista' architects, such as Antoni Gaudi, Josep Puig i Cadafalch and Josep Domenech i Montaner. These architects collaborated with some of the best local Art Nouveau craftsmen and cabinetmakers, such as Gaspar Homar or Jordi Busquets.
Mas's photography was mostly to be used as documents for commercial purposes, either by the publishing industry or by the designers and architects themselves. With rare exceptions, none of the interior views include people, and the images aim to be neutral and provide a good general sense of space.

Mas photographed quite a few artists' studios as well. He was part of Barcelona's turn-of-the-century intellectual bohemia, a social group of bourgeois creative professionals that included artists, architects and writers.
Spain190320thResidentialWork Space
5970Estudio Pepita Teixidor Adolf Mas i Ginesta (1861-1936) was one of the finest Barcelonese photographers of the turn of the century. He specialised in works of art, architecture, interior design and public monuments. In 1909 he established the Arxiu Mas, a commercial image archive.
Over the course of his career he took many pictures of domestic interiors, most of which have never been published. He photographed the residences of the Spanish aristocracy across Spain and the Balearic Islands, but most of his interiors are of the apartments of the Barcelona bourgeoisie. The period between 1890 and 1920 was particularly rich in this respect, with work from the great Catalan 'Modernista' architects, such as Antoni Gaudi, Josep Puig i Cadafalch and Josep Domenech i Montaner. These architects collaborated with some of the best local Art Nouveau craftsmen and cabinetmakers, such as Gaspar Homar or Jordi Busquets.
Mas's photography was mostly to be used as documents for commercial purposes, either by the publishing industry or by the designers and architects themselves. With rare exceptions, none of the interior views include people, and the images aim to be neutral and provide a good general sense of space.

Mas photographed quite a few artists' studios as well. He was part of Barcelona's turn-of-the-century intellectual bohemia, a social group of bourgeois creative professionals that included artists, architects and writers.

This photograph shows the studio of a woman artist. It does not appear to be a dedicated studio unlike the grander one in Casa Ninto (VN1086). It also appears to be a more feminine and domestic space when compared with VN1102, VN1103, and VN1104.
Spain190720thResidentialWork Space
5971Casa Mata. Nueva Belen 2Adolf Mas i Ginesta (1861-1936) was one of the finest Barcelonese photographers of the turn of the century. He specialised in works of art, architecture, interior design and public monuments. In 1909 he established the Arxiu Mas, a commercial image archive.
Over the course of his career he took many pictures of domestic interiors, most of which have never been published. He photographed the residences of the Spanish aristocracy across Spain and the Balearic Islands, but most of his interiors are of the apartments of the Barcelona bourgeoisie. The period between 1890 and 1920 was particularly rich in this respect, with work from the great Catalan 'Modernista' architects, such as Antoni Gaudi, Josep Puig i Cadafalch and Josep Domenech i Montaner. These architects collaborated with some of the best local Art Nouveau craftsmen and cabinetmakers, such as Gaspar Homar or Jordi Busquets.
Mas's photography was mostly to be used as documents for commercial purposes, either by the publishing industry or by the designers and architects themselves. With rare exceptions, none of the interior views include people, and the images aim to be neutral and provide a good general sense of space.

This grand dining room provides a feeling of spaciousness and lightness, despite the dark wood-panelled walls.
Spain192320thResidentialDining Room
5972Casa Mata. Nueva Belen 2 Adolf Mas i Ginesta (1861-1936) was one of the finest Barcelonese photographers of the turn of the century. He specialised in works of art, architecture, interior design and public monuments. In 1909 he established the Arxiu Mas, a commercial image archive.
Over the course of his career he took many pictures of domestic interiors, most of which have never been published. He photographed the residences of the Spanish aristocracy across Spain and the Balearic Islands, but most of his interiors are of the apartments of the Barcelona bourgeoisie. The period between 1890 and 1920 was particularly rich in this respect, with work from the great Catalan 'Modernista' architects, such as Antoni Gaudi, Josep Puig i Cadafalch and Josep Domenech i Montaner. These architects collaborated with some of the best local Art Nouveau craftsmen and cabinetmakers, such as Gaspar Homar or Jordi Busquets.
Mas's photography was mostly to be used as documents for commercial purposes, either by the publishing industry or by the designers and architects themselves. With rare exceptions, none of the interior views include people, and the images aim to be neutral and provide a good general sense of space.

The grand entrance of Casa Mata has a solid, restrained feeling that distinguishes it from earlier, turn-of-the-century Barcelona homes. See for instance the entrance hallway and staircase of Casa Olano (VN1071).
Spain192320thResidentialSocial and Sitting Spaces
5973Casa Niubo Adolf Mas i Ginesta (1861-1936) was one of the finest Barcelonese photographers of the turn of the century. He specialised in works of art, architecture, interior design and public monuments. In 1909 he established the Arxiu Mas, a commercial image archive.
Over the course of his career he took many pictures of domestic interiors, most of which have never been published. He photographed the residences of the Spanish aristocracy across Spain and the Balearic Islands, but most of his interiors are of the apartments of the Barcelona bourgeoisie. The period between 1890 and 1920 was particularly rich in this respect, with work from the great Catalan 'Modernista' architects, such as Antoni Gaudi, Josep Puig i Cadafalch and Josep Domenech i Montaner. These architects collaborated with some of the best local Art Nouveau craftsmen and cabinetmakers, such as Gaspar Homar or Jordi Busquets.
Mas's photography was mostly to be used as documents for commercial purposes, either by the publishing industry or by the designers and architects themselves. With rare exceptions, none of the interior views include people, and the images aim to be neutral and provide a good general sense of space.

Mas photographed quite a few artists' studios as well. He was part of Barcelona's turn-of-the-century intellectual bohemia, a social group of bourgeois creative professionals that included artists, architects and writers.
Spain190920thResidentialWork Space
5974Casa Sra Macaya Adolf Mas i Ginesta (1861-1936) was one of the finest Barcelonese photographers of the turn of the century. He specialised in works of art, architecture, interior design and public monuments. In 1909 he established the Arxiu Mas, a commercial image archive.
Over the course of his career he took many pictures of domestic interiors, most of which have never been published. He photographed the residences of the Spanish aristocracy across Spain and the Balearic Islands, but most of his interiors are of the apartments of the Barcelona bourgeoisie. The period between 1890 and 1920 was particularly rich in this respect, with work from the great Catalan 'Modernista' architects, such as Antoni Gaudi, Josep Puig i Cadafalch and Josep Domenech i Montaner. These architects collaborated with some of the best local Art Nouveau craftsmen and cabinetmakers, such as Gaspar Homar or Jordi Busquets.
Mas's photography was mostly to be used as documents for commercial purposes, either by the publishing industry or by the designers and architects themselves. With rare exceptions, none of the interior views include people, and the images aim to be neutral and provide a good general sense of space.

This photograph shows Senora Macaya at her writing desk in her bedroom. This image follows the convention of depicting society ladies in their domestic settings, as appeared in magazines from the 1890s onwards. See Casa Dunquesa de Parcen (VN1130) for another feminine interior.
Spain20thResidentialBedroom
5975Casa Mallol Adolf Mas i Ginesta (1861-1936) was one of the finest Barcelonese photographers of the turn of the century. He specialised in works of art, architecture, interior design and public monuments. In 1909 he established the Arxiu Mas, a commercial image archive.
Over the course of his career he took many pictures of domestic interiors, most of which have never been published. He photographed the residences of the Spanish aristocracy across Spain and the Balearic Islands, but most of his interiors are of the apartments of the Barcelona bourgeoisie. The period between 1890 and 1920 was particularly rich in this respect, with work from the great Catalan 'Modernista' architects, such as Antoni Gaudi, Josep Puig i Cadafalch and Josep Domenech i Montaner. These architects collaborated with some of the best local Art Nouveau craftsmen and cabinetmakers, such as Gaspar Homar or Jordi Busquets.
Mas's photography was mostly to be used as documents for commercial purposes, either by the publishing industry or by the designers and architects themselves. With rare exceptions, none of the interior views include people, and the images aim to be neutral and provide a good general sense of space.

This photograph shows a bright dining room with extensive Modernista decorative scheme and furniture. The photograph was probably taken after the remodelling of the interior as commision work for its designer.
Spain191220thResidentialDining Room
5976Casa Guell Adolf Mas i Ginesta (1861-1936) was one of the finest Barcelonese photographers of the turn of the century. He specialised in works of art, architecture, interior design and public monuments. In 1909 he established the Arxiu Mas, a commercial image archive.
Over the course of his career he took many pictures of domestic interiors, most of which have never been published. He photographed the residences of the Spanish aristocracy across Spain and the Balearic Islands, but most of his interiors are of the apartments of the Barcelona bourgeoisie. The period between 1890 and 1920 was particularly rich in this respect, with work from the great Catalan 'Modernista' architects, such as Antoni Gaudi, Josep Puig i Cadafalch and Josep Domenech i Montaner. These architects collaborated with some of the best local Art Nouveau craftsmen and cabinetmakers, such as Gaspar Homar or Jordi Busquets.
Mas's photography was mostly to be used as documents for commercial purposes, either by the publishing industry or by the designers and architects themselves. With rare exceptions, none of the interior views include people, and the images aim to be neutral and provide a good general sense of space.
Spain191320thResidentialSocial and Sitting Spaces
5977Casa Apel.les Mestres. Pasaje Permanyer Adolf Mas i Ginesta (1861-1936) was one of the finest Barcelonese photographers of the turn of the century. He specialised in works of art, architecture, interior design and public monuments. In 1909 he established the Arxiu Mas, a commercial image archive.
Over the course of his career he took many pictures of domestic interiors, most of which have never been published. He photographed the residences of the Spanish aristocracy across Spain and the Balearic Islands, but most of his interiors are of the apartments of the Barcelona bourgeoisie. The period between 1890 and 1920 was particularly rich in this respect, with work from the great Catalan 'Modernista' architects, such as Antoni Gaudi, Josep Puig i Cadafalch and Josep Domenech i Montaner. These architects collaborated with some of the best local Art Nouveau craftsmen and cabinetmakers, such as Gaspar Homar or Jordi Busquets.
Mas's photography was mostly to be used as documents for commercial purposes, either by the publishing industry or by the designers and architects themselves. With rare exceptions, none of the interior views include people, and the images aim to be neutral and provide a good general sense of space.

Mas photographed quite a few artists' studios as well. He was part of Barcelona's turn-of-the-century intellectual bohemia, a social group of bourgeois creative professionals that included artists, architects and writers. This is the home of the Modernista painter Apel.les Mestres. The image captures the accumulation of objects as one of the defining characteristics of this interior.
Spain193620thResidentialLibrary / Study
5978Casa Apel.les Mestres. Pasaje PermanyerAdolf Mas i Ginesta (1861-1936) was one of the finest Barcelonese photographers of the turn of the century. He specialised in works of art, architecture, interior design and public monuments. In 1909 he established the Arxiu Mas, a commercial image archive.
Over the course of his career he took many pictures of domestic interiors, most of which have never been published. He photographed the residences of the Spanish aristocracy across Spain and the Balearic Islands, but most of his interiors are of the apartments of the Barcelona bourgeoisie. The period between 1890 and 1920 was particularly rich in this respect, with work from the great Catalan 'Modernista' architects, such as Antoni Gaudi, Josep Puig i Cadafalch and Josep Domenech i Montaner. These architects collaborated with some of the best local Art Nouveau craftsmen and cabinetmakers, such as Gaspar Homar or Jordi Busquets.
Mas's photography was mostly to be used as documents for commercial purposes, either by the publishing industry or by the designers and architects themselves. With rare exceptions, none of the interior views include people, and the images aim to be neutral and provide a good general sense of space.

Mas photographed quite a few artists' studios as well. He was part of Barcelona's turn-of-the-century intellectual bohemia, a social group of bourgeois creative professionals that included artists, architects and writers. This is the home of the Modernista painter Apel.les Mestres. The image captures the accumulation of objects as one of the defining characteristics of this interior.
Spain193620thResidentialLibrary / Study
5979Casa NiuboAdolf Mas i Ginesta (1861-1936) was one of the finest Barcelonese photographers of the turn of the century. He specialised in works of art, architecture, interior design and public monuments. In 1909 he established the Arxiu Mas, a commercial image archive.
Over the course of his career he took many pictures of domestic interiors, most of which have never been published. He photographed the residences of the Spanish aristocracy across Spain and the Balearic Islands, but most of his interiors are of the apartments of the Barcelona bourgeoisie. The period between 1890 and 1920 was particularly rich in this respect, with work from the great Catalan 'Modernista' architects, such as Antoni Gaudi, Josep Puig i Cadafalch and Josep Domenech i Montaner. These architects collaborated with some of the best local Art Nouveau craftsmen and cabinetmakers, such as Gaspar Homar or Jordi Busquets.
Mas's photography was mostly to be used as documents for commercial purposes, either by the publishing industry or by the designers and architects themselves. With rare exceptions, none of the interior views include people, and the images aim to be neutral and provide a good general sense of space.

Mas photographed quite a few artists' studios as well. He was part of Barcelona's turn-of-the-century intellectual bohemia, a social group of bourgeois creative professionals that included artists, architects and writers.

Mas also photographed service quarters, in this case the kitchen with a maidservant posed at the work surface. The arrangement of ceramics stressed that functional areas were also aesthetically ordered.
Spain190920thResidentialKitchen
5980Casa Sitjar. Diagonal Adolf Mas i Ginesta (1861-1936) was one of the finest Barcelonese photographers of the turn of the century. He specialised in works of art, architecture, interior design and public monuments. In 1909 he established the Arxiu Mas, a commercial image archive.
Over the course of his career he took many pictures of domestic interiors, most of which have never been published. He photographed the residences of the Spanish aristocracy across Spain and the Balearic Islands, but most of his interiors are of the apartments of the Barcelona bourgeoisie. The period between 1890 and 1920 was particularly rich in this respect, with work from the great Catalan 'Modernista' architects, such as Antoni Gaudi, Josep Puig i Cadafalch and Josep Domenech i Montaner. These architects collaborated with some of the best local Art Nouveau craftsmen and cabinetmakers, such as Gaspar Homar or Jordi Busquets.
Mas's photography was mostly to be used as documents for commercial purposes, either by the publishing industry or by the designers and architects themselves. With rare exceptions, none of the interior views include people, and the images aim to be neutral and provide a good general sense of space.
Spain190720thResidentialSocial and Sitting Spaces
5981Casa SivillaAdolf Mas i Ginesta (1861-1936) was one of the finest Barcelonese photographers of the turn of the century. He specialised in works of art, architecture, interior design and public monuments. In 1909 he established the Arxiu Mas, a commercial image archive.
Over the course of his career he took many pictures of domestic interiors, most of which have never been published. He photographed the residences of the Spanish aristocracy across Spain and the Balearic Islands, but most of his interiors are of the apartments of the Barcelona bourgeoisie. The period between 1890 and 1920 was particularly rich in this respect, with work from the great Catalan 'Modernista' architects, such as Antoni Gaudi, Josep Puig i Cadafalch and Josep Domenech i Montaner. These architects collaborated with some of the best local Art Nouveau craftsmen and cabinetmakers, such as Gaspar Homar or Jordi Busquets.
Mas's photography was mostly to be used as documents for commercial purposes, either by the publishing industry or by the designers and architects themselves. With rare exceptions, none of the interior views include people, and the images aim to be neutral and provide a good general sense of space.

This image is part of a range of upper-bourgeois interiors showing a variety of room arrangements in different historical styles. The furnishings and decorative schemes are historicist and eclectic rather than ‘fashionable’.
Spain190720thResidentialSocial and Sitting Spaces
5982Casa J. Ma. Sola y Sert Adolf Mas i Ginesta (1861-1936) was one of the finest Barcelonese photographers of the turn of the century. He specialised in works of art, architecture, interior design and public monuments. In 1909 he established the Arxiu Mas, a commercial image archive.
Over the course of his career he took many pictures of domestic interiors, most of which have never been published. He photographed the residences of the Spanish aristocracy across Spain and the Balearic Islands, but most of his interiors are of the apartments of the Barcelona bourgeoisie. The period between 1890 and 1920 was particularly rich in this respect, with work from the great Catalan 'Modernista' architects, such as Antoni Gaudi, Josep Puig i Cadafalch and Josep Domenech i Montaner. These architects collaborated with some of the best local Art Nouveau craftsmen and cabinetmakers, such as Gaspar Homar or Jordi Busquets.
Mas's photography was mostly to be used as documents for commercial purposes, either by the publishing industry or by the designers and architects themselves. With rare exceptions, none of the interior views include people, and the images aim to be neutral and provide a good general sense of space.
Spain192320thResidentialSocial and Sitting Spaces
5983Casa Viuda Vidal i RibasAdolf Mas i Ginesta (1861-1936) was one of the finest Barcelonese photographers of the turn of the century. He specialised in works of art, architecture, interior design and public monuments. In 1909 he established the Arxiu Mas, a commercial image archive.
Over the course of his career he took many pictures of domestic interiors, most of which have never been published. He photographed the residences of the Spanish aristocracy across Spain and the Balearic Islands, but most of his interiors are of the apartments of the Barcelona bourgeoisie. The period between 1890 and 1920 was particularly rich in this respect, with work from the great Catalan 'Modernista' architects, such as Antoni Gaudi, Josep Puig i Cadafalch and Josep Domenech i Montaner. These architects collaborated with some of the best local Art Nouveau craftsmen and cabinetmakers, such as Gaspar Homar or Jordi Busquets.
Mas's photography was mostly to be used as documents for commercial purposes, either by the publishing industry or by the designers and architects themselves. With rare exceptions, none of the interior views include people, and the images aim to be neutral and provide a good general sense of space.
Spain197920thResidentialDining Room
5984Casa Vila Adolf Mas i Ginesta (1861-1936) was one of the finest Barcelonese photographers of the turn of the century. He specialised in works of art, architecture, interior design and public monuments. In 1909 he established the Arxiu Mas, a commercial image archive.
Over the course of his career he took many pictures of domestic interiors, most of which have never been published. He photographed the residences of the Spanish aristocracy across Spain and the Balearic Islands, but most of his interiors are of the apartments of the Barcelona bourgeoisie. The period between 1890 and 1920 was particularly rich in this respect, with work from the great Catalan 'Modernista' architects, such as Antoni Gaudi, Josep Puig i Cadafalch and Josep Domenech i Montaner. These architects collaborated with some of the best local Art Nouveau craftsmen and cabinetmakers, such as Gaspar Homar or Jordi Busquets.
Mas's photography was mostly to be used as documents for commercial purposes, either by the publishing industry or by the designers and architects themselves. With rare exceptions, none of the interior views include people, and the images aim to be neutral and provide a good general sense of space.
Spain192320thResidentialDining Room
5985Casa Particular. C. Obradors 5 Adolf Mas i Ginesta (1861-1936) was one of the finest Barcelonese photographers of the turn of the century. He specialised in works of art, architecture, interior design and public monuments. In 1909 he established the Arxiu Mas, a commercial image archive.
Over the course of his career he took many pictures of domestic interiors, most of which have never been published. He photographed the residences of the Spanish aristocracy across Spain and the Balearic Islands, but most of his interiors are of the apartments of the Barcelona bourgeoisie. The period between 1890 and 1920 was particularly rich in this respect, with work from the great Catalan 'Modernista' architects, such as Antoni Gaudi, Josep Puig i Cadafalch and Josep Domenech i Montaner. These architects collaborated with some of the best local Art Nouveau craftsmen and cabinetmakers, such as Gaspar Homar or Jordi Busquets.
Mas's photography was mostly to be used as documents for commercial purposes, either by the publishing industry or by the designers and architects themselves. With rare exceptions, none of the interior views include people, and the images aim to be neutral and provide a good general sense of space.
Spain193220thResidentialOther / Unknown
5986Casa Llorens. Ronda Universitat Adolf Mas i Ginesta (1861-1936) was one of the finest Barcelonese photographers of the turn of the century. He specialised in works of art, architecture, interior design and public monuments. In 1909 he established the Arxiu Mas, a commercial image archive.
Over the course of his career he took many pictures of domestic interiors, most of which have never been published. He photographed the residences of the Spanish aristocracy across Spain and the Balearic Islands, but most of his interiors are of the apartments of the Barcelona bourgeoisie. The period between 1890 and 1920 was particularly rich in this respect, with work from the great Catalan 'Modernista' architects, such as Antoni Gaudi, Josep Puig i Cadafalch and Josep Domenech i Montaner. These architects collaborated with some of the best local Art Nouveau craftsmen and cabinetmakers, such as Gaspar Homar or Jordi Busquets.
Mas's photography was mostly to be used as documents for commercial purposes, either by the publishing industry or by the designers and architects themselves. With rare exceptions, none of the interior views include people, and the images aim to be neutral and provide a good general sense of space.
Spain190820thResidentialSocial and Sitting Spaces
5987Torre dels Pardals Adolf Mas i Ginesta (1861-1936) was one of the finest Barcelonese photographers of the turn of the century. He specialised in works of art, architecture, interior design and public monuments. In 1909 he established the Arxiu Mas, a commercial image archive.
Over the course of his career he took many pictures of domestic interiors, most of which have never been published. He photographed the residences of the Spanish aristocracy across Spain and the Balearic Islands, but most of his interiors are of the apartments of the Barcelona bourgeoisie. The period between 1890 and 1920 was particularly rich in this respect, with work from the great Catalan 'Modernista' architects, such as Antoni Gaudi, Josep Puig i Cadafalch and Josep Domenech i Montaner. These architects collaborated with some of the best local Art Nouveau craftsmen and cabinetmakers, such as Gaspar Homar or Jordi Busquets.
Mas's photography was mostly to be used as documents for commercial purposes, either by the publishing industry or by the designers and architects themselves. With rare exceptions, none of the interior views include people, and the images aim to be neutral and provide a good general sense of space.
Spain192220thResidentialLibrary / Study
5988Casa de Ramon CasasAdolf Mas i Ginesta (1861-1936) was one of the finest Barcelonese photographers of the turn of the century. He specialised in works of art, architecture, interior design and public monuments. In 1909 he established the Arxiu Mas, a commercial image archive.
Over the course of his career he took many pictures of domestic interiors, most of which have never been published. He photographed the residences of the Spanish aristocracy across Spain and the Balearic Islands, but most of his interiors are of the apartments of the Barcelona bourgeoisie. The period between 1890 and 1920 was particularly rich in this respect, with work from the great Catalan 'Modernista' architects, such as Antoni Gaudi, Josep Puig i Cadafalch and Josep Domenech i Montaner. These architects collaborated with some of the best local Art Nouveau craftsmen and cabinetmakers, such as Gaspar Homar or Jordi Busquets.
Mas's photography was mostly to be used as documents for commercial purposes, either by the publishing industry or by the designers and architects themselves. With rare exceptions, none of the interior views include people, and the images aim to be neutral and provide a good general sense of space.

Mas photographed quite a few artists' studios and residences as well. He was part of Barcelona's turn-of-the-century intellectual bohemia, a social group of bourgeois creative professionals that included artists, architects and writers. This is the music room in the home of one of the most famous Modernista painters of the period, Ramon Casas. Notice one of his paintings on the left wall.
Spain1900-198620thResidentialLeisure / Games Room, Social and Sitting Spaces
5989Estudio Julio Borrela Adolf Mas i Ginesta (1861-1936) was one of the finest Barcelonese photographers of the turn of the century. He specialised in works of art, architecture, interior design and public monuments. In 1909 he established the Arxiu Mas, a commercial image archive.
Over the course of his career he took many pictures of domestic interiors, most of which have never been published. He photographed the residences of the Spanish aristocracy across Spain and the Balearic Islands, but most of his interiors are of the apartments of the Barcelona bourgeoisie. The period between 1890 and 1920 was particularly rich in this respect, with work from the great Catalan 'Modernista' architects, such as Antoni Gaudi, Josep Puig i Cadafalch and Josep Domenech i Montaner. These architects collaborated with some of the best local Art Nouveau craftsmen and cabinetmakers, such as Gaspar Homar or Jordi Busquets.
Mas's photography was mostly to be used as documents for commercial purposes, either by the publishing industry or by the designers and architects themselves. With rare exceptions, none of the interior views include people, and the images aim to be neutral and provide a good general sense of space.

Mas photographed quite a few artists' studios as well. He was part of Barcelona's turn-of-the-century intellectual bohemia, a social group of bourgeois creative professionals that included artists, architects and writers.
Spain190220thResidentialWork Space
5990Estudio de Galofre Oller Adolf Mas i Ginesta (1861-1936) was one of the finest Barcelonese photographers of the turn of the century. He specialised in works of art, architecture, interior design and public monuments. In 1909 he established the Arxiu Mas, a commercial image archive.
Over the course of his career he took many pictures of domestic interiors, most of which have never been published. He photographed the residences of the Spanish aristocracy across Spain and the Balearic Islands, but most of his interiors are of the apartments of the Barcelona bourgeoisie. The period between 1890 and 1920 was particularly rich in this respect, with work from the great Catalan 'Modernista' architects, such as Antoni Gaudi, Josep Puig i Cadafalch and Josep Domenech i Montaner. These architects collaborated with some of the best local Art Nouveau craftsmen and cabinetmakers, such as Gaspar Homar or Jordi Busquets.
Mas's photography was mostly to be used as documents for commercial purposes, either by the publishing industry or by the designers and architects themselves. With rare exceptions, none of the interior views include people, and the images aim to be neutral and provide a good general sense of space.

Mas photographed quite a few artists' studios as well. He was part of Barcelona's turn-of-the-century intellectual bohemia, a social group of bourgeois creative professionals that included artists, architects and writers.
Spain190220thResidentialWork Space
5991Estudio Pellicer. C Corcega Adolf Mas i Ginesta (1861-1936) was one of the finest Barcelonese photographers of the turn of the century. He specialised in works of art, architecture, interior design and public monuments. In 1909 he established the Arxiu Mas, a commercial image archive.
Over the course of his career he took many pictures of domestic interiors, most of which have never been published. He photographed the residences of the Spanish aristocracy across Spain and the Balearic Islands, but most of his interiors are of the apartments of the Barcelona bourgeoisie. The period between 1890 and 1920 was particularly rich in this respect, with work from the great Catalan 'Modernista' architects, such as Antoni Gaudi, Josep Puig i Cadafalch and Josep Domenech i Montaner. These architects collaborated with some of the best local Art Nouveau craftsmen and cabinetmakers, such as Gaspar Homar or Jordi Busquets.
Mas's photography was mostly to be used as documents for commercial purposes, either by the publishing industry or by the designers and architects themselves. With rare exceptions, none of the interior views include people, and the images aim to be neutral and provide a good general sense of space.

Mas photographed quite a few artists' studios as well. He was part of Barcelona's turn-of-the-century intellectual bohemia, a social group of bourgeois creative professionals that included artists, architects and writers.
Spain20thResidentialWork Space
4434[Frontispiece from Modern Scandinavian Furniture]The book Modern Scandinavian Furniture was published in 1964 as a prescriptive text extolling the benefits and aesthetic virtues of adopting the clean modern lines of Scandinavian design. In both Britain and the USA, contemporary Scandinavian products were frequently pointed to in the period following the Second World War as models of good design. Encouraging their adoption was seen as the means by which a ‘softened’ version of Modernism might be proselytised in the attempt to wean the general public away from historicist or poorly designed styles. To some extent then, Scandinavian modern represented in furniture, furnishings and decor a ‘third way’ just as it did in the politics of the era.

‘...furniture helps us to create an environment which is pleasant, perhaps beautiful or just plain individual’ the book suggests. It continues;

‘The affluence of our society means that an ever greater share of our population is able to avail themselves of this possibility. But at the same time the old, reliable rules concerning the choice of furniture and interior decoration are losing their validity. A person doesn’t have much to go on when furnishing a home. This has created obvious, and easily understandable, uncertainty...A new way of life calls for new forms and new things.

This is what is going on now. Economic, social and cultural changes are rapidly and radically reshaping the conditions and patterns of our lives. Things from a bygone era don’t fit in.

Scandinavian furniture is currently held in high esteem in many parts of the world chiefly because it fulfils many of the demands that a modern way of life has placed on furniture. An American expert has been struck by this very idea when he writes: “ A piece of furniture from Scandinavia is practical, well constructed, un-pretentious, thoroughly thought-out and elegant. It can melt naturally into any sort of setting.” ‘

Throughout the book much is made of the positive benefits of the trans-national qualities of Scandinavian modern design.

Entries HM1093-HM1106 are all extracts from Modern Scandinavian Furniture.
Sweden20thResidentialSocial and Sitting Spaces
5949Casa Marques de CampofrancoAdolf Mas i Ginesta (1861-1936) was one of the finest Barcelonese photographers of the turn of the century. He specialised in works of art, architecture, interior design and public monuments. In 1909 he established the Arxiu Mas, a commercial image archive.
Over the course of his career he took many pictures of domestic interiors, most of which have never been published. He photographed the residences of the Spanish aristocracy across Spain and the Balearic Islands, but most of his interiors are of the apartments of the Barcelona bourgeoisie. The period between 1890 and 1920 was particularly rich in this respect, with work from the great Catalan 'Modernista' architects, such as Antoni Gaudi, Josep Puig i Cadafalch and Josep Domenech i Montaner. These architects collaborated with some of the best local Art Nouveau craftsmen and cabinetmakers, such as Gaspar Homar or Jordi Busquets.
Mas's photography was mostly to be used as documents for commercial purposes, either by the publishing industry or by the designers and architects themselves. With rare exceptions, none of the interior views include people, and the images aim to be neutral and provide a good general sense of space.

Between 1913 and 1928 Mas took many pictures around the Balearic Islands. He photographed public and religious buildings, landscapes, popular scenes and domestic interiors.

This elite interior highlights the arrangement of religious paintings in a domestic setting. It is interesting to compare this with a more formal area of the house, pictured in VN1049.
Spain191520thResidentialSocial and Sitting Spaces
5950Casa Marquesa de la CeniaAdolf Mas i Ginesta (1861-1936) was one of the finest Barcelonese photographers of the turn of the century. He specialised in works of art, architecture, interior design and public monuments. In 1909 he established the Arxiu Mas, a commercial image archive.
Over the course of his career he took many pictures of domestic interiors, most of which have never been published. He photographed the residences of the Spanish aristocracy across Spain and the Balearic Islands, but most of his interiors are of the apartments of the Barcelona bourgeoisie. The period between 1890 and 1920 was particularly rich in this respect, with work from the great Catalan 'Modernista' architects, such as Antoni Gaudi, Josep Puig i Cadafalch and Josep Domenech i Montaner. These architects collaborated with some of the best local Art Nouveau craftsmen and cabinetmakers, such as Gaspar Homar or Jordi Busquets.
Mas's photography was mostly to be used as documents for commercial purposes, either by the publishing industry or by the designers and architects themselves. With rare exceptions, none of the interior views include people, and the images aim to be neutral and provide a good general sense of space.

Between 1913 and 1928 Mas took many pictures around the Balearic Islands. He photographed public and religious buildings, landscapes, popular scenes and domestic interiors.

This bright neo-classical decoration contrasts with other rooms in the same house (VN1050). It is also unusual in the context of other Balearic interiors photographed by Mas. See for instance, VN1051, VN1052, and VN1054.
Spain1915ResidentialSocial and Sitting Spaces
5951Palacio Sama. Paseo de Gracia Gran Via Adolf Mas i Ginesta (1861-1936) was one of the finest Barcelonese photographers of the turn of the century. He specialised in works of art, architecture, interior design and public monuments. In 1909 he established the Arxiu Mas, a commercial image archive.
Over the course of his career he took many pictures of domestic interiors, most of which have never been published. He photographed the residences of the Spanish aristocracy across Spain and the Balearic Islands, but most of his interiors are of the apartments of the Barcelona bourgeoisie. The period between 1890 and 1920 was particularly rich in this respect, with work from the great Catalan 'Modernista' architects, such as Antoni Gaudi, Josep Puig i Cadafalch and Josep Domenech i Montaner. These architects collaborated with some of the best local Art Nouveau craftsmen and cabinetmakers, such as Gaspar Homar or Jordi Busquets.
Mas's photography was mostly to be used as documents for commercial purposes, either by the publishing industry or by the designers and architects themselves. With rare exceptions, none of the interior views include people, and the images aim to be neutral and provide a good general sense of space.

This photograph of the destroyed interior of a palace on one of Barcelona’s main avenues is unusual in Mas’ work. Given the date it was taken (1936) it is possible that it records the effect of one of the early bombings of the city during the Spanish Civil War.
Spain193620thResidentialOther / Unknown
5952Casa del Marques de VivotAdolf Mas i Ginesta (1861-1936) was one of the finest Barcelonese photographers of the turn of the century. He specialised in works of art, architecture, interior design and public monuments. In 1909 he established the Arxiu Mas, a commercial image archive.
Over the course of his career he took many pictures of domestic interiors, most of which have never been published. He photographed the residences of the Spanish aristocracy across Spain and the Balearic Islands, but most of his interiors are of the apartments of the Barcelona bourgeoisie. The period between 1890 and 1920 was particularly rich in this respect, with work from the great Catalan 'Modernista' architects, such as Antoni Gaudi, Josep Puig i Cadafalch and Josep Domenech i Montaner. These architects collaborated with some of the best local Art Nouveau craftsmen and cabinetmakers, such as Gaspar Homar or Jordi Busquets.
Mas's photography was mostly to be used as documents for commercial purposes, either by the publishing industry or by the designers and architects themselves. With rare exceptions, none of the interior views include people, and the images aim to be neutral and provide a good general sense of space.

Between 1913 and 1928 Mas took many pictures around the Balearic Islands. He photographed public and religious buildings, landscapes, popular scenes and domestic interiors. This picture of the library in the palace of the Marquess of Vivot captures the grandeur of the surroundings, combining the architectural and decorative richness, and a sense of space and light.
Spain20thResidentialLibrary / Study
5953Casa Mercader Lorach Adolf Mas i Ginesta (1861-1936) was one of the finest Barcelonese photographers of the turn of the century. He specialised in works of art, architecture, interior design and public monuments. In 1909 he established the Arxiu Mas, a commercial image archive.
Over the course of his career he took many pictures of domestic interiors, most of which have never been published. He photographed the residences of the Spanish aristocracy across Spain and the Balearic Islands, but most of his interiors are of the apartments of the Barcelona bourgeoisie. The period between 1890 and 1920 was particularly rich in this respect, with work from the great Catalan 'Modernista' architects, such as Antoni Gaudi, Josep Puig i Cadafalch and Josep Domenech i Montaner. These architects collaborated with some of the best local Art Nouveau craftsmen and cabinetmakers, such as Gaspar Homar or Jordi Busquets.
Mas's photography was mostly to be used as documents for commercial purposes, either by the publishing industry or by the designers and architects themselves. With rare exceptions, none of the interior views include people, and the images aim to be neutral and provide a good general sense of space.

Places of study within the home are a recurrent theme in Mas’ work. For example, see VN1065.
Spain192020thResidentialLibrary / Study
4407GorlestonHenry Sutton’s novel Gorleston is set in ‘bungalow land’ in Norfolk in the east of England. In realistically describing minute details, Sutton’s narrative - an account the relationships between a group of pensioners, emphasises the inward-looking nature of the protagonists environment. Here Sutton describes front gardens as extensions of bungalow living rooms, Gorleston, North Norfolk.UK199520thResidentialOther / Unknown
4408GorlestonHenry Sutton’s novel Gorleston is set in ‘bungalow land’ in Norfolk in the east of England. In realistically describing minute details, Sutton’s narrative - an account the relationships between a group of pensioners, emphasises the inward-looking nature of the protagonists environment. UK199520thResidentialBedroom
4409GorlestonHenry Sutton’s novel Gorleston is set in ‘bungalow land’ in Norfolk in the east of England. In realistically describing minute details, Sutton’s narrative - an account the relationships between a group of pensioners, emphasises the inward-looking nature of the protagonists environment. UK199520thResidentialBedroom
4410GorlestonHenry Sutton’s novel Gorleston is set in ‘bungalow land’ in Norfolk in the east of England. In realistically describing minute details, Sutton’s narrative - an account the relationships between a group of pensioners, emphasises the inward-looking nature of the protagonists environment. UK199520thResidentialSocial and Sitting Spaces
4411GorlestonHenry Sutton’s novel Gorleston is set in ‘bungalow land’ in Norfolk in the east of England. In realistically describing minute details, Sutton’s narrative - an account the relationships between a group of pensioners, emphasises the inward-looking nature of the protagonists environment. UK199520thResidentialSocial and Sitting Spaces
4412GorlestonHenry Sutton’s novel Gorleston is set in ‘bungalow land’ in Norfolk in the east of England. In realistically describing minute details, Sutton’s narrative - an account the relationships between a group of pensioners, emphasises the inward-looking nature of the protagonists environment. UK199520thResidentialBedroom
4413GorlestonHenry Sutton’s novel Gorleston is set in ‘bungalow land’ in Norfolk in the east of England. In realistically describing minute details, Sutton’s narrative - an account the relationships between a group of pensioners, emphasises the inward-looking nature of the protagonists environment. UK199520thResidentialTransitional
4414GorlestonHenry Sutton’s novel Gorleston is set in ‘bungalow land’ in Norfolk in the east of England. In realistically describing minute details, Sutton’s narrative - an account the relationships between a group of pensioners, emphasises the inward-looking nature of the protagonists environment. UK199520thResidentialSocial and Sitting Spaces
4415GorlestonHenry Sutton’s novel Gorleston is set in ‘bungalow land’ in Norfolk in the east of England. In realistically describing minute details, Sutton’s narrative - an account the relationships between a group of pensioners, emphasises the inward-looking nature of the protagonists environment. UK199520thResidentialKitchen
4416The Uses of LiteracyRichard Hoggart’s seminal text The Uses of Literacy, published in 1957, strove to survey the impact of popular culture on working-class culture in the north of England. This extract is taken from the chapter entitled ‘Landscape with Figures - A Setting’, which describes the environment of those whose lives Hoggart sought to portray. UK195720thResidentialSocial and Sitting Spaces
4417The Uses of LiteracyRichard Hoggart’s seminal text The Uses of Literacy, published in 1957, strove to survey the impact of popular culture on working-class culture in the north of England. This extract is taken from the chapter entitled ‘Landscape with Figures - A Setting’, which describes the environment of those whose lives Hoggart sought to portray.

This extract presents an example of the objectification of family unity described in the importance of the ‘clip rug’.
UK195720thResidentialSocial and Sitting Spaces
4418The Uses of LiteracyRichard Hoggart’s seminal text The Uses of Literacy, published in 1957, strove to survey the impact of popular culture on working-class culture in the north of England. This extract is taken from the chapter entitled ‘Landscape with Figures - A Setting’, which describes the environment of those whose lives Hoggart sought to portray.

This extract presents the importance of the living-room fire in the working-class house, northern England.
UK195720thResidential
4420The Uses of LiteracyRichard Hoggart’s seminal text The Uses of Literacy, published in1957, strove to survey the impact of popular culture on working-class culture in the north of England.

This extract is taken from the chapter titled ‘Landscape with Figures - A Setting’ which describes the environment of those whose lives Hoggart sought to portray. Here Hoggart contemplates the superior capabilities of ‘home’ over public spaces to accommodate the new. The suggestion is that the solid, traditional values and sense of place inherent in the homes of his subjects readily allowed for the absorption, in an appropriate way, of otherwise transitory, meretricious design increasingly found in the outside world.
UK195720thResidential
4421The Uses of LiteracyRichard Hoggart’s seminal text The Uses of Literacy, published in 1957, strove to survey the impact of popular culture on working-class culture in the north of England. This extract is taken from the chapter entitled ‘Landscape with Figures - A Setting’, which describes the environment of those whose lives Hoggart sought to portray. 195720th
4422The Uses of LiteracyRichard Hoggart’s seminal text The Uses of Literacy, published in 1957, strove to survey the impact of popular culture on working-class culture in the north of England. This extract is taken from the chapter entitled ‘Landscape with Figures - A Setting’, which describes the environment of those whose lives Hoggart sought to portray.

Decorative objects on display in window spaces might belong to the exterior or the interior. Here, Hoggart’s suggestion is that they need to be increasingly garish to be truly eye-catching.
UK195720thResidential
4423The Classic SlumHistorian Robert Roberts’ work The Classic Slum was based, he said himself, on the desire to fill the gap between history and lived experience. Brought up in working-class Salford, it was this area Roberts chose as the site for his study, originally published in UK20th
4424The Classic SlumHistorian Robert Roberts’ work The Classic Slum was based, he said himself, on the desire to fill the gap between history and lived experience. Brought up in working-class Salford, it was this area Roberts chose as the site for his study, originally published in UK20thResidential
4425The Classic SlumHistorian Robert Roberts’ work The Classic Slum was based, he said himself, on the desire to fill the gap between history and lived experience. Brought up in working-class Salford, it was this area Roberts chose as the site for his study, originally published in 1971.20th
4426The Classic SlumHistorian Robert Roberts’ work The Classic Slum was based, he said himself, on the desire to fill the gap between history and lived experience. Brought up in working-class Salford, it was this area Roberts chose as the site for his study, originally published in 1971.UK20th
4427The Classic SlumHistorian Robert Roberts’ work The Classic Slum was based, he said himself, on the desire to fill the gap between history and lived experience. Brought up in working-class Salford, it was this area Roberts chose as the site for his study, originally published in 1971.UK20th
4428The Classic SlumHistorian Robert Roberts’ work The Classic Slum was based, he said himself, on the desire to fill the gap between history and lived experience. Brought up in working-class Salford, it was this area Roberts chose as the site for his study, originally published in 1971.

Here, Roberts describes how social status might be indicated through floor and table coverings.
UK20th
4429The Classic SlumHistorian Robert Roberts’ work The Classic Slum was based, he said himself, on the desire to fill the gap between history and lived experience. Brought up in working-class Salford, it was this area Roberts chose as the site for his study, originally published in 1971.UK20th
4430The Classic SlumHistorian Robert Roberts’ work The Classic Slum was based, he said himself, on the desire to fill the gap between history and lived experience. Brought up in working-class Salford, it was this area Roberts chose as the site for his study, originally published in 1971.

Here Roberts discusses childrens’ rights at home in Salford, early twentieth century.
UK20th
4431The Classic SlumHistorian Robert Roberts’ work The Classic Slum was based, he said himself, on the desire to fill the gap between history and lived experience. Brought up in working-class Salford, it was this area Roberts chose as the site for his study, originally published in 1971.UK20th
4432Howards EndMargaret, elder of the Schlegel sisters, the protagonists of E. M. Forster’s 1910 novel Howards End, contemplates their house as being undeniably feminine; something she supposes is an inevitable consequence of its predominantly female occupation.UK20thResidential
4433Howards EndA masculine interior assembled without decorator or eye for fashion:

Henry Wilcox, Margaret Schlegel’s suitor, shows her around his house in Ducie Street, London. The passage describes Schlegel’s relief at being present in an unself-consciously decorated interior; one which, novelist E.M. Forster writes, would have made fashionable Chelsea moan with distaste. For Schlegel the room’s atmosphere and aspect is pervasively male.

The couple then progress to a more feminine space in which Wilcox proposes marriage.
UK20thResidential
5945Son VergaAdolf Mas i Ginesta (1861-1936) was one of the finest Barcelonese photographers of the turn of the century. He specialised in works of art, architecture, interior design and public monuments. In 1909 he established the Arxiu Mas, a commercial image archive.
Over the course of his career he took many pictures of domestic interiors, most of which have never been published. He photographed the residences of the Spanish aristocracy across Spain and the Balearic Islands, but most of his interiors are of the apartments of the Barcelona bourgeoisie. The period between 1890 and 1920 was particularly rich in this respect, with work from the great Catalan 'Modernista' architects, such as Antoni Gaudi, Josep Puig i Cadafalch and Josep Domenech i Montaner. These architects collaborated with some of the best local Art Nouveau craftsmen and cabinetmakers, such as Gaspar Homar or Jordi Busquets.
Mas's photography was mostly to be used as documents for commercial purposes, either by the publishing industry or by the designers and architects themselves. With rare exceptions, none of the interior views include people, and the images aim to be neutral and provide a good general sense of space.

Between 1913 and 1928 Mas took many pictures around the Balearic Islands. He photographed public and religious buildings, landscapes, popular scenes and domestic interiors.

This is one of a group of photographs depicting arrangements of pictures, paintings and decorative objects, clearly one of Mas’ central interests. The emphasis here is clearly on display, not just of the pictures on the walls but also the book collection on the central table.
Spain1920-192920thResidentialSocial and Sitting Spaces
5946Casa VilallongaAdolf Mas i Ginesta (1861-1936) was one of the finest Barcelonese photographers of the turn of the century. He specialised in works of art, architecture, interior design and public monuments. In 1909 he established the Arxiu Mas, a commercial image archive.
Over the course of his career he took many pictures of domestic interiors, most of which have never been published. He photographed the residences of the Spanish aristocracy across Spain and the Balearic Islands, but most of his interiors are of the apartments of the Barcelona bourgeoisie. The period between 1890 and 1920 was particularly rich in this respect, with work from the great Catalan 'Modernista' architects, such as Antoni Gaudi, Josep Puig i Cadafalch and Josep Domenech i Montaner. These architects collaborated with some of the best local Art Nouveau craftsmen and cabinetmakers, such as Gaspar Homar or Jordi Busquets.
Mas's photography was mostly to be used as documents for commercial purposes, either by the publishing industry or by the designers and architects themselves. With rare exceptions, none of the interior views include people, and the images aim to be neutral and provide a good general sense of space.

Between 1913 and 1928 Mas took many pictures around the Balearic Islands. He photographed public and religious buildings, landscapes, popular scenes and domestic interiors.

This is one of a group of photographs depicting arrangements of pictures, paintings and decorative objects, clearly one of Mas’ central interests. This arrangement of ceramics on the walls, although located in a wealthy mansion, is closer to the traditional display shown in VN1140 and VN1142 than to the urban collector’s display shown in VN1111.
Spain1920-192920thResidentialSocial and Sitting Spaces
5947Col. Marques de VivotAdolf Mas i Ginesta (1861-1936) was one of the finest Barcelonese photographers of the turn of the century. He specialised in works of art, architecture, interior design and public monuments. In 1909 he established the Arxiu Mas, a commercial image archive.
Over the course of his career he took many pictures of domestic interiors, most of which have never been published. He photographed the residences of the Spanish aristocracy across Spain and the Balearic Islands, but most of his interiors are of the apartments of the Barcelona bourgeoisie. The period between 1890 and 1920 was particularly rich in this respect, with work from the great Catalan 'Modernista' architects, such as Antoni Gaudi, Josep Puig i Cadafalch and Josep Domenech i Montaner. These architects collaborated with some of the best local Art Nouveau craftsmen and cabinetmakers, such as Gaspar Homar or Jordi Busquets.
Mas's photography was mostly to be used as documents for commercial purposes, either by the publishing industry or by the designers and architects themselves. With rare exceptions, none of the interior views include people, and the images aim to be neutral and provide a good general sense of space.

Between 1913 and 1928 Mas took many pictures around the Balearic Islands. He photographed public and religious buildings, landscapes, popular scenes and domestic interiors.

It is interesting to note the consistency of treatment in the decoration of the walls, floor and furniture in this bedchamber.
Spain1920-192920thResidentialBedroom
5948Convento del PuigThe Instituto Amatller de Arte Hispánico, founded in 1941, is a research institute specialising in Spanish art and architecture, with a photo archive of some 300,000 original negatives from various collections, the oldest one being Arxiu Mas, started by Adolfo Mas around 1900. The Institute was organised by its first director, José Gudiol Ricart (1904-1985), following the general idea of the Frick Art Reference Library of New York. One of the immediate decisions taken was the acquisition of the Arxiu Mas. The Institute also holds photographs of interiors by Gudiol, mostly taken during the 1930s and 1940s.

This photograph shows a public space in the Convento del Puig. This well furnished and decorated space contrasts with the monk’s cell in VN1110.
Spain1900-193020thInstitutional , Transitional
5939Casa DespuigAdolf Mas i Ginesta (1861-1936) was one of the finest Barcelonese photographers of the turn of the century. He specialised in works of art, architecture, interior design and public monuments. In 1909 he established the Arxiu Mas, a commercial image archive.
Over the course of his career he took many pictures of domestic interiors, most of which have never been published. He photographed the residences of the Spanish aristocracy across Spain and the Balearic Islands, but most of his interiors are of the apartments of the Barcelona bourgeoisie. The period between 1890 and 1920 was particularly rich in this respect, with work from the great Catalan 'Modernista' architects, such as Antoni Gaudi, Josep Puig i Cadafalch and Josep Domenech i Montaner. These architects collaborated with some of the best local Art Nouveau craftsmen and cabinetmakers, such as Gaspar Homar or Jordi Busquets.
Mas's photography was mostly to be used as documents for commercial purposes, either by the publishing industry or by the designers and architects themselves. With rare exceptions, none of the interior views include people, and the images aim to be neutral and provide a good general sense of space.

Between 1913 and 1928 Mas took many pictures around the Balearic Islands. He photographed public and religious buildings, landscapes, popular scenes and domestic interiors.

This is one of a group of photographs depicting arrangements of pictures, paintings and decorative objects, clearly one of Mas’ central interests. The emphasis here, however, is on the furniture, which Mas focuses on at the expense of providing a full view of the full-length portrait on the wall.
Spainc.192020thResidentialSocial and Sitting Spaces
5940Casa GamarraAdolf Mas i Ginesta (1861-1936) was one of the finest Barcelonese photographers of the turn of the century. He specialised in works of art, architecture, interior design and public monuments. In 1909 he established the Arxiu Mas, a commercial image archive.
Over the course of his career he took many pictures of domestic interiors, most of which have never been published. He photographed the residences of the Spanish aristocracy across Spain and the Balearic Islands, but most of his interiors are of the apartments of the Barcelona bourgeoisie. The period between 1890 and 1920 was particularly rich in this respect, with work from the great Catalan 'Modernista' architects, such as Antoni Gaudi, Josep Puig i Cadafalch and Josep Domenech i Montaner. These architects collaborated with some of the best local Art Nouveau craftsmen and cabinetmakers, such as Gaspar Homar or Jordi Busquets.
Mas's photography was mostly to be used as documents for commercial purposes, either by the publishing industry or by the designers and architects themselves. With rare exceptions, none of the interior views include people, and the images aim to be neutral and provide a good general sense of space.

Between 1913 and 1928 Mas took many pictures around the Balearic Islands. He photographed public and religious buildings, landscapes, popular scenes and domestic interiors.

This photograph shows pictures hanging in the main hall of Casa Gamarra. This is one of a group of photographs depicting arrangements of pictures, paintings and decorative objects, clearly one of Mas’ central interests.
Spain192820thResidentialSocial and Sitting Spaces
5941Casa GranadaAdolf Mas i Ginesta (1861-1936) was one of the finest Barcelonese photographers of the turn of the century. He specialised in works of art, architecture, interior design and public monuments. In 1909 he established the Arxiu Mas, a commercial image archive.
Over the course of his career he took many pictures of domestic interiors, most of which have never been published. He photographed the residences of the Spanish aristocracy across Spain and the Balearic Islands, but most of his interiors are of the apartments of the Barcelona bourgeoisie. The period between 1890 and 1920 was particularly rich in this respect, with work from the great Catalan 'Modernista' architects, such as Antoni Gaudi, Josep Puig i Cadafalch and Josep Domenech i Montaner. These architects collaborated with some of the best local Art Nouveau craftsmen and cabinetmakers, such as Gaspar Homar or Jordi Busquets.
Mas's photography was mostly to be used as documents for commercial purposes, either by the publishing industry or by the designers and architects themselves. With rare exceptions, none of the interior views include people, and the images aim to be neutral and provide a good general sense of space.

Between 1913 and 1928 Mas took many pictures around the Balearic Islands. He photographed public and religious buildings, landscapes, popular scenes and domestic interiors.

Although located in Palma de Mallorca, this interior is themed with a Moorish decorative scheme, more reminiscent of southern Spain, as the house’s name (Casa Granada) suggests.
Spain192120thResidentialBedroom
5942Col. Marques de SollerichAdolf Mas i Ginesta (1861-1936) was one of the finest Barcelonese photographers of the turn of the century. He specialised in works of art, architecture, interior design and public monuments. In 1909 he established the Arxiu Mas, a commercial image archive.
Over the course of his career he took many pictures of domestic interiors, most of which have never been published. He photographed the residences of the Spanish aristocracy across Spain and the Balearic Islands, but most of his interiors are of the apartments of the Barcelona bourgeoisie. The period between 1890 and 1920 was particularly rich in this respect, with work from the great Catalan 'Modernista' architects, such as Antoni Gaudi, Josep Puig i Cadafalch and Josep Domenech i Montaner. These architects collaborated with some of the best local Art Nouveau craftsmen and cabinetmakers, such as Gaspar Homar or Jordi Busquets.
Mas's photography was mostly to be used as documents for commercial purposes, either by the publishing industry or by the designers and architects themselves. With rare exceptions, none of the interior views include people, and the images aim to be neutral and provide a good general sense of space.

Between 1913 and 1928 Mas took many pictures around the Balearic Islands. He photographed public and religious buildings, landscapes, popular scenes and domestic interiors.

The painting prominently displayed in the centre of this room is probably a portrait of a member of the Sollerich family. This interior is sparsely furnished, like many of the other aristocratic interiors of the Spanish provinces recorded by Mas.
Spain191520thResidentialSocial and Sitting Spaces
5943Col. Marques De la TorreAdolf Mas i Ginesta (1861-1936) was one of the finest Barcelonese photographers of the turn of the century. He specialised in works of art, architecture, interior design and public monuments. In 1909 he established the Arxiu Mas, a commercial image archive.
Over the course of his career he took many pictures of domestic interiors, most of which have never been published. He photographed the residences of the Spanish aristocracy across Spain and the Balearic Islands, but most of his interiors are of the apartments of the Barcelona bourgeoisie. The period between 1890 and 1920 was particularly rich in this respect, with work from the great Catalan 'Modernista' architects, such as Antoni Gaudi, Josep Puig i Cadafalch and Josep Domenech i Montaner. These architects collaborated with some of the best local Art Nouveau craftsmen and cabinetmakers, such as Gaspar Homar or Jordi Busquets.
Mas's photography was mostly to be used as documents for commercial purposes, either by the publishing industry or by the designers and architects themselves. With rare exceptions, none of the interior views include people, and the images aim to be neutral and provide a good general sense of space.

Between 1913 and 1928 Mas took many pictures around the Balearic Islands. He photographed public and religious buildings, landscapes, popular scenes and domestic interiors.

Although with a very different decorative scheme, some of the informality seen in VN1049 is also evident here.
Spain191520thResidentialSocial and Sitting Spaces
5944Casa Son VeriAdolf Mas i Ginesta (1861-1936) was one of the finest Barcelonese photographers of the turn of the century. He specialised in works of art, architecture, interior design and public monuments. In 1909 he established the Arxiu Mas, a commercial image archive.
Over the course of his career he took many pictures of domestic interiors, most of which have never been published. He photographed the residences of the Spanish aristocracy across Spain and the Balearic Islands, but most of his interiors are of the apartments of the Barcelona bourgeoisie. The period between 1890 and 1920 was particularly rich in this respect, with work from the great Catalan 'Modernista' architects, such as Antoni Gaudi, Josep Puig i Cadafalch and Josep Domenech i Montaner. These architects collaborated with some of the best local Art Nouveau craftsmen and cabinetmakers, such as Gaspar Homar or Jordi Busquets.
Mas's photography was mostly to be used as documents for commercial purposes, either by the publishing industry or by the designers and architects themselves. With rare exceptions, none of the interior views include people, and the images aim to be neutral and provide a good general sense of space.

Between 1913 and 1928 Mas took many pictures around the Balearic Islands. He photographed public and religious buildings, landscapes, popular scenes and domestic interiors.

Although he mostly photographed decorated rooms, Mas also had an interest in the interior as an aesthetic architectural space. Some images of liminal spaces, corridors and passageways, highlight the atmospheric qualities of the interior, such as here, or the overall presence of decorative schemes across the house.
Spain191520thResidentialTransitional
4328Bartholomew Domeminiceti’s Patent Stove, No.972These entries illustrate the history of domestic gas cookers. The 1770 fire stove with boilers, pots and other utensils adapted to it (ID1275) was a large, complicated construction. If used at all, it would probably only be found as a novelty in the homes of the elite. The 1861 Sharp stove was more efficient but it was still a large machine occupying a lot of space in the centre of a room (ID1075). The 1930 New World Gas cooker with a free-standing gas boiler (ID1078), as well as the 1932 (ID1076) deluxe Mainamel Gas cooker, were the first efficient domestic cookers. They came with thermostats that allowed for the temperature to be controlled, which made cooking with these devices easier. Moreover, it was not until after the First World War that all houses in the UK were fitted with gas and the gas cooker grew in popularity.UK177018thCommercial , Institutional , ResidentialKitchen, Other / Unknown
4400Brick LaneRecently arrived from Bangladesh, the key protagonist of Monica Ali’s novel Brick Lane surveys the unaccustomed domestic by-products of disposable Western income. See also HM1060.UK1985
2003
20thResidentialMultifunctional Living Space
4401Brick LaneRecently arrived from Bangladesh, the key protagonist of Monica Ali’s novel Brick Lane surveys the unaccustomed domestic by-products of disposable Western income. See also HM1059UK1985
2003
20thResidentialMultifunctional Living Space
4402Brick LaneRecently arrived from Bangladesh, the key protagonist of Monica Ali’s novel Brick Lane surveys the unaccustomed domestic by-products of disposable Western income. UK1985
2003
20thResidential
4403Brick LaneRecently arrived from Bangladesh, the key protagonist of Monica Ali’s novel Brick Lane surveys the unaccustomed domestic by-products of disposable Western income. UK1985
2003
20thResidentialMultifunctional Living Space
4404Brick LaneIncreasingly unhappy in her situation, Nazeen, the key protagonist in Monica Ali’s novel Brick Lane, contemplates her husband and her home.UK1985
2003
20thResidentialBedroom
4405Brick LaneA Bangladeshi family’s living room portrayed in Monica Ali’s novel Brick Lane. UK1985
2003
20thResidentialSocial and Sitting Spaces
4406Brick LaneFollowing an illness Nazeen, who with her husband Chanu and two children lives in a flat in Tower Hamlets, east London, realises the extent to which her home crumbles without her constant performance of housework.UK1985
2003
20thResidentialMultifunctional Living Space
5937Casa Marques De CampofrancoAdolf Mas i Ginesta (1861-1936) was one of the finest Barcelonese photographers of the turn of the century. He specialised in works of art, architecture, interior design and public monuments. In 1909 he established the Arxiu Mas, a commercial image archive.
Over the course of his career he took many pictures of domestic interiors, most of which have never been published. He photographed the residences of the Spanish aristocracy across Spain and the Balearic Islands, but most of his interiors are of the apartments of the Barcelona bourgeoisie. The period between 1890 and 1920 was particularly rich in this respect, with work from the great Catalan 'Modernista' architects, such as Antoni Gaudi, Josep Puig i Cadafalch and Josep Domenech i Montaner. These architects collaborated with some of the best local Art Nouveau craftsmen and cabinetmakers, such as Gaspar Homar or Jordi Busquets.
Mas's photography was mostly to be used as documents for commercial purposes, either by the publishing industry or by the designers and architects themselves. With rare exceptions, none of the interior views include people, and the images aim to be neutral and provide a good general sense of space.

Between 1913 and 1928 Mas took many pictures around the Balearic Islands. He photographed public and religious buildings, landscapes, popular scenes and domestic interiors.

This image shows a large formal space in one of the most aristocratic mansions of the capital, Palma de Mallorca. It is richly decorated with mythological scenes.
NN1062 shows a less formal part of the house.
Spain191520thResidentialSocial and Sitting Spaces
5938Casa Marquesa de la CeniaAdolf Mas i Ginesta (1861-1936) was one of the finest Barcelonese photographers of the turn of the century. He specialised in works of art, architecture, interior design and public monuments. In 1909 he established the Arxiu Mas, a commercial image archive.
Over the course of his career he took many pictures of domestic interiors, most of which have never been published. He photographed the residences of the Spanish aristocracy across Spain and the Balearic Islands, but most of his interiors are of the apartments of the Barcelona bourgeoisie. The period between 1890 and 1920 was particularly rich in this respect, with work from the great Catalan 'Modernista' architects, such as Antoni Gaudi, Josep Puig i Cadafalch and Josep Domenech i Montaner. These architects collaborated with some of the best local Art Nouveau craftsmen and cabinetmakers, such as Gaspar Homar or Jordi Busquets.
Mas's photography was mostly to be used as documents for commercial purposes, either by the publishing industry or by the designers and architects themselves. With rare exceptions, none of the interior views include people, and the images aim to be neutral and provide a good general sense of space.

Between 1913 and 1928 Mas took many pictures around the Balearic Islands. He photographed public and religious buildings, landscapes, popular scenes and domestic interiors.

This is one of a group of photographs depicting arrangements of pictures, paintings and decorative objects, clearly one of Mas’ central interests.
Spain191520thResidentialSocial and Sitting Spaces
5423[Inventory of C. Bekkink, widow Brouckhorst]The is part of the inventory of the widow Brouckhorst compiled in 1741 - the year of her death. The woman was the widow of Johannes Bronkhorst, a church master (kerkmeester) and was living in Doesburg. The inventory was made at the request of the three grown-up children, with the intention to sell the goods.Netherlands 29 September 174118th
5424[Inventory of monsr. Carel Sigmont]This is part of the inventory of the goods that Everdt J. Schade left to her husband the stads Carel Sigmont. The family lived in Doesburg, a small town in the Dutch hinterland and a garrison centre. The inventory lists goods without making distinctions according to room or material. It includes essential tools and furniture, ten small paintings - some of which are in perfect conditon (heel) and others damaged (stukken), two wooden paintings, three books, a Bible and a testament. There is also also a doll cabinet (popkasje), a typical object of display in such houses of the period.Netherlands 5 April 173518thResidentialOther / Unknown
5425[Inventory of Janna van Houten]This inventory lists household goods by their function and material and not by room. The goods are classified under the categories of tin, copper, wood, wool, linen, iron, stone. There are also many objects related to children, like kinderlull, kindergoet, kinderdekentjes and kinderkackstoel. The couple had two children.Netherlands 4 September 171118th
5426[Inventory of Johan Bettinck en Margrieta de Malesarmes, 1659]This excerpt is taken from the inventory of Margrieta de Malearmes, made at the request of her husband, Lieutenant Johan Bettinck, in 1659. The family had, as well as this house in the town of Doesburg - many other estates and possessions. The inventory is detailed and is compiled first listing goods by material and then by room and location. On the ground floor, the house comprised a backroom, a kitchen, a front room and a stove. The second floor contained a room facing the street, a room in the middle above the kitchen, a backroom, an attic, a storage space and closets in which the linen goods were kept. Many paintings (16) and many books (30) are present in the inventory and some Brazilian items kept from when Johan Bettick had been in service. Netherlands 165917thResidentialBedroom, Multifunctional Living Space
5427[Inventory of Kornelis van Linden en Elisabeth van Kranenburg]This is part of the inventory of Kornelis van Linden and Elisabeth van Kranenburg, his second wife. Kornelis van Linden had a child from his first marriage and also grandchildren. Van Linden who was mayor of the town of Maassluis, had different houses and estates, and a great collection of books among his possessions: 350 titles. The variety of the books and their languages, as well as the many pamphlets, is very remarkable. After the books, the inventory records goods are divided by room, starting with the living room, followed by a rest-room (het stille kamertje), a corridor, ‘ a ‘post comptoir’, a kitchen and storage space, stairs, an kleerzolder attic, and a room where the peat was stored (turfzolder). The house also had a garden with a garden-house and an old stable. Various curious objects are listed. In the ‘post comptoir’ - a distillery set, for example, probably related to Van Linden’s interest in alchemy. Netherlands 176218thResidentialTransitional, Work Space, Other / Unknown, Multifunctional Living Space
5428Interior of a Marker smokehouse (Marker rookhuis interieur)This painting of the interior of a ‘smokehouse’ in Marken, Northern Holland, depicts six people and various objects in the room, scattered on the floor and over the walls. On the left there is a place to cook with a brazier and a hot-plate. On the right a man is pictured next to a child, in front of a box-bed (bedstee) with decorative (pronk) cushions. In the background there is a man, a child and a woman bathing a baby, all seated around a table. On the walls various objects are hanging, such as small paintings, a plate-rack, and a shelf with herring-pots. From this view, the open attic is visible with hanging fishing nets and a pentecostal crown.

This can be considered a common example of a house in Marken (which used to be an island) since the community made a living from fishing and the smoking of fish. The typical Marken house had a square floor plan, and consisted of one large space, approximately divided by some wooden panels. Usually there was a small front room and a living room which was used as both a kitchen and bedroom with one or two box-beds, one of which was sometimes filled with decorations.
Netherlands 185919thResidentialMultifunctional Living Space, Social and Sitting Spaces, Work Space, Kitchen
5429The Happy FamilyThis is the interior of a house in Hindeloopen. The image shows a woman in a box-bed and a man leaning on a cradle with a newly born baby inside. Some elements can be considered as typical of Hindeloopen interiors: the painted cradle is supported by a high underframe and covered by a characteristic chintz which also covers the box-bed. In the foreground on the left, there is a small lectern supporting an open Bible with a peacock feather, while in front of the box-bed we can see a small painted bedstair on a mat where the woman’s shoes lie. Netherlands 189219thResidentialBedroom, Multifunctional Living Space
5430En attendant son capitaine / Seule a la maison (A woman standing at the window)In this representation the interior is very simple, the emphasis being placed on the emotional state of the woman, leaning on the reading desk and looking out of the window. Reasons for her anxious state of mind are suggested by her proximity to the exterior. The wintery landscape with a windmill in the background is reflected within the interior through the ice-skates on the floor, and the model of a ship. On the reading desk, in a Hindeloopen style, there is also a mirror in which the woman’s face is reflected. Netherlands 19thResidentialTransitional
5431Glass house. Interior of the house of a Muslim Hindustani Surinamese migrant, first generation This image shows the conservatory of a Muslim Hindustani Surinamese migrant. Born in Surinam, he came to the Netherlands in the 1970s. This part of the house is very important, providing an extension of the living room into the backyard. Built to create more space and light in the house, the conservatory functions to make its owner feel more at home. Few objects are present, among them the vase with artificial flowers and the large, comfortable leather armchair are worth noting. This sobriety evokes a sense of tidiness and order, values emphasised in his religion. The predominance of light and tidiness is also accentuated by the tiles on the floor and the colour of the curtains. Netherlands 200521stResidentialSocial and Sitting Spaces, Multifunctional Living Space, Transitional
5432Living room. Interior of the house of a Muslim Hindustani Surinamese migrant, first generationThis is a view of the living room of a Muslim Hindustani Surinamese migrant in the Netherlands. The room is dominated by a large sofa, which serves to accomodate the owner’s entire family and friends. The owner said he does not like the colour of the sofa, as he prefers soft and light colours in his house and will probably buy a new sofa to match the rest of the furniture.Netherlands 200521stResidentialSocial and Sitting Spaces, Multifunctional Living Space
5835Madonna and Child In the fifteenth century, many of the representations of domestic interiors are settings for stories from the Bible or depictions of the Holy Family or Saints. Perhaps the single most common was a representation of the Madonna and Child.

This particular example is a type known as the Madonna of Humility because the Virgin is seated on the ground. This type of representation first appeared in northern Italian painting in the fourteenth century.

The representation of the Madonna as full of humility is in contrast to the elaborate furnishing textiles in the form of a tasselled cushion and a woven or embroidered textile suspended from a pole. These were costly objects only available to a wealthy elite. Although the textiles and the tiled floor suggest a domestic interior this print gives no further clue to any room or building of which they might form a part.
Germany1450-7015thResidentialUndifferentiated Spaces
4256Fuel or Log Effect FiresArgos, founded in 1973, is a leading furniture manufacturer in the UK. The company publishes two catalogues a year, in January and in July. Customers can shop in more than 650 stores, over the telephone or through the website.

ID1198 from 1989 and ID1205 from 1990 advertise a range of log and fuel effect fires. Prices range between £59.95 and £139.95 depending on extra features such the number of silica-sheathed elements supplied or a thermostat control. ID1203 shows a range of brass accessories sold to accompany the fires.
UK198920thCommercial , Institutional , ResidentialMultifunctional Living Space, Social and Sitting Spaces, Undifferentiated Spaces
4257Folding Guest BedsArgos, founded in 1973, is a leading furniture manufacturer in the UK. The company publishes two catalogues a year, in January and in July. Customers can shop in more than 650 stores, over the telephone or through the website.

A very large selection of folding beds is available at Argos.
UK199020thCommercial , Institutional , ResidentialBedroom
4258Hawaii Cane FurnitureArgos, founded in 1973, is a leading furniture manufacturer in the UK. The company publishes two catalogues a year, in January and in July. Customers can shop in more than 650 stores, over the telephone or through the website.

ID1200 from 1990 and ID1216 from 1995 show suites, sofabeds and a range of chairs made from natural rattan cane with cushions in floral designs. This type of furniture continues to be popular in conservatories in the UK.
UK199020thCommercial , Institutional , ResidentialMultifunctional Living Space, Social and Sitting Spaces, Undifferentiated Spaces
4259Solid Pine BathroomArgos, founded in 1973, is a leading furniture manufacturer in the UK. The company publishes two catalogues a year, in January and in July. Customers can shop in more than 650 stores, over the telephone or through the website.

This series of entries shows the variety of bathrooms on sale in the Argos catalogue. In ID1165 and ID1184 wood is used to give the bathroom an antique feel. ID1161, ID1187 and ID1201 advertise similar pine bathrooms, in 1995, 1992 and 1990 respectively. By using pink (ID1161, ID1187) and blue colours for walls, mats, towels and shower curtains a very different atmosphere is created in each bathroom.
UK199020thCommercial , Institutional , ResidentialBathroom
4260Living Room SetArgos, founded in 1973, is a leading furniture manufacturer in the UK. The company publishes two catalogues a year, in January and in July. Customers can shop in more than 650 stores, over the telephone or through the website.

A large number of sofas on offer in the Argos catalogue also function as sofabeds (2 and 5). The hi-fi storage cabinets with glass doors have shelves for cassettes and vinyl. These items as well magazine racks and the flexible storage cabinet are delivered as flat-packs.
UK199020thCommercial , Institutional , ResidentialSocial and Sitting Spaces, Multifunctional Living Space, Undifferentiated Spaces
4261Fireside Solid Brass AccessoriesArgos, founded in 1973, is a leading furniture manufacturer in the UK. The company publishes two catalogues a year, in January and in July. Customers can shop in more than 650 stores, over the telephone or through the website.

ID1198 from 1989 and ID1205 from 1990 advertise a range of log and fuel effect fires. Prices range between £59.95 and £139.95 depending on extra features such the number of silica-sheathed elements supplied or a thermostat control. ID1203 shows a range of brass accessories sold to accompany the fires.
UK199020thCommercial , Institutional , ResidentialSocial and Sitting Spaces, Multifunctional Living Space, Undifferentiated Spaces
4262Fuel or Log Effect FiresArgos, founded in 1973, is a leading furniture manufacturer in the UK. The company publishes two catalogues a year, in January and in July. Customers can shop in more than 650 stores, over the telephone or through the website.

ID1198 from 1989 and ID1205 from 1990 advertise a range of log and fuel effect fires. Prices range between £59.95 and £139.95 depending on extra features such the number of silica-sheathed elements supplied or a thermostat control. ID1203 shows a range of brass accessories sold to accompany the fires.
UK199020thCommercial , Institutional , ResidentialMultifunctional Living Space, Social and Sitting Spaces, Undifferentiated Spaces
4263Pink Glass ShadesArgos, founded in 1973, is a leading furniture manufacturer in the UK. The company publishes two catalogues a year, in January and in July. Customers can shop in more than 650 stores, over the telephone or through the website.

ID1174 and ID1206 show a variety of lamps on offer in the early 90s in the Argos catalogue. A comparison with lamps on sale in the 1993 UK Habitat catalogue (ID1232) clearly demonstrates the different styles and tastes promoted in both catalogues.
UK199420thCommercial , Institutional , ResidentialUndifferentiated Spaces, Other / Unknown
4264Office FurnitureArgos, founded in 1973, is a leading furniture manufacturer in the UK. The company publishes two catalogues a year, in January and in July. Customers can shop in more than 650 stores, over the telephone or through the website.

A comparison of the Argos home office from 1990 (ID1170) and 1995 (ID1208) reveals the fast pace of change in communication technologies. In both cases, for example, the computer is prominent but the model in the 1990 image looks very bulky and there is still a typewriter placed prominently on a desk.
UK199420thCommercial , Institutional , ResidentialWork Space
4265Three piece suiteArgos, founded in 1973, is a leading furniture manufacturer in the UK. The company publishes two catalogues a year, in January and in July. Customers can shop in more than 650 stores, over the telephone or through the website.

ID1149, ID1153 and ID1209 show three popular three-piece suites on sale in the 1994 and 1995 catalogue. ID1149 is upholstered in a busy, floral pattern and costs between £499-£599, ID1209, a bulky suite upholstered in a lilac, synthetic material, costs £499, while ID1153 portrays a white or black sleek leather suite on sale for £1,000 plus.
UK199420thCommercial , Institutional , ResidentialMultifunctional Living Space, Social and Sitting Spaces
4266Butterfly table and chairsArgos, founded in 1973, is a leading furniture manufacturer in the UK. The company publishes two catalogues a year, in January and in July. Customers can shop in more than 650 stores, over the telephone or through the website.

ID1210 and ID1211 shows two types of kitchen suites sold in the 1995 spring/summer catalogue.
The former, a solid pine set in the more traditional Butterfly style, costs £249.95, while the latter, consisting of folding chairs and an extendable table, both in fashionable black, is on sale for £167.99.
UK199520thCommercial , Institutional , ResidentialKitchen, Multifunctional Living Space, Undifferentiated Spaces
4267Kitchen SuiteArgos, founded in 1973, is a leading furniture manufacturer in the UK. The company publishes two catalogues a year, in January and in July. Customers can shop in more than 650 stores, over the telephone or through the website.

ID1210 and ID1211 show two types of kitchen suites sold in the 1995 spring/summer catalogue.
The former, a solid pine set in the more traditional Butterfly style, costs £249.95, while the latter, consisting of folding chairs and an extendable table, both in fashionable black, is on sale for £167.99.
UK199520thCommercial , Institutional , ResidentialMultifunctional Living Space, Social and Sitting Spaces, Undifferentiated Spaces
4268Folding DeskArgos, founded in 1973, is a leading furniture manufacturer in the UK. The company publishes two catalogues a year, in January and in July. Customers can shop in more than 650 stores, over the telephone or through the website.

The furniture shown in ID1212 offers a cheap solution for those who lack the money or extra room for a home office. The books and toys placed on the shelves suggest that this type of desk is probably most useful for students.
UK199520thCommercial , Institutional , ResidentialWork Space, Transitional, Undifferentiated Spaces
4269Four Poster BedArgos, founded in 1973, is a leading furniture manufacturer in the UK. The company publishes two catalogues a year, in January and in July. Customers can shop in more than 650 stores, over the telephone or through the website.

The designers of this four-poster bed with drapes were clearly inspired by historical examples.
UK199420thCommercial , Institutional , ResidentialBedroom
4270Mahogany Style Dining SuiteArgos, founded in 1973, is a leading furniture manufacturer in the UK. The company publishes two catalogues a year, in January and in July. Customers can shop in more than 650 stores, over the telephone or through the website.

The extendable nature of this dining suite is one of its main selling features.
UK199520thCommercial , Institutional , ResidentialDining Room, Undifferentiated Spaces
4271“Pembrook” Solid Pine Welsh DresserArgos, founded in 1973, is a leading furniture manufacturer in the UK. The company publishes two catalogues a year, in January and in July. Customers can shop in more than 650 stores, over the telephone or through the website.

ID1215 shows a Welsh dresser in solid pine on sale for £299. The Habitat version retails at twice the price. (ID1272).
UK199520thCommercial , Institutional , ResidentialUndifferentiated Spaces
4272Cane FurnitureArgos, founded in 1973, is a leading furniture manufacturer in the UK. The company publishes two catalogues a year, in January and in July. Customers can shop in more than 650 stores, over the telephone or through the website.

ID1200 from 1990 and ID1216 from 1995 show suites, sofabeds and a range of chairs made from natural rattan cane with cushions in flower designs. This type of furniture continues to be popular for furnishing conservatories in the UK.
UK199520thCommercial , Institutional , ResidentialUndifferentiated Spaces
4273Wardrobe OrganiserArgos, founded in 1973, is a leading furniture manufacturer in the UK. The company publishes two catalogues a year, in January and July. Customers can shop in more than 650 stores, over the telephone or through the website.

This Argos storage solution is promoted as cheap and easy to install in any cupboard.
UK199420thCommercial , Institutional , ResidentialUndifferentiated Spaces
4274Boundry Furniture Bedroom SuiteThis bedroom in the 1988 UK Habitat catalogue (ID1218) is advertised as being ‘craftsman made, and of strong and lasting construction’. A similar bedroom is advertised as having a calming influence on interior space through the natural texture of the wood and the use of soft colours (ID1224).UK199320thCommercial , Institutional , ResidentialBedroom
4275Flat-Pack KitchenThe 1971 UK Habitat catalogue claimed that the flat-pack kitchen could be assembled using only a screwdriver. The images on this page aim to demonstrate this, showing a man constructing the kitchen units and furniture. The vibrant colour scheme is typical of the period.UK197120thCommercial , Institutional , ResidentialKitchen
4276Flat-Pack Campus Furniture The 1971 Habitat flat-pack Campus furniture range is advertised as being cheap, beautiful and easy to assemble. It is delivered with all the necessary assembly tools and instructions. UK197120thCommercial , Institutional , ResidentialMultifunctional Living Space, Social and Sitting Spaces, Undifferentiated Spaces
4277Innovative LightingThe UK 1971 Habitat catalogue advertises an innovative range of lighting. The Artemide Glow Worm is a designer lamp that can be shaped in a variety of ways by the consumer. Lamps are the most popular designed items purchased for the home because they are relatively inexpensive.

A comparison between the selection of lamps offered by Habitat in 1971 (ID1221), 1973 (ID1239), 1988 (ID1235) and 1993 (ID1232) offers an interesting overview of how styles and tastes change over time.
UK197120thCommercial , Institutional , ResidentialUndifferentiated Spaces
4278[Unitled]This interior from the 1979 French Habitat catalogue clearly draws on the popularity of Oriental style for the home. France197920thCommercial , Institutional , ResidentialMultifunctional Living Space, Undifferentiated Spaces, Social and Sitting Spaces
4279Habitat Catalogue The classic design, ‘the Wallpocket’ by Maurer-Becker, is prominently diplayed on the cover page of the 1971 UK Habitat Catalogue. During this period Habitat played an important role in educating middle-class consumers about ‘good’ design. UK197120thCommercial , Institutional , ResidentialOther / Unknown
4280Calming InfluencesThis bedroom in the 1988 UK Habitat catalogue is advertised as having a calming influence on interior space through the natural texture of the wood and the use of soft colours. In 1993 the fine craftsmanship and strength of a similar bedroom (ID1218) is advertised. UK198820thCommercial , Institutional , ResidentialBedroom
4281Creating a ‘Country’ LookThe following three kitchens (ID1225, ID1226 and ID1227) are advertised in the 1988 UK Habitat catalogue. ID1225 and ID1227 promote country-style pine kitchens. In this image a sense of traditional homeliness is created in the Croft Kitchen by the presence of the mother and baby, while the caption reads ‘even if you live in the heart of a town, a kitchen in honeyed pine will bring you a breath of country air’. Similarly the image in ID1227 portrays a woman preparing tea and scones in a cosy timber-framed dining room. In contrast, ID1226 advertises stainless steel appliances focussing on convenience and labour saving in the modern home. UK198820thCommercial , Institutional , ResidentialKitchen
4282Cooking with ConvenienceThe following three kitchens (ID1225, ID1226 and ID1227) are advertised in the 1988 UK Habitat catalogue. In this image stainless steel appliances and simple sleek furniture are advertised as taking ‘the hassle out of cooking’, enabling efficiency and convenience for a hectic lifestyle. In contrast two other kitchens from the 1988 catalogue focus on the creation of ‘a country look’ through pine furniture and a cosy traditional look (ID1225 and ID1227). UK198820thCommercial , Institutional , ResidentialKitchen
4283Country style ...to a tea!The following three kitchens (ID1225, ID1226 and ID1227) are advertised in the 1988 UK Habitat catalogue. ID1225 and ID1227 promote country-style pine kitchens. In this image a sense of homeliness is created by Chiltern traditionally styled furniture. The homely country atmosphere is enhanced by the presence of a woman preparing tea and scones in a cosy timber-framed dining room. Similarly in the Croft Kitchen (ID1225) the presence of the mother and baby and the caption reading 'even if you live in the heart of a town, a kitchen in honeyed pine will bring you a breath of country air', serve to create a sense of traditional family life. In contrast, ID1226 advertises stainless steel appliances focussing on convenience and labour saving in the modern home.UK198820thCommercial , Institutional , ResidentialMultifunctional Living Space, Undifferentiated Spaces
4284Living roomThis rather conservative representation from the 1988 Habitat calatogue depicts the living room as a serene feminine space in which women engage in traditional hand crafts such as knitting. UK198820thCommercial , Institutional , ResidentialSocial and Sitting Spaces, Undifferentiated Spaces
4285Translating a Look This representation from the 1988 UK Habitat catalogue promotes an eclectic, exotic style that draws inspiration from travel abroad. UK198820thCommercial , Institutional , ResidentialUndifferentiated Spaces, Social and Sitting Spaces
4286Girl’s BedroomThis girl’s bedroom from 1988 is in tune with 1980s gender stereotypes. UK198820thCommercial , Institutional , ResidentialBedroom
4287IndividualityIn the 1993 UK Habitat catalogue the consumer is depicted as a knowledgeable, rational individual who demands a variety of choice in home furnishings. UK199320thCommercial , Institutional , ResidentialOther / Unknown
4288LampsA comparison between the selection of lamps offered by Habitat in 1971 (ID1221), 1973 (ID1239), 1988 (ID1235) and 1993 (ID1232) offers an interesting overview of how styles and tastes change over time.

ID1174 and ID1206 show a variety of lamps on offer in an early 1990s Argos catalogue. A comparison with lamps on sale in the 1993 UK Habitat catalogue (ID1232) clearly demonstrates the different styles and tastes promoted by the two different companies.
UK199320thCommercial , Institutional , ResidentialUndifferentiated Spaces, Other / Unknown
4289Habitat Contracts The 1988 Habitat 'Housepacks' (ID1233) supplied customers with all the essential furnishings for a two- or three-bedroom house. Targeting first-time buyers, those who needed to furnish show homes or properties to let, and customers who simply wished to avoid the hassle and anxiety of furnishing their home in the UK or abroad. The package was available in budget, standard and luxury ranges. UK198820thCommercial , Institutional , ResidentialMultifunctional Living Space, Undifferentiated Spaces
4290Folding Beds Argos offers a wide range of space-saving devices for cramped living conditions such as these two types of beds. One is a conventional folding bed, while the other one has foldable legs that enable it to be stored in the space underneath another bed.UK198920thCommercial , Institutional , ResidentialBedroom, Undifferentiated Spaces
4291LampsA comparison between the selection of lamps offered by Habitat in 1971 (ID1221), 1973 (ID1239), 1988 (ID1235) and 1993 (ID1232) offers an interesting overview of how styles and tastes change over time. UK198820thCommercial , Institutional , ResidentialUndifferentiated Spaces
4292Storage UnitsThe 1978/9 Habitat catalogue uses a similar setting to advertise different storage systems in the UK (ID1236) and in France (ID1268).UK1978/920thCommercial , Institutional , ResidentialUndifferentiated Spaces, Multifunctional Living Space
4293Flat-Pack Mesh Storage SystemBy the end of the 1970s the British DIY industry was booming. This advertisement shows a mesh storage system and a Scandinavian table, two among many flat-pack products in the 1978/9 Habitat catalogue. UK197920thCommercial , Institutional , ResidentialMultifunctional Living Space
4294The Flop SofaThe Flop sofa advertised in exactly the same interior in the 1973 UK (ID1238) and French (ID1280) catalogue. UK197320thCommercial , Institutional , ResidentialMultifunctional Living Space, Social and Sitting Spaces
4295LampsIn the 1973 UK catalogue (ID1239) a variety of lamps are shown in a domestic setting in which couples socialise. The same lamps are advertised without any context in the 1973 French Habitat catalogue (ID1248).

A comparison between the selection of lamps offered by Habitat in 1971 (ID1221),1973 (ID1239), 1988 (ID1235) and 1993 (ID1232) offers an interesting overview of how styles and tastes change over time.
France197320thCommercial , Institutional , ResidentialUndifferentiated Spaces
4296Town House BedroomThis sleek bedroom advertised in the 1973 UK catalogue promotes the modern, ritzy ‘townhouse’ look. UK197320thCommercial , Institutional , ResidentialBedroom
4297Cork Wall TilesIn the 1973 Habitat catalogue cork wall tiles are advertised through a sequence of three images. Firstly, the tiles as well as tools necessary to attach them to the wall such as a pot of glue, a brush and some other utensils are depicted referring to the DIY process. Secondly, two images demonstrate what the finished cork interior looks like (ID1241).

During the 1970s cork wall coverings were very popular in the UK. In the 1978/9 catalogue four different varieties of cork tiles (1-4) are advertised (ID1250). Other products promoted area selection of different colours of paint, mirror tiles and two types of woven fabric wallpaper (7-8).
UK197320thCommercial , Institutional , ResidentialUndifferentiated Spaces
4298Bathroom AccessoriesA comparison of the 1973 (ID1242), 1982/3 (ID1035 and ID1038), 1988, 1993 (ID1037) UK Habitat catalogue offer an overview of how styles and tastes in bathrooms in the UK have changed over 20 years.UK197320thCommercial , Institutional , ResidentialBathroom
4299Kartell CollectionThe 1973 Habitat catalogue promotes a number of storage solutions. In the UK Kartell designed a collection of small storage containers such as magazine racks and umbrella holders (ID1243). In the French catalogue a Scandinavian wall storage system is advertised (ID1244). UK197320thCommercial , Institutional , ResidentialUndifferentiated Spaces
4300The Kartell CollectionThe 1973 Habitat catalogue promotes a number of storage solutions. In the UK Kartell designed a collection of small storage containers such as magazine racks and umbrella holders (ID1243). In the French catalogue a Scandinavian wall storage system is advertised (ID1244). France197320thCommercial , Institutional , ResidentialMultifunctional Living Space, Undifferentiated Spaces
4301[Untitled]This interior in the 1978/9 UK catalogue displays an exotic mix of Oriental elements. Both women wearing Japanese summer kimono (yukata) are drinking tea while sitting on large cushions spread on the floor. Other props in the room include traditional slippers and a fan placed on top of tatami mats, chopsticks and bowl on a low table, a scroll painting depicting a tiger hanging on one wall, a bonsai tree on the window sill and finally a large Asian gong standing against another wall. UK1978/920thCommercial , Institutional , ResidentialSocial and Sitting Spaces
4302Storage ContainersIn the 1978/9 UK catalogue (ID1247) a set of storage containers is depicted in different colours in a range of different domestic settings such as the kitchen, the bathroom and a romantic setting. In the French catalogue the same set (ID1281) is only shown in red and white while being used in a romantic setting. One container holds a bottle of wine while another is used as a vase. UK1978/920thCommercial , Institutional , ResidentialUndifferentiated Spaces
4303LampsThe same lamps are advertised in a different way in the 1973 French Habitat catalogue (ID1248) and the UK catalogue (ID1239).France197320thCommercial , Institutional , ResidentialUndifferentiated Spaces
4304Flexitrak lightsThis 1978/9 advertisement depicts a variety of possible uses for the Flexitrak spotlights in different rooms of the house.UK1978/920thCommercial , Institutional , ResidentialBedroom, Dining Room, Kitchen, Multifunctional Living Space, Social and Sitting Spaces
4305Cork TilesIn the 1978/9 catalogue a large selection of wall coverings are advertised. There are four varieties of cork tiles (1-4), a selection of different colours of paint, mirror tiles and two types of woven fabric wallpaper (7-8). All these options are sold with easy assembly instructions (ID1250). UK1978/920thCommercial , Institutional , ResidentialUndifferentiated Spaces
4306The HousePackThe 1978/9 Habitat Contract offers consumers a complete home, stating, ‘If you are converting a Victorian villa into a hostel for students or fitting out a complete village in Saudi Arabia, we can supply everything from the beds to the bed linen, to the teaspoons and even the pictures on the wall.’ The ‘HousePack’ aims to help those who like to furnish their home overseas.
(see also ID1233)
UK1978/920thCommercial , Institutional , ResidentialOther / Unknown
4307Andy Storage SystemThe objects placed in this interior in which the Swedish Andy storage system is advertised suggest the occupier is perhaps a student, who is doing schoolwork and engages actively in sport (ID1252). The same piece of furniture is displayed in a very different fashion in the French catalogue (ID1268). USA197920thCommercial , Institutional , ResidentialMultifunctional Living Space, Undifferentiated Spaces
4308Habitat Catalogue The cover page of the 1973 French Habitat catalogue depicts a number of stereotypical French products such as the collection of earthenware pots or the coffee pot inside a cupboard. The rectangular shape of the cupboard is taken as the outline for the whole catalogue. France197320thCommercial , Institutional , ResidentialOther / Unknown, Undifferentiated Spaces
4309[Untitled]
In this 1978/9 advertisement the furniture on sale is placed in a rather grand, conservative interior.UK1978/920thCommercial , Institutional , ResidentialOther / Unknown
4310Conran Catalogue The cover page of the 1979 New York Conran mail order catalogue depicts a variety of utilitarian objects for the home. By including the other localities where Conran products are sold, such as London, Paris and Brussels, reference is made to the international, cosmopolitan appeal of the merchandise. USA197920thCommercial , Institutional , ResidentialOther / Unknown
4311Kitchen StorageThe 1978/9 UK Habitat catalogue carries, apart from glass storage jars and earthenware containers, a number of unusual kitchen storage containers such as dripping jars (14), a French butter pot (19), and a terracotta (27) and stoneware (30) bread crock.UK1978/920thCommercial , Institutional , ResidentialUndifferentiated Spaces
4312Drinks Storage CabinetHabitat UK promoted this innovative space-saving drinks cabinet for the modern 1970s home. UK197320thCommercial , Institutional , ResidentialOther / Unknown
4313Movable Storage UnitsThis selection of square and round mobile storage units, which can be stacked three units high, remains a popular Habitat classic. Among the range of trolleys on offer the Bobby Trolley is a popular design classic.UK197320thCommercial , Institutional , ResidentialOther / Unknown
4314PalasetThe colourful 1973 Palaset cubical storage system is displayed in an interior typical of the period. The accompanying text stresses the versatility of the cubes. For example, it is suggested that the units can not only be used as wall cabinets for storage, but can also be turned into a table. UK197320thCommercial , Institutional , ResidentialMultifunctional Living Space, Social and Sitting Spaces, Other / Unknown
4315Pine Kitchen SuiteIn this 1978/9 UK (ID1261) and French (ID1270) Habitat advertisement, pine kitchen storage systems are promoted in a generic kitchen setting. In both interiors a number of raw food items are spread across the table or placed in bowls, suggesting that someone is in the process of preparing a meal. In ID1261 a knife is left on the cutting board and the wooden spoon in the earthenware pot. In ID 1270 some beans on the table and the open kitchen drawer also suggest action. UK197920thCommercial , Institutional , ResidentialKitchen, Multifunctional Living Space, Undifferentiated Spaces
4316Britta Storage SystemIn the 1979 Habitat catalogue the same Britta storage system is advertised in a different type of interior in France (ID1262) than in the UK (ID1267). The former depicts a oval pine kitchen table with classic Thonet chairs, while the latter has a white square kitchen table and cane folding chairs.France197920thCommercial , Institutional , ResidentialMultifunctional Living Space, Social and Sitting Spaces, Undifferentiated Spaces
4317Pupil and Amico DesksThe 1979 New York Conran catalogue advertises the same desk in junior (1) and adult (2) size. The worktop elevates to three different levels and can be used for a variety of work as well as for leisure activities.USA197920thCommercial , Institutional , ResidentialWork Space
4318Posters and StationeryThe 1979 New York Conran catalogue advertises a series of posters depicting flora and fauna (1-8). Four of the posters are singled out for their educational value; stating that children ‘enjoy recognising and counting the subjects’. Posters 9 to 12 depict foodstuffs and are sold as aids to ‘brighten up the dullest kitchen’. USA197920thCommercial , Institutional , ResidentialOther / Unknown
4319Kyoto Living Room SuiteThis 1979 sofa, chairs and side table called Kyoto is made in a style that references stereotypical depictions of Japanese aesthetics. France197920thCommercial , Institutional , ResidentialSocial and Sitting Spaces
4320Britta Storage SystemIn the 1979 Habitat catalogue the same Britta storage system is advertised in a different type of interior in France (ID1262) than in the UK (ID1267). The former depicts a oval pine kitchen table with classic Thonet chairs, while the latter has a white square kitchen table and cane folding chairs. France197920thCommercial , Institutional , ResidentialDining Room, Multifunctional Living Space, Undifferentiated Spaces
4321Storage SystemsThe 1978/9 Habitat catalogue uses a similar setting to advertise different storage systems in the UK (ID1236) and in France (ID1268).France197920thCommercial , Institutional , ResidentialMultifunctional Living Space, Social and Sitting Spaces
4322Habitat Catalogue The cover page of the 1982/3 Japanese Habitat catalogue shows a number of close-ups of everyday objects such as chairs, lamps, towels and glasses. The merchandise is depicted in the red, blue, yellow and green colour scheme of the Seibu department store, the distributor of Habitat products in Japan. The slogan to promote the merchandise reads ‘good design at good prices’. 1982/320thCommercial , Institutional , ResidentialOther / Unknown
4323Pine Kitchen StorageIn this 1978/9 UK (ID1261) and French (ID1270) Habitat advertisement, pine kitchen storage systems are promoted in a generic kitchen setting. In both interiors a number of raw food items are spread across the table or placed in bowls, suggesting that someone is in the process of preparing a meal. In ID1261 a knife is left on the cutting board and the wooden spoon in the earthenware pot. In ID1270 some beans on the table and the open kitchen drawer also suggest action. France197920thCommercial , Institutional , ResidentialKitchen
4324The Palermo Sofa, the Bromley Occasional Sofa, Scala Shelving, the Sussex Low Cupboard, Hereford Table, Charbury Sideboard and Dresser Top and the Corfu These two advertisements promote various items of furniture that through their name refer to places in the UK and abroad: the Palermo sofa, the Bromley occasional sofa, Scala shelving, the Sussex low cupboard (ID1271), the Hereford table, the Charbury sideboard and dresser top and the Corfu chair (ID1272). Irrespective of the actual site of production or distribution, the pairing up of products with certain place names is common practice in advertising and marketing. Within the domestic interior these goods linked with places, distant in space and time, are creatively used in the construction of home.UK199320thCommercial , Institutional , ResidentialSocial and Sitting Spaces, Multifunctional Living Space
4325The Palermo Sofa, the Bromley Occasional Sofa, Scala Shelving, the Sussex Low Cupboard, Hereford Table, Charbury Sideboard and Dresser Top and the Corfu chairThese two advertisements promote various items of furniture that by their name refer to a variety of places in the UK and abroad. These are the Palermo sofa, the Bromley occasional sofa, the Scala shelving, the Sussex low cupboard (ID1271), the Hereford table, the Charbury sideboard and dresser top and the Corfu chair (ID1272). Irrespective of whether these items of material culture are actually produced in or distributed through the places mentioned, the pairing up of products with certain place names is common practice in advertising and marketing. In the domestic interior these goods linked with places, distant in space and time, are creatively used in the construction of home.UK199320thCommercial , Institutional , ResidentialUndifferentiated Spaces, Dining Room
4326Duvet CoversArgos, founded in 1973, is a leading furniture manufacturer in the UK. The company publishes two catalogues a year, in January and in July. Customers can shop in more than 650 stores, over the telephone or through the website.

ID1273 and ID1274 advertise duvet covers from the 1995 Argos spring/summer catalogue. ID1273 shows a range of novelty duvet covers. The ‘Snatch the dog and friends cover’ (4) comes in blue and pink, and is only available for single beds, while the more grown-up ‘Playboy’ duvet cover (1) also comes in a double version. ID1274 depicts duvet covers with a flower (4-5) and rainbow (6) pattern that cater to a more conservative taste.
UK199520thCommercial , Institutional , ResidentialBedroom
4327Duvet CoversArgos, founded in 1973, is a leading furniture manufacturer in the UK. The company publishes two catalogues a year, in January and in July. Customers can shop in more than 650 stores, over the telephone or through the website.

ID1273 and ID1274 advertise duvet covers from the 1995 Argos spring/summer catalogue. ID1273 shows a range of novelty duvet covers. The ‘Snatch the dog and friends cover’ (4) comes in blue and pink, and is only available for single beds, while the more grown-up ‘Playboy’ duvet cover (1) also comes in a double version. ID1274 depicts duvet covers with a flower (4-5) and rainbow (6) pattern that cater to a more conservative taste.
UK199520thCommercial , Institutional , ResidentialBedroom
5419[Inventory of Giertje de Jongh]This is a section taken from Giertje de Jongh’s (of Medemblick, a small fishing village along the Zuiderzee) inventory, who died in July 1743. The inventory was compiled at the request of her husband, Jan de Zee. Their house was attached to their brewery, termed ‘A’. A list of objects is recorded from the front room, and specifically near the fireplace (schoorsteen). The items recorded were mostly made of porcelain. Some of them are recorded as being in poor condition (gelijmt). There is also some jewellery (oorijzers, coralen en granaten) and a collection of silver dolls. Netherlands 25 August 174318thCommercial , Multifunctional Living Space
5420[Inventory of Aleida ten Holt]This is a section taken from the inventory of Aleida ten Holt, dated 1798. The house had a barn attached (schuur) and was located in the town of Doesburg. Aleida was married to Peter Burckard and they had children, although it is unclear exactly how many. They had a shop and sold textiles. Objects are listed by room in the inventory, and they are mostly concerned with daily use. Functionality and sobriety are suggested more through the couple’s household goods than extravagance: emphasised by mention of objects such as the jumbled assortment of nineteen different glasses (19 differente glazen), and damaged crockery (defect Delfs steltze). The rituals of tea- and coffee-drinking appear customary, as much tea and coffee is listed in the inventory. In the two attics Aleida kept a spinning-wheel, a bird-cage, a reclining chair, a mattress, pillows, a bed with a pillow and blankets.Netherlands 18 October179818thResidentialKitchen, Transitional
5421[Inventory of Marretie Peinsche van der Aa, Weesperskarspel]This inventory was made after the death of Marretie Peinsche van der Aa on 7 May 1784, at the request of her husband, Jan Kraijepoel, and her three children. The family lived in a farmhouse in Weesperkarspel. The patrimony totalled 296 guldenz, a remarkable figure, although not unusual for farmers in Weesperkarspel at that time. The inventory is divided up by rooms. This excerpt of the inventory lists what was found in front of and around the box-bed; in the maid’s room; the storage room, and in the small farmhouse. Marretie Peinsche had many jewels and clothes. Netherlands 18 August 178418thResidentialUtility, Bedroom, Multifunctional Living Space
5422[Inventory of the family of Lucas Beulinck & Grietjen Fuegen, Doesburg]This is part of the inventory of Lucas Beulinck and Grietjen Fuegen of Doesburg. In the inventory the properties are listed according to material (tin, pottery, wood) and not by rooms. The selected section records some of the wooden tools belonging to the family. The couple had four children between 30 and 40 years old and Lucas was a shoemaker. Their house was in the town of Doesburg and was small and probably simple with a little inner courtyard (hofje). Netherlands 8 May 166317thOther / Unknown
5936Convento de la Encarnacion Adolf Mas i Ginesta (1861-1936) was one of the finest Barcelonese photographers of the turn of the century. He specialised in works of art, architecture, interior design and public monuments. In 1909 he established the Arxiu Mas, a commercial image archive.
Over the course of his career he took many pictures of domestic interiors, most of which have never been published. He photographed the residences of the Spanish aristocracy across Spain and the Balearic Islands, but most of his interiors are of the apartments of the Barcelona bourgeoisie. The period between 1890 and 1920 was particularly rich in this respect, with work from the great Catalan 'Modernista' architects, such as Antoni Gaudi, Josep Puig i Cadafalch and Josep Domenech i Montaner. These architects collaborated with some of the best local Art Nouveau craftsmen and cabinetmakers, such as Gaspar Homar or Jordi Busquets.
Mas's photography was mostly to be used as documents for commercial purposes, either by the publishing industry or by the designers and architects themselves. With rare exceptions, none of the interior views include people, and the images aim to be neutral and provide a good general sense of space.
As part of his work on religious buildings, Mas photographed various convents and monasteries, showing an interest both in the architectural aspects and in the more private aspects of institutional domestic life.
This space is furnished with simple rustic furniture and has plain unadorned walls.
The image shows a private space that contrasts with VN1060.
Spain192820thInstitutional , Other / Unknown
5935The dining room of Casa SamaniegoThe Instituto Amatller de Arte Hispánico, founded in 1941, is a research institute specialising in Spanish art and architecture, with a photo archive of some 300,000 original negatives from various collections, the oldest one being Arxiu Mas, started by Adolfo Mas around 1900. The Institute was organised by its first director, José Gudiol Ricart (1904-1985), following the general idea of the Frick Art Reference Library of New York. One of the immediate decisions taken was the acquisition of the Arxiu Mas. The Institute also holds photographs of interiors by Gudiol, mostly taken during the 1930s and 1940s. This is one of the more modest dining rooms depicted in this collection of photographs. The absence of a rug and other decorative elements could be due to ongoing postwar restrictions on furnishings. Spain194820thResidentialDining Room
4215Three piece suitesArgos, founded in 1973, is a leading furniture manufacturer in the UK. The company publishes two catalogues a year, in January and in July. Customers can shop at more than 650 stores, over the telephone or through the website.

ID1149, ID1153 and ID1209 show three popular three-piece suites on sale in the 1994 and 1995 catalogue. ID1149 is covered in a busy, flowery pattern and costs between £499-£599, ID1209, a bulky set covered in a lilac, synthetic material, costs £499, while ID1153 portrays a white or black sleek leather set on sale for £1,000 plus.
UK199520thCommercial , Institutional , ResidentialMultifunctional Living Space, Social and Sitting Spaces
4216Duvet CoversArgos, founded in 1973, is a leading furniture manufacturer in the UK. The company publishes two catalogues a year, in January and in July. Customers can shop at more than 650 stores, over the telephone or through the website.

These duvet covers for single beds, from the 1995 catalogue, draw on gender stereotypes such as a 'Harley Davidson' or 'Forever Friends' motif (ID1151) to appeal to teenage of different sex.

ID1273 and ID1274 are other 1995 advertisements for duvet covers. ID1273 shows a range of novelty duvet covers. 'Snatch the dog and friends' (4) comes in blue and pink, and is only available for single beds, while the more grown-up 'Playboy' duvet cover (1) also comes in a double version. ID1274 depicts duvet covers with a flower (4-5) and rainbow (6) pattern that cater to a more conservative taste.
UK199520thCommercial , Institutional , ResidentialBedroom
4217Black and Cream Leather CollectionArgos, founded in 1973, is a leading furniture manufacturer in the UK. The company publishes two catalogues a year, in January and in July. Customers can shop in more than 650 stores, over the telephone or through the website.

ID1149, ID1153 and ID1209 show three popular three-piece suites on sale in the 1994 and 1995 catalogue. ID1149 is covered in a busy, floral pattern and costs between £499-£599, ID1209, a bulky set covered in a lilac, synthetic material, costs £499, while ID1153 portrays a white or black sleek leather set on sale for £1,000 plus.
UK199520thCommercial , Institutional , ResidentialSocial and Sitting Spaces
4218Rushmore Traditional Style FurnitureArgos, founded in 1973, is a leading furniture manufacturer in the UK. The company publishes two catalogues a year, in January and in July. Customers can shop in more than 650 stores, over the telephone or through the website.

In 1995 Argos promoted a set of oak-veneer furniture by drawing on its antique style associated with the Tudor period (ID1154). Another range of reproduction furniture was linked with the Victorian period (ID1155).
UK199520thCommercial , Institutional , ResidentialSocial and Sitting Spaces, Multifunctional Living Space, Undifferentiated Spaces
4219“Victoria” FurnitureArgos, founded in 1973, is a leading furniture manufacturer in the UK. The company publishes two catalogues a year, in January and in July. Customers can shop in more than 650 stores, over the telephone or through the website.

In 1995, Argos promoted a set of oak-veneer furniture by drawing on its antique style associated with the Tudor period (ID1154). Another range of reproduction furniture is linked with the Victorian period (ID1155).

The latest technological advancements in home entertainment such as DVDs and MP3 players will probably make storage units for CDs and videos, like these advertised in the 1995 catalogue, obsolete.
UK199520thCommercial , Institutional , ResidentialSocial and Sitting Spaces, Multifunctional Living Space
4220Cast Iron Pot StandArgos, founded in 1973, is a leading furniture manufacturer in the UK. The company publishes two catalogues a year, in January and in July. Customers can shop in more than 650 stores, over the telephone or through the website.

This three-level pot stand in the 1995 Argos catalogue blurs the boundary between display and functionality.
UK199520thCommercial , Institutional , ResidentialKitchen, Other / Unknown
4221Argos Catalogue Argos, founded in 1973, is a leading furniture manufacturer in the UK. The company publishes two catalogues a year, in January and in July. Customers can shop in more than 650 stores, over the phone or through the website.

The cover page of the 1995 Argos catalogue (ID1158) shows a range of goods for sale placed in a living room and a kitchen interior. Additionally certain items such as toys, a lawnmower and a disc player can be seen in the foreground.
UK199520thCommercial , Institutional , ResidentialOther / Unknown
4222CD and Video Storage UnitsArgos, founded in 1973, is a leading furniture manufacturer in the UK. The company publishes two catalogues a year, in January and in July. Customers can shop in more than 650 stores, over the telephone or through the website.

In her ethnographic study of domestic consumption practices surrounding the Argos catalogue Clarke points out that, the catalogue 'is considered a staple of contemporary living across all social groups ... but there were vital differences in the role it played in their household provisioning' (p.90). (see A. Clarke, 'Window Shopping at Home', in Miller, D., Material Cultures, London: UCL Press, 1997).

The latest technological advancements in home entertainment such as DVDs and MP3 players will probably make storage units for CDs and videos like these advertised in the 1995 catalogue obsolete.
Ukraine199520thCommercial , Institutional , ResidentialOther / Unknown
4223Video Storage UnitArgos, founded in 1973, is a leading furniture manufacturer in the UK. The company publishes two full colour catalogues a year, in January and in July. Customers can shop in more than 650 stores, over the telephone or through the website.

In her ethnographic study of domestic consumption practices surrounding the Argos catalogue Clarke points out that, the catalogue 'is considered a staple of contemporary living across all social groups ... but there were vital differences in the role it played in their household provisioning.'
(see A. Clarke, 'Window Shopping at Home', in Miller, D., Material Cultures, London: UCL Press, 1997, p90).

The latest technological advancements in home entertainment such as DVDs and MP3 players will probably make storage units for CDs and videos, like these advertised in the 1995 catalogue, obsolete.
UK199520thCommercial , Institutional , ResidentialOther / Unknown, Social and Sitting Spaces, Multifunctional Living Space, Dining Room
4224Pine BathroomArgos, founded in 1973, is a leading furniture manufacturer in the UK. The company publishes two full-colour catalogues a year, in January and in July. Customers can shop in more than 650 stores, over the telephone or through the website.

In her ethnographic study of domestic consumption practices surrounding the Argos catalogue Clarke points out that the catalogue 'is considered a staple of contemporary living across all social groups ... but there were vital differences in the role it played in their household provisioning.' (p.90). (see A. Clarke, 'Window Shopping at Home', in Miller, D., Material Cultures, London: UCL Press, 1997).

This series of entries shows the variety of bathrooms on sale in the Argos catalogue. In ID1165 and ID1184 wood is used to give the bathroom an antique feel. ID 1161, ID1187 and ID1201 advertise similar pine bathrooms, in 1995, 1992 and 1990 respectively. By using pink (ID 1161, ID1187) and blue colours for walls, mats, towels and shower curtains a very different atmosphere is created in each bathroom.
UK199520thCommercial , Institutional , ResidentialBathroom
4225The Leo Entertainment CentreArgos, founded in 1973, is a leading furniture manufacturer in the UK. The company publishes two catalogues a year, in January and in July. Customers can shop in more than 650 stores, over the telephone or through the website.

In her ethnographic study of domestic consumption practices surrounding the Argos catalogue Clarke points out that the catalogue 'is considered a staple of contemporary living across all social groups ... but there were vital difference in the role it played in their household provisioning.' (p.90). (see A. Clarke, 'Window Shopping at Home', in Miller, D., Material Cultures, London: UCL Press, 1997).

In ID1162 the Leo entertainment centre (1), that provides storage for a TV, video, and hi-fi, and the CD/Cassette Storage Unit (2) occupy a central space in the living room. The latest technological advancements in home entertainment such as DVDs and MP3 players will probably make these kinds of storage units obsolete.
UK199220thCommercial , Institutional , ResidentialSocial and Sitting Spaces, Multifunctional Living Space
4226Argos Catalogue Argos, founded in 1973, is a leading furniture manufacturer in the UK. The company publishes two catalogues a year, in January and in July. Customers can shop in more than 650 stores, over the telephone or through the website.

The cover of the 1992 Argos catalogue (ID1163) uses a generic living room interior to promote not only furnishings, lighting and electrical equipment but also toys, electrical goods and sports equipment. The Argos catalogue next to the telephone is foregrounded. The fact that some individual items such as jewellery, a camera, a hairdryer and a drill are portrayed in gift boxes points at the gift appeal of such merchandise.
UK199220thCommercial , Institutional , ResidentialSocial and Sitting Spaces, Multifunctional Living Space, Other / Unknown
4227Indoor Clothes AirersArgos, founded in 1973, is a leading furniture manufacturer in the UK. The company publishes two catalogues a year, in January and in July. Customers can shop in more than 650 stores, over the telephone or through the website.

This large variety of airers offers multiple solutions for drying and airing clothes in a cramped, urban living environment.
UK199220thCommercial , Institutional , ResidentialOther / Unknown
4228Antique Effect Pine BathroomArgos, founded in 1973, is a leading furniture manufacturer in the UK. The company publishes two catalogues a year, in January and in July. Customers can shop in more than 650 stores, over the telephone or through the website.

This series of entries shows the variety of bathrooms on sale in the Argos catalogue. In ID1165 and ID1184 wood is used to give the bathroom an antique look. ID 1161, ID1187 and ID1201 advertise similar pine bathrooms, in 1995, 1992 and 1990 respectively. By using pink (ID1161, ID1187) and blue colours for walls, mats, towels and shower curtains a very different atmosphere is created in each bathroom.
UK199220thCommercial , Institutional , ResidentialBathroom
4229Occasional Cane SuiteArgos, founded in 1973, is a leading furniture manufacturer in the UK. The company publishes two catalogues a year, in January and in July. Customers can shop in more than 650 stores, over the telephone or through the website.UK199020thCommercial , Institutional , ResidentialSocial and Sitting Spaces, Multifunctional Living Space, Other / Unknown
4230Mirror, Telephone Shelf, Magazine RackArgos, founded in 1973, is a leading furniture manufacturer in the UK. The company publishes two catalogues a year; in January and in July. Customers can shop in more than 650 stores, over the telephone or through the website.

These three accesories are advertised in a number of different styles in the 1990 catalogue.
UK199020thCommercial , Institutional , ResidentialOther / Unknown
4231Lounge FurnitureArgos, founded in 1973, is a leading furniture manufacturer in the UK. The company publishes two catalogues a year, in January and in July. Customers can shop in more than 650 stores, over the telephone or through the website.

ID1168, ID1169 and ID1171 are three different representations of a 1990s living room. In ID1168 The TV is placed in the middle of the living room on top of a storage unit which enables the device to be easily turned towards the viewer. By comparison, in ID1169 the tea tray is given centre stage. In ID1171 the TV is totally absent. Instead, the stress is on sociability whether through sharing food and drinks or through playing games.
UK199020thCommercial , Institutional , ResidentialSocial and Sitting Spaces, Multifunctional Living Space
4232Lounge FurnitureArgos, founded in 1973, is a leading furniture manufacturer in the UK. The company publishes two catalogues a year, in January and in July. Customers can shop in more than 650 stores, over the telephone or through the website.

ID1168, ID1169 and ID1171 are three different representations of a 1990s living room. In ID1168 The TV is placed in the middle of the living room on top of a storage unit which enables the device to be easily turned towards the viewer. By comparison, in ID1169 the tea tray is given centre stage. In ID1171 the TV is totally absent. Instead, the stress is on sociability whether through sharing food and drinks or through playing games.
UK199020thCommercial , Institutional , ResidentialMultifunctional Living Space, Social and Sitting Spaces, Other / Unknown
4233Office FurnitureArgos, founded in 1973, is a leading furniture manufacturer in the UK. The company publishes two catalogues a year, in January and in July. Customers can shop in more than 650 stores, over the telephone or through the website.

A comparison of the Argos home office from 1990 (ID1170) and 1995 (ID1208) reveals the fast pace of technological change in communication. In both cases, for example, the computer is prominent but the model in the 1990 image appears very bulky and there is still a typewriter placed prominently on the desk.
UK199020thCommercial , Institutional , ResidentialWork Space
4234Lounge FurnitureArgos, founded in 1973, is a leading furniture manufacturer in the UK. The company publishes two catalogues a year, in January and in July. Customers can shop in more than 650 stores, over the telephone or through the website.

ID1168, ID1169 and ID1171 are three different representations of a 1990 living room. In ID1168 The TV is placed in the middle of the living room on top of a storage unit which enables the device to be easily turned towards the viewer. By comparison, in ID1169 the tea tray is given centre stage. In ID1171 the TV is totally absent. Instead, the stress is on sociability whether through sharing food and drinks or through playing games.
UK199020thCommercial , Institutional , ResidentialMultifunctional Living Space, Social and Sitting Spaces
4235Lounge FurnitureArgos, founded in 1973, is a leading furniture manufacturer in the UK. The company publishes two catalogues a year, in January and in July. Customers can shop in more than 650 stores, over the telephone or through the website.

The flexible ash-effect wall shelving unit (10) allows consumers to regularly change the look of their home.
UK199020thCommercial , Institutional , ResidentialDining Room, Multifunctional Living Space
4236Lounge FurnitureArgos, founded in 1973, is a leading furniture manufacturer in the UK. The company publishes two catalogues a year, in January and in July. Customers can shop in more than 650 stores, over the telephone or through the website.

The all-black living room was a popular choice during the 1980s and early 1990s.
UK199020thCommercial , Institutional , ResidentialMultifunctional Living Space, Social and Sitting Spaces
4237Ceiling LightsArgos, founded in 1973, is a leading furniture manufacturer in the UK. The company publishes two catalogues a year, in January and in July. Customers can shop in more than 650 stores, over the telephone or through the website.

ID1174 and ID1206 show a variety of lamps on offer in the early 90s in the Argos catalogue. A comparison with lamps on sale in the 1993 UK Habitat catalogue (ID1232) clearly demonstrates the difference in styles and tastes promoted in both catalogues.
UK199020thCommercial , Institutional , ResidentialOther / Unknown
4238Lancelot Solo Bedroom FurnitureArgos, founded in 1973, is a leading furniture manufacturer in the UK. The company publishes two catalogues a year, in January and in July. Customers can shop via the more than 650 stores, over the phone or through the website.

ID1175 and ID1180 use gender stereotypes to advertise solo bedrooms. The former displays furniture in black ash effect and uses props such as a guitar and an electric piano, a television and a computer. The furniture in the latter room is in a white finish with red designs, and a girl is shown reading among fluffy animals and girlish toys.
UK199020thCommercial , Institutional , ResidentialBedroom
4239Living RoomArgos, founded in 1973, is a leading furniture manufacturer in the UK. The company publishes two catalogues a year, in January and in July. Customers can shop in more than 650 stores, over the telephone or through the website.

ID1176 and ID1177 portrays two interiors in which merchandise on sale in the 1990 spring/summer catalogue is displayed. Although both have large sofabeds covered in floral prints centrally placed, while on a wall close to the window hangs a mirror, the focus in both rooms differs. In ID1176 attention is drawn to the fireplace, its period-style pine fire surround (3), and a number of brass accessories (4-8). In ID1177 the focus is on a variety of pieces of black ash-effect furniture such as a TV/video cabinet (3), a shelving wall (4) and a storage table (5). This changing focus perhaps suggests that the TV has replaced the hearth as the centre of most homes.
UK199020thCommercial , Institutional , ResidentialMultifunctional Living Space, Social and Sitting Spaces
4240Living RoomArgos, founded in 1973, is a leading furniture manufacturer in the UK. The company publishes two catalogues a year, in January and in July. Customers can shop in more than 650 stores, over the telephone or through the website.

ID1176 and ID1177 portray two interiors in which merchandise on sale in the 1990 spring/summer catalogue is displayed. Although both have large sofabeds covered in floral prints centrally placed, while on a wall close to the window hangs a mirror, the focus in both rooms differs. In ID1176 attention is drawn to the fireplace and its period-style pine fire surround (3), and a number of brass accessories (4-8). In ID1177 the focus is on a variety of pieces of black ash-effect furniture such as a TV/video cabinet (3), a shelving wall (4) and a storage table (5). This changing focus perhaps suggests that the TV has replaced the hearth as the centre of most homes.
UK199020thCommercial , Institutional , ResidentialSocial and Sitting Spaces, Multifunctional Living Space
4241Natural Pine KitchenArgos, founded in 1973, is a leading furniture manufacturer in the UK. The company publishes two catalogues a year, in January and in July. Customers can shop in more than 650 stores, over the telephone or through the website.

Argos does not sell fitted kitchens, however it is common for the catalogue to show various individual pieces of kitchen furniture placed together as shown in ID1178.
UK199020thCommercial , Institutional , ResidentialKitchen
4242Duvet Covers and BlanketsArgos, founded in 1973, is a leading furniture manufacturer in the UK. The company publishes two catalogues a year, in January and in July. Customers can shop in more than 650 stores, over the telephone or through the website.

ID1179 depicts duvet cover sets and blankets advertised in 1990. The ‘Playboy’ and ‘Wild Yellow’ motif (also available in double size) draw on the association between the bedroom and sexual potency, while the Madonna pattern and the two blankets with animal prints for single beds probably suit the taste of teenagers.
UK199020thCommercial , Institutional , ResidentialBedroom
4243“Remo” Design Bedroom FurnitureArgos, founded in 1973, is a leading furniture manufacturer in the UK. The company publishes two catalogues a year, in January and in July. Customers can shop in more than 650 stores, over the telephone or through the website.

D1175 and ID1180 use gender stereotypes to advertise solo bedrooms. The former displays furniture in black ash effect and uses props such as a guitar and an electric piano, a television and a computer. The furniture in the latter room is in a white finish with red designs, and a girl is shown reading among fluffy animals and toys.
UK199020thCommercial , Institutional , ResidentialBedroom
4244Devonwood Traditional nest of tables, Devonwood Traditional Style Oval Coffee Table and Rochester Blue Metal Action Sofa BedArgos, founded in 1973, is a leading furniture manufacturer in the UK. The company publishes two catalogues a year, in January and in July. Customers can shop in more than 650 stores, over the telephone or through the website.

A coffee table in front of the bulky sofa, a nest of tables with a lamp and a picture on top, placed on one side, depict the material culture of a typical UK living room.
UK199220thCommercial , Institutional , ResidentialSocial and Sitting Spaces, Multifunctional Living Space
4245Regency Style Telephone Seat, Devonwood Reproduction Style Telephone Shelf and Devonwood Hall TableArgos, founded in 1973, is a leading furniture manufacturer in the UK. The company publishes two catalogues a year, in January and in July. Customers can shop in more than 650 stores, over the telephone or through the website.

The latest in hands free technology has made these telephone tables obsolete.
UK199220thCommercial , Institutional , ResidentialOther / Unknown, Undifferentiated Spaces
4246Electric Fires and SurroundsArgos, founded in 1973, is a leading furniture manufacturer in the UK. The company publishes two catalogues a year, in January and in July. Customers can shop in more than 650 stores, over the telephone or through the website. UK199220thCommercial , Institutional , ResidentialUndifferentiated Spaces
4247Antique Finish BathroomArgos, founded in 1973, is a leading furniture manufacturer in the UK. The company publishes two catalogues a year, in January and in July. Customers can shop in more than 650 stores, over the telephone or through the website.

This series of entries shows the variety of bathrooms on sale in the Argos catalogue. In ID1165 and ID1184 wood is used to give the bathroom an antique feel. ID1161, ID1187 and ID1201 advertise similar pine bathrooms, in 1995, 1992 and 1990 respectively. By using pink (ID1161, ID1187) and blue colours for walls, mats, towels and shower curtains a very different atmosphere is created in each bathroom.
UK199220thCommercial , Institutional , ResidentialBathroom
4248Natural Pine BathroomArgos, founded in 1973, is a leading furniture manufacturer in the UK. The company publishes two catalogues a year, in January and in July. Customers can shop in more than 650 stores, over the telephone or through the website.

This series of entries shows the variety of bathrooms on sale in the Argos catalogue. In ID1165 and ID1184 wood is used to give the bathroom an antique feel. ID1161, ID1187 and ID1201 advertise similar pine bathrooms, in 1995, 1992 and 1990 respectively. By using pink (ID1161, ID1187) and blue colours for walls, mats, towels and shower curtains a very different atmosphere is created in each bathroom.
UK199220thCommercial , Institutional , ResidentialBathroom
4249Solid Pine Wall Shelf UnitsArgos, founded in 1973, is a leading furniture manufacturer in the UK. The company publishes two catalogues a year, in January and in July. Customers can shop in more than 650 stores, over the telephone or through the website.

These pine wall shelf units are advertised as 'being for the display of plates, plants and other decorative items', a practice common in UK kitchens as illustrated in ID1178 and ID1215.
UK199220thCommercial , Institutional , ResidentialUndifferentiated Spaces
4250Child Safety GatesArgos, founded in 1973, is a leading furniture manufacturer in the UK. The company publishes two catalogues a year, in January and in July. Customers can shop in more than 650 stores, over the telephone or through the website.

ID1190 shows a variety of indoor child safety devices. In the 1992 catalogue a whole page (p.325) is dedicated to child safety. The prescriptive text reads: 'Every room can have its potential hazard. To help you to overcome these we have spoken with The Royal Society for the Prevention of Accidents, who have given us some safety tips'. Tips listed referring to this entry include:
- 'Always keep the stairs and landing clear of toys which people could trip on and always fit a safety gate at the top and bottom of the stairs if you have young children.'
- 'Use a fireguard securely fixed to the wall wherever you have a gas, electric or open fire.'
UK199220thCommercial , Institutional , ResidentialTransitional, Undifferentiated Spaces, Other / Unknown
4251Writing BureauArgos, founded in 1973, is a leading furniture manufacturer in the UK. The company publishes two catalogues a year, in January and in July. Customers can shop in more than 650 stores, over the telephone or through the website.

The writing bureau, which takes up minimal space, can be easily closed and blends into the domestic environment.
UK199420thCommercial , Institutional , ResidentialUndifferentiated Spaces
4252Argos Catalogue Argos, founded in 1973, is a leading furniture manufacturer in the UK. The company publishes two catalogues a year, in January and in July. Customers can shop in more than 650 stores, over the telephone or through the website.

The 1994 cover page (ID1193) depicts a traditional living room with tea ready to be served on the coffee table, an old-fashioned telephone and a Game Boy in the forefront. Three items are highlighted; again jewellery and a Discman but also toys.
UK199420thCommercial , Institutional , ResidentialSocial and Sitting Spaces, Multifunctional Living Space
4253Mahogany Mini BarArgos, founded in 1973, is a leading furniture manufacturer in the UK. The company publishes two catalogues a year, in January and in July. Customers can shop in more than 650 stores, over the telephone or through the website.

The 1994 Argos catalogue advertises a number of drinks cabinets. Habitat also sold this item during the 1970s, although in a very different style (ID1258)
UK199420thCommercial , Institutional , ResidentialSocial and Sitting Spaces, Undifferentiated Spaces
4254TV/Video CabinetArgos, founded in 1973, is a leading furniture manufacturer in the UK. The company publishes two catalogues a year, in January and in July. Customers can shop in more than 650 stores, over the telephone or through the website.

During the 1990s it was not uncommon to conceal television sets in cabinets when they were not in use. By contrast, contemporary flat-screen TVs are preferably hung on the wall like a piece of art.
UK199420thCommercial , Institutional , ResidentialSocial and Sitting Spaces, Multifunctional Living Space
4255Walford Nest of tablesArgos, founded in 1973, is a leading furniture manufacturer in the UK. The company publishes two catalogues a year, in January and in July. Customers can shop in more than 650 stores, over the telephone or through the website.

The number of nest tables advertised in a great variety of styles in the Argos catalogues studied suggest that it is an extremely popular item of domestic material culture.
UK199420thCommercial , Institutional , ResidentialSocial and Sitting Spaces, Multifunctional Living Space, Undifferentiated Spaces
5761AnnunciationThis is a very unusual object, depicting the Annunciation. It is not clear whether or not it was originally part of a larger structure, such as an altarpiece, or functioned as an independent scene. There is a meticulous attention to detail in the representation of the domestic objects depicted and in their relationship to each other. Italyc.1500 ResidentialBedroom
5762Portrait of Laura PisaniThis is an unusual portrait of a woman represented in the act of writing, something much more commonly found in male portraiture. The painting focuses on the textures of her dress and the carpet covering the table, with the interior space behind her almost obscured by darkness. Italyc.152516thResidentialOther / Unknown
5763Portrait of a Woman with a Book of MusicThis portrait is highly unusual in representing a woman with a book of music but no instrument. Still rare, but more frequently enountered, are paintings of women with a keyboard instrument or a lute and a book of music, such as FD1056. Given the social ambiguity of musical knowledge for women during this period, the fact that she is depicted as musically literate is significant, suggesting serious study of the subject. The space in which she is shown is ambiguous, with columns opening onto the outside. Her dress and the textile covering the table are the decorative focus of the image.Italyc.1540 16thResidentialOther / Unknown
5764Self-Portrait in a Convex MirrorThis painting is a technical feat, produced by the 21-year-old Parmigianino in an attempt to gain the patronage of Pope Clement VII. Not only does the portrait reproduce the image reflected in a convex mirror, it is painted on a piece of convex wood, a further play on representation and reality. What appears to be a window frame that curves at the top left of the image is the only architectural or furnishing element within an otherwise blank interior. Italyc.1523-416thResidentialOther / Unknown
5766Portrait of a Lady inspired by LucretiaThis portrait depicts an unknown woman who gestures towards and holds a drawing of the Roman heroine Lucretia on the point of stabbing herself. The inscription on a sheet of paper lying on the table, taken from Livy, says ‘After Lucretia’s example let no violated woman live’. It has been proposed that the woman depicted was named Lucretia, and that by making a visual connection with her exemplary namesake, this portrait was intended to proclaim her virtue. Her gesture, combined with the fact that she is standing, rather than seated as most female portrait subjects are in this period, produces a dynamic effect. Italyc.1530-2 16thResidentialOther / Unknown
5767Giovanni Agostino della Torre and his son NiccolòThis is presumed originally to have been a portrait of the Bergamo physician Giovanni Agosto della Torre, to which was later added the figure of his son Niccolò. Giovanni’s identity as a physician, confirmed in an inscription on one of the papers on the table, is reiterated by the prescriptions which are also on the table, and the copy of Galen he is carrying. Italyc.1513-6 16thResidentialLibrary / Study
4197‘For beauty and long life - you cant put a foot wrong with Linoleum’Linoleum is lauded for its flexibility which encourages the consumer to be creative. UK196020thCommercial , Institutional , ResidentialOther / Unknown
4198‘Everyone can afford to furnish at Maples’In 1841 John Maple and James Cook formed a partnership operating as a wholesale and retail drapers. Initially their business name alternated between Maple & Cook and Cook & Maple. In 1851 the partnership was dissolved and the business continued under the name of J. Maple. John Maple began to sell all household furnishings and went into partnership with his half-brother, Henry Adams: the partnership was formalised in 1857 and the company renamed Maple and Company. In 1870 John Maple made his two sons, John Blundell Maple and Harry Maple partners of the firm. In 1891 John Maple retired and Blundell Maple became the sole partner in the company. On Blundell's death in 1903 his brother Henry Regnart took over as president of the company. Hunter Regnart took over from his father as president of the company in 1926.

The company's most significant period of production was from the 1880s to 1939. The family members who ran the company set up networks to secure key contracts in prominent households and businesses. The company also employed innovative designers. After the Second World War the family involvement ended and the strategy changed to one of establishing stores in many high streets to ensure a mass-market appeal. By the 1970s the group had become so large that it was vulnerable to takeover bids and share fluctuations: subsequently branches were shut and other companies within the group began to dominate. In 1990 the company was taken over by Saxon Hawk, but it was making losses and in 1997 Allied Maples Group went into receivership.
UK195520thCommercial , Institutional , ResidentialBedroom
4199‘Stag furniture’The following advertisements from the 1960s promote dressing tables made by companies such as Berry Furniture (ID1127), Stag Furniture (ID1133), Austin (ID1136) and Kristina (ID1137). UK196020thCommercial , Institutional , ResidentialMultifunctional Living Space, Bedroom, Dining Room
4200Bedstead: Oak & MahoganyID1144 shows the specifications for the production of a divan within the 1942 utility furniture range. ID1124, ID1134 and ID1143 show the technical drawings for the bedstead concerned. UK198620thCommercial , Institutional , ResidentialBedroom
4201‘From Maples. Where else?’In 1841 John Maple and James Cook formed a partnership operating as a wholesale and retail drapers. Initially their business name alternated between Maple & Cook and Cook & Maple. In 1851 the partnership was dissolved and the business continued under the name of J. Maple. John Maple began to sell all household furnishings and went into partnership with his half-brother, Henry Adams: the partnership was formalised in 1857 and the company renamed Maple and Company. In 1870 John Maple made his two sons, John Blundell Maple and Harry Maple partners of the firm. In 1891 John Maple retired and Blundell Maple became the sole partner in the company. On Blundell's death in 1903 his brother Henry Regnart took over as president of the company. Hunter Regnart took over from his father as president of the company in 1926.

The company's most significant period of production was from the 1880s to 1939. The family members who ran the company set up networks to secure key contracts in prominent households and businesses. The company also employed innovative designers. After the Second World War the family involvement ended and the strategy changed to one of establishing stores in many high streets to ensure a mass-market appeal. By the 1970s the group had become so large that it was vulnerable to take-over bids and share fluctuations: subsequently branches were shut and other companies within the group began to dominate. In 1990 the company was taken over by Saxon Hawk, but it was making losses and in 1997 Allied Maples Group went into receivership.

This full-colour advertisement from the 1970s is very different in style, form and content from the 1950s advertisements.
UK197420thCommercial , Institutional , ResidentialSocial and Sitting Spaces, Dining Room
4202‘Austinsuite Bedroom Furniture’The following advertisements from the 1960s promote dressing tables made by companies such as Berry Furniture (ID1127), Stag Furniture (ID1133), Austin (ID1136) and Kristina (ID1137). UK196020thCommercial , Institutional , ResidentialBedroom
4203‘Kristina Teak Bedroom Suite’The following advertisements from the 1960s promote dressing tables made by companies such as Berry Furniture (ID1127), Stag Furniture (ID1133), Austin (ID1136) and Kristina (ID1137). UK196020thCommercial , Institutional , ResidentialBedroom
4204‘Nathan’s 1960s furniture’This advertisement for the British high street furniture retailer Harrison Gibsons shows how the ‘Scandinavian look’ became a popular style for middle-class interiors in the early 1960s. UK196020thCommercial , Institutional , ResidentialDining Room, Multifunctional Living Space, Social and Sitting Spaces
4205‘Cintique chairs’The Cintique chair is promoted to both sexes in a different way. Men are shown relaxing, for example, reading the newspaper or resting, while women are engaged in activities such as talking on the telephone or attending a meeting.196020thCommercial , Institutional , ResidentialSocial and Sitting Spaces, Multifunctional Living Space, Other / Unknown
4206‘ERCOL Windsor furniture’The text accompanying this advertisement stresses the craftmanship of Ercol furniture and the sensual experience of touching the smooth wood. UK196020thCommercial , Institutional , ResidentialDining Room, Social and Sitting Spaces, Kitchen
4207‘Couchette, sleep furniture by Bruce’The Bruce divan-bed is not only space-saving, it can also be changed effortlessly into a bed that is already made up.UK196020thCommercial , Institutional , ResidentialSocial and Sitting Spaces, Multifunctional Living Space, Other / Unknown
4208‘G&T Mahony Line’The Mahony line is lauded because it gives a warmer, friendlier look to a room than other modern furniture. It also has the advantage that it easily blends in with furniture one already owns.UK195720thCommercial , Institutional , ResidentialDining Room, Social and Sitting Spaces, Multifunctional Living Space
42092’ 6” and 3’ 0” DivanID1144 shows the specifications for the production of a divan within the 1942 utility furniture range. ID1124, ID1134 and ID1143 show the technical drawings for the bedstead concerned. UK194220thCommercial , Institutional , ResidentialBedroom
4210Board of Trade Utility Furniture Provisional Specification, Models 5 and 5A - DivanID1144 shows the specifications for the production of a divan within the 1942 utility furniture range. ID1124, ID1134 and ID1143 show the technical drawings for the bedstead concerned. UK194220thCommercial , Institutional , ResidentialOther / Unknown
4211‘G-plan exhibition at Maples’In 1841 John Maple and James Cook formed a partnership operating as a wholesale and retail drapers. Initially their business name alternated between Maple & Cook and Cook & Maple. In 1851 the partnership was dissolved and the business continued under the name of J. Maple. John Maple began to sell all household furnishings and went into partnership with his half-brother, Henry Adams: the partnership was formalised in 1857 and the company renamed Maple and Company. In 1870 John Maple made his two sons, John Blundell Maple and Harry Maple partners of the firm. In 1891 John Maple retired and Blundell Maple became the sole partner in the company. On Blundell's death in 1903 his brother Henry Regnart took over as president of the company. Hunter Regnart took over from his father as president of the company in 1926.

The company's most significant period of production was from the 1880s to 1939. The family members who ran the company set up networks to secure key contracts in prominent households and businesses. The company also employed innovative designers. After the Second World War the family involvement ended and the strategy changed to one of establishing stores in many high streets to ensure a mass-market appeal. By the 1970s the group had become so large that it was vulnerable to takeover bids and share fluctuations: subsequently branches were shut and other companies within the group began to dominate. In 1990 the company was taken over by Saxon Hawk, but it was making losses and in 1997 Allied Maples Group went into receivership.

Advertisement ID1117 and ID1145 show a domestic interior consisting of G-plan furniture displayed in an exhibition which enabled the public to experience the modestly priced furniture range.
UK195720thCommercial , Institutional , ResidentialDining Room, Social and Sitting Spaces
4212‘ERCOL Living rooms at Maples’In 1841 John Maple and James Cook formed a partnership operating as a wholesale and retail drapers. Initially their business name alternated between Maple & Cook and Cook & Maple. In 1851 the partnership was dissolved and the business continued under the name of J. Maple. John Maple began to sell all household furnishings and went into partnership with his half-brother, Henry Adams: the partnership was formalised in 1857 and the company renamed Maple and Company. In 1870 John Maple made his two sons, John Blundell Maple and Harry Maple partners of the firm. In 1891 John Maple retired and Blundell Maple became the sole partner in the company. On Blundell's death in 1903 his brother Henry Regnart took over as president of the company. Hunter Regnart took over from his father as president of the company in 1926.

The company's most significant period of production was from the 1880s to 1939. The family members who ran the company set up networks to secure key contracts in prominent households and businesses. The company also employed innovative designers. After the Second World War the family involvement ended and the strategy changed to one of establishing stores in many high streets to ensure a mass-market appeal. By the 1970s the group had become so large that it was vulnerable to takeover bids and share fluctuations: subsequently branches were shut and other companies within the group began to dominate. In 1990 the company was taken over by Saxon Hawk, but it was making losses and in 1997 Allied Maples Group went into receivership.

This advertisement depicts a display room with Ercol Windsor furniture characterised by its timeless beauty in the Maples store.
UK195720thCommercial , Institutional , ResidentialSocial and Sitting Spaces, Multifunctional Living Space
4213‘Everyone can afford to furnish at Maples’In 1841 John Maple and James Cook formed a partnership operating as a wholesale and retail drapers. Initially their business name alternated between Maple & Cook and Cook & Maple. In 1851 the partnership was dissolved and the business continued under the name of J. Maple. John Maple began to sell all household furnishings and went into partnership with his half-brother, Henry Adams: the partnership was formalised in 1857 and the company renamed Maple and Company. In 1870 John Maple made his two sons, John Blundell Maple and Harry Maple partners of the firm. In 1891 John Maple retired and Blundell Maple became the sole partner in the company. On Blundell's death in 1903 his brother Henry Regnart took over as president of the company. Hunter Regnart took over from his father as president of the company in 1926.

The company's most significant period of production was from the 1880s to 1939. The family members who ran the company set up networks to secure key contracts in prominent households and businesses. The company also employed innovative designers. After the Second World War the family involvement ended and the strategy changed to one of establishing stores in many high streets to ensure a mass-market appeal. By the 1970s the group had become so large that it was vulnerable to takeover bids and share fluctuations: subsequently branches were shut and other companies within the group began to dominate. In 1990 the company was taken over by Saxon Hawk, but it was making losses and in 1997 Allied Maples Group went into receivership.

This advertisement suggests that the selection of low cost furniture at Maples enables anyone to achieve their ideal home.
UK195520thCommercial , Institutional , ResidentialBedroom
4214‘Let’s go to Maples’IIn 1841 John Maple and James Cook formed a partnership operating as a wholesale and retail drapers. Initially their business name alternated between Maple & Cook and Cook & Maple. In 1851 the partnership was dissolved and the business continued under the name of J. Maple. John Maple began to sell all household furnishings and went into partnership with his half-brother, Henry Adams: the partnership was formalised in 1857 and the company renamed Maple and Company. In 1870 John Maple made his two sons, John Blundell Maple and Harry Maple partners of the firm. In 1891 John Maple retired and Blundell Maple became the sole partner in the company. On Blundell's death in 1903 his brother Henry Regnart took over as president of the company. Hunter Regnart took over from his father as president of the company in 1926.

The company's most significant period of production was from the 1880s to 1939. The family members who ran the company set up networks to secure key contracts in prominent households and businesses. The company also employed innovative designers. After the Second World War the family involvement ended and the strategy changed to one of establishing stores in many high streets to ensure a mass-market appeal. By the 1970s the group had become so large that it was vulnerable to takeover bids and share fluctuations: subsequently branches were shut and other companies within the group began to dominate. In 1990 the company was taken over by Saxon Hawk, but it was making losses and in 1997 Allied Maples Group went into receivership.

This 1955 advertisement shows the 'Baldock' three-piece suite covered in moquette and the 'Wantage' dining suite in walnut veneer with four small chairs and extending table.
UK195520thCommercial , Institutional , ResidentialDining Room, Multifunctional Living Space, Social and Sitting Spaces
4394The ManorFollowing the removal of Count Wladislaw Jampolski from his estate in the period after the failed revolt against the Russian Empire in the January Uprising of 1863, Calman Jacoby acquires the lease on the Count’s manor, initially renting a cottage formerly used by the estate’s blacksmith.

The items listed describe effects important to an observant Jewish household including items associated with observing the dietry requirements of Kosher law and for Holy festivals such as Passover.

Throughout The Manor, Isaac Bashevis Singer uses descriptions of interior spaces to develop the story’s narrative structure and to underline class and religious difference between the protagonists: see cross referenced entries for examples: see cross referenced entries for examples.
Polandc.1865-619thResidentialUndifferentiated Spaces
4395The ManorRecently successful in business, Calman Jacoby returns from Warsaw where he has attended to arranging the marriage of one of his daughters to the son of a wealthy rabbi. On his return home, his household becomes a flurry of activity in preparation for the visit of the prospective in-laws.

Throughout The Manor, Isaac Bashevis Singer uses descriptions of interior spaces to develop the story’s narrative structure and to underline class and religious difference between the protagonists: see cross referenced entries for examples: see cross referenced entries for examples.
c1865-186019thResidential
4396The ManorThis description of Talmudic scholar Ezriel Mendel’s tiny rented Warsaw room illustrates nineteenth-century overcrowding and also, typical of these conditions, the mixed usage of space within such housing; sociability and scholasticism evident alongside commercial and domestic work.

Throughout The Manor, Isaac Bashevis Singer uses descriptions of interior spaces to develop the story’s narrative structure and to underline class and religious difference between the protagonists: see cross referenced entries for examples: see cross referenced entries for examples.
Polandc1865-186019thCommercial , Multifunctional Living Space
4397The ManorEstranged from her family following her elopement with the gentile, Count Lucian Jampolski, Miriam Lieba Calman found herself in much reduced circumstances. Here, the situation of her home life in rented accommodation in Paris contrasts markedly with the affluence and social respectability of her family home in Poland.

Throughout The Manor, Isaac Bashevis Singer uses descriptions of interior spaces to develop the story’s narrative structure and to underline class and religious difference between the protagonists: see cross referenced entries for examples.
Francec1865-186019thCommercial , Multifunctional Living Space
4398The ManorOriginally from a respectable religious background, domestic disharmony and a fall from respectability is underlined by the unkempt appearance of Miriam Liebe’s home on Obozna Street in Warsaw.

Throughout The Manor, Isaac Bashevis Singer uses descriptions of interior spaces to develop the story’s narrative structure and to underline class and religious difference between the protagonists.
Polandc1865-6019thResidentialSocial and Sitting Spaces, Kitchen
4399Brick LaneFollowing her arranged marriage to Chanu, Nazeen arrives in the East End of London from Bangladesh.

Surrounded by unfamiliar objects, this passage describes Nazeen’s anxiety, amid her new domestic surroundings, over preparations for the arrival for dinner of a guest of her husband early in their marriage.
UK1985
2003
20thResidentialMultifunctional Living Space
5889La SaigneeA rare ‘lay’ representation of the procedure of bloodletting: a female patient is bloodlet by a barber-surgeon or phlebotomist, helped by his assistant, in a private setting. These representations abound in professional tracts. The depiction of the bedroom is very detailed but formulaic, just provides the context for the action.France17thResidentialBedroom
5890Le Clystere (The Enema) A satirical print with sexual overtones: it depicts a barber-surgeon who is about to perform an enema on a female patient in her bedroom. One of the servants brings the commode, an object that is rarely represented. The interior is a standard upper-class one, and just provides the context for the scene.France17thResidentialBedroom
4176Our Homes and how to Make them HealthyThe nineteenth-century sanitary reform movement sought to transform urban life by finding solutions for a range of environmental and social problems such as refuse removal. It was believed that civic and domestic hygiene would also lead to moral health. Our Homes and How to Make them Healthy, an edited volume from 1885, focuses on domestic sanitation and discusses issues such as air circulation, water supplies and waste systems in the home.

ID1110 is an illustration of a double privy which is part of a system for turning excreta into dry manure in operation in Manchester during the 1880s. Ashes were thrown through the openings in the privy wall. They fell onto a sieve which divided them into fine ash-dust that then fell into the pail under the seat. Cinders that fell into another pail could be removed through another opening. ID1110 shows a floorplan of the same system.
UK188519thCommercial , Institutional , ResidentialOther / Unknown
4177Our Homes and how to Make them HealthyThe nineteenth-century sanitary reform movement sought to transform urban life by finding solutions for a range of environmental and social problems such as refuse removal. It was believed that civic and domestic hygiene would also lead to moral health. Our Homes and How to Make them Healthy, an edited volume from 1885, focuses on domestic sanitation and discusses issues such as air circulation, water supplies and waste systems in the home.

One chapter in the book entitled ‘Furniture and Furnishings’ advises the reader to ‘strive against scattered, small, trivial, and frivolous effects’ (p.344). This image shows a suggestion for fitting up a small dining room with a small buffet saying: ‘buffets may be so designed as to answer for all kinds of purposes, in addition to the ordinary dining room requirements, with drawers for prints and engravings, shelves for books, cases for china or silver, cupboards for cigars or tobacco, and be so designed as to form a portion of the decoration of the room’ (p.349).
UK188519thCommercial , Institutional , ResidentialOther / Unknown
4178Our Homes and how to Make them HealthyThe nineteenth-century sanitary reform movement sought to transform urban life by finding solutions for a range of environmental and social problems such as refuse removal. It was believed that civic and domestic hygiene would also lead to moral health. Our Homes and How to Make them Healthy, an edited volume from 1885, focuses on domestic sanitation and discusses issues such as air circulation, water supplies and waste systems in the home.

This piece of furniture is described as an angle cabinet used to store papers in, and display china on. However, in the section of the book in which this image appears, the stress is on the benefits of using movable carpets (a small piece of carpet is shown in the image) in the home. It is suggested that carpets should not be laid under pieces of furniture because they need to be frequently taken up and cleaned outside the room.
UK188519thCommercial , Institutional , ResidentialOther / Unknown
4179‘Maples Great Annual Sale’In 1841 John Maple and James Cook formed a partnership operating as a wholesale and retail drapers. Initially their business name alternated between Maple & Cook and Cook & Maple. In 1851 the partnership was dissolved and the business continued under the name of J. Maple. John Maple began to sell all household furnishings and went into partnership with his half-brother, Henry Adams: the partnership was formalised in 1857 and the company renamed Maple and Company. In 1870 John Maple made his two sons, John Blundell Maple and Harry Maple, partners of the firm. In 1891 John Maple retired and Blundell Maple became the sole partner in the company. On Blundell's death in 1903 his brother Henry Regnart took over as president of the company. Hunter Regnart took over from his father as president of the company in 1926.

The company's most significant period of production was from the 1880s to 1939. The family members who ran the company set up networks to secure key contracts in prominent households and businesses. The company also employed innovative designers. After the Second World War the family involvement ended and the strategy changed to one of establishing stores in many high streets to ensure a mass-market appeal. By the 1970s the group had become so large that it was vulnerable to takeover bids and share fluctuations; subsequently branches were shut and other companies within the group began to dominate. In 1990 the company was taken over by Saxon Hawk, but it was making losses and in 1997 Allied Maples Group went into receivership.
UK195420thCommercial , Institutional , ResidentialKitchen, Dining Room, Bedroom, Multifunctional Living Space
4180‘Regency style furniture at Maples’In 1841 John Maple and James Cook formed a partnership operating as a wholesale and retail drapers. Initially their business name alternated between Maple & Cook and Cook & Maple. In 1851 the partnership was dissolved and the business continued under the name of J. Maple. John Maple began to sell all household furnishings and went into partnership with his half-brother, Henry Adams: the partnership was formalised in 1857 and the company renamed Maple and Company. In 1870 John Maple made his two sons, John Blundell Maple and Harry Maple partners of the firm. In 1891 John Maple retired and Blundell Maple became the sole partner in the company. On Blundell's death in 1903 his brother Henry Regnart took over as president of the company. Hunter Regnart took over from his father as president of the company in 1926.

The company's most significant period of production was from the 1880s to 1939. The family members who ran the company set up networks to secure key contracts in prominent households and businesses. The company also employed innovative designers. After the Second World War the family involvement ended and the strategy changed to one of establishing stores in many high streets to ensure a mass-market appeal. By the 1970s the group had become so large that it was vulnerable to takeover bids and share fluctuations: subsequently branches were shut and other companies within the group began to dominate. In 1990 the company was taken over by Saxon Hawk, but it was making losses and in 1997 Allied Maples Group went into receivership.

In this advertisement Maples cleverly draws on the authentic quality associated with furniture from the Regency period in order to promote a 1950s reproduction suite.
UK195420thCommercial , Institutional , ResidentialDining Room
4181‘Everyone can afford to furnish at Maples’In 1841 John Maple and James Cook formed a partnership operating as a wholesale and retail drapers. Initially their business name alternated between Maple & Cook and Cook & Maple. In 1851 the partnership was dissolved and the business continued under the name of J. Maple. John Maple began to sell all household furnishings and went into partnership with his half-brother, Henry Adams: the partnership was formalised in 1857 and the company renamed Maple and Company. In 1870 John Maple made his two sons, John Blundell Maple and Harry Maple partners of the firm. In 1891 John Maple retired and Blundell Maple became the sole partner in the company. On Blundell's death in 1903 his brother Henry Regnart took over as president of the company. Hunter Regnart took over from his father as president of the company in 1926.

The company's most significant period of production was from the 1880s to 1939. The family members who ran the company set up networks to secure key contracts in prominent households and businesses. The company also employed innovative designers. After the Second World War the family involvement ended and the strategy changed to one of establishing stores in many high streets to ensure a mass-market appeal. By the 1970s the group had become so large that it was vulnerable to takeover bids and share fluctuations: subsequently branches were shut and other companies within the group began to dominate. In 1990 the company was taken over by Saxon Hawk, but it was making losses and in 1997 Allied Maples Group went into receivership.

ID1115 and ID1116 and ID1118 are advertisements for Maples' 'fairest-of-all' payment plan. ID1115 and ID1118 focus on newlyweds who are setting up home. ID1115 depicts a couple among the bedroom furniture they were able to acquire, while ID1118 depicts them in their newly furnished dining room. ID1116, on the other hand, shows a middle-aged couple who used the plan to re-furnish their home.

UK195420thCommercial , Institutional , ResidentialBedroom
4182‘Everyone can afford to furnish at Maples’In 1841 John Maple and James Cook formed a partnership operating as a wholesale and retail drapers. Initially their business name alternated between Maple & Cook and Cook & Maple. In 1851 the partnership was dissolved and the business continued under the name of J. Maple. John Maple began to sell all household furnishings and went into partnership with his half-brother, Henry Adams: the partnership was formalised in 1857 and the company renamed Maple and Company. In 1870 John Maple made his two sons, John Blundell Maple and Harry Maple partners of the firm. In 1891 John Maple retired and Blundell Maple became the sole partner in the company. On Blundell's death in 1903 his brother Henry Regnart took over as president of the company. Hunter Regnart took over from his father as president of the company in 1926.

The company's most significant period of production was from the 1880s to 1939. The family members who ran the company set up networks to secure key contracts in prominent households and businesses. The company also employed innovative designers. After the Second World War the family involvement ended and the strategy changed to one of establishing stores in many high streets to ensure a mass-market appeal. By the 1970s the group had become so large that it was vulnerable to takeover bids and share fluctuations: subsequently branches were shut and other companies within the group began to dominate. In 1990 the company was taken over by Saxon Hawk, but it was making losses and in 1997 Allied Maples Group went into receivership.

ID1115 and ID1116 and ID1118 are advertisements for Maples' 'fairest-of-all' payment plan. ID1115 and ID1118 focus on newlyweds who are setting up home. ID 1115 depicts a couple among the bedroom furniture they were able to acquire, while ID1118 depicts them in their newly furnished dining room. ID1116, on the other hand, shows a middle-aged couple who used the plan to re-furnish their home.
UK195420thCommercial , Institutional , ResidentialDining Room
4183‘G-plan exhibition at Maples’In 1841 John Maple and James Cook formed a partnership operating as a wholesale and retail drapers. Initially their business name alternated between Maple & Cook and Cook & Maple. In 1851 the partnership was dissolved and the business continued under the name of J. Maple. John Maple began to sell all household furnishings and went into partnership with his half-brother, Henry Adams: the partnership was formalised in 1857 and the company renamed Maple and Company. In 1870 John Maple made his two sons, John Blundell Maple and Harry Maple partners of the firm. In 1891 John Maple retired and Blundell Maple became the sole partner in the company. On Blundell's death in 1903 his brother Henry Regnart took over as president of the company. Hunter Regnart took over from his father as president of the company in 1926.

The company's most significant period of production was from the 1880s to 1939. The family members who ran the company set up networks to secure key contracts in prominent households and businesses. The company also employed innovative designers. After the Second World War the family involvement ended and the strategy changed to one of establishing stores in many high streets to ensure a mass-market appeal. By the 1970s the group had become so large that it was vulnerable to takeover bids and share fluctuations: subsequently branches were shut and other companies within the group began to dominate. In 1990 the company was taken over by Saxon Hawk, but it was making losses and in 1997 Allied Maples Group went into receivership.

Advertisement ID1117 and ID1145 show a domestic interior consisting of G-plan furniture displayed in an exhibition in which enabled the public to experience the modestly priced furniture range.
UK195520thCommercial , Institutional , ResidentialSocial and Sitting Spaces
4184‘Everyone can afford to furnish at Maples’IIn 1841 John Maple and James Cook formed a partnership operating as a wholesale and retail drapers. Initially their business name alternated between Maple & Cook and Cook & Maple. In 1851 the partnership was dissolved and the business continued under the name of J. Maple. John Maple began to sell all household furnishings and went into partnership with his half-brother, Henry Adams: the partnership was formalised in 1857 and the company renamed Maple and Company. In 1870 John Maple made his two sons, John Blundell Maple and Harry Maple partners of the firm. In 1891 John Maple retired and Blundell Maple became the sole partner in the company. On Blundell's death in 1903 his brother Henry Regnart took over as president of the company. Hunter Regnart took over from his father as president of the company in 1926.

The company's most significant period of production was from the 1880s to 1939. The family members who ran the company set up networks to secure key contracts in prominent households and businesses. The company also employed innovative designers. After the Second World War the family involvement ended and the strategy changed to one of establishing stores in many high streets to ensure a mass-market appeal. By the 1970s the group had become so large that it was vulnerable to takeover bids and share fluctuations: subsequently branches were shut and other companies within the group began to dominate. In 1990 the company was taken over by Saxon Hawk, but it was making losses and in 1997 Allied Maples Group went into receivership.

ID1115 and ID1116 and ID1118 are advertisements for Maples' 'fairest-of-all' payment plan. ID1115 and ID1118 focus on newlyweds who are setting up home. ID 1115 depicts a couple amidst the bedroom furniture they were able to acquire, while ID1118 depicts them in their newly furnished dining room. ID1116, on the other hand, shows a middle-aged couple who used the plan to re-furnish their home.
UK195420thCommercial , Institutional , ResidentialDining Room
4185‘You have the widest choice at Maples’In 1841 John Maple and James Cook formed a partnership operating as a wholesale and retail drapers. Initially their business name alternated between Maple & Cook and Cook & Maple. In 1851 the partnership was dissolved and the business continued under the name of J. Maple. John Maple began to sell all household furnishings and went into partnership with his half-brother, Henry Adams: the partnership was formalised in 1857 and the company renamed Maple and Company. In 1870 John Maple made his two sons, John Blundell Maple and Harry Maple